Essay, 2012, 25 Pages
The growing demand of secondary education in Tanzania: A missing link to quality
This paper is about the growing demand of secondary education in Tanzania and it shows a blink of a missing link to quality. It further defines the overlooked terms by many such as education quality and quality it self. It defines education and what a secondary school education mean and it tresses the growths of education in Tanzania. Just as preferred by (Samra and Rajan, 2006) in most cases in the context of this work primary and secondary education are treated together, because they are inextricably linked in so many ways, and because success at the secondary level is fundamentally dependent on getting the basics right at the primary level. In its briefest sense the work is divided into introduction, discussion of different factors influencing education quality in the context of Tanzania and it provides way forward to curb the withering factors to quality education and its conclusion is made forth.
Keywords: growing demand, secondary education, quality
The major aim of giving education to all Tanzanians is to provide them with a concrete and reliable basis for a self-reliant life. The education that can be guaranteed to all in Tanzania is primary education. Since independence in 1961, education has always been seen as the core of national development, although rapid expansion-especially of primary schools-came after the 1974 Universal Primary Education (U.P.E.) programme (Chonjo, 1994). Historically, immediately after independence in Tanzania, there were different measures undertaken by the government to provide education to Tanzanians, there was Act number 37 which stopped and cleared the religious and racial discrimination in education, whereby the syllabus were reformed to be one and all people were made accessible to education without racial and religious discrimination (Ishumi, 1978). Unfortunately, more emphasis was directed towards primary education as indicated by Universal Primary Education (UPE) of 1974 and Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) of 2001. For many years Secondary Education in Tanzania has received very little attention from the government in particular in terms of allocation of resources for expansion and secondary education served the purpose of producing manpower for different public services.
Following the above move, it has been noticed that very little was done to expand secondary education. Therefore several administrative and managerial decisions were however taken to waive school fees in 1964, also introduction of quarter system in 1964 to eradicate education disparities inherited from colonial legacy and the diversification and vocationalization of secondary education in 1973. Generally, secondary education has enjoyed little support from the government however from mid 1980s there has been a rapid expansion of secondary education like high enrolment, increase of structures like more schools and building of more classes (Chonjo, 1994). The proliferation of many schools is manifested in the establishment of community schools popularly know as ‘Shule za Kata’ (community schools).
In connection to the above trend, it is at this very beginning conceived that the act of the Tanzanian government to establish many schools especially the community secondary schools popularly known as “shule za kata” is particularly equated to the act of “homeostasis”. It was first coined as milieu intérieur meaning homeostasis by a French physiologist Claude Bernard.
According to Cannon, (1929) Homeostasis describes the organism’s tendency to maintain an optimal level of physiological requirement by attempting to restore any deviation from the optimal condition. It is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, constant condition of properties like temperature (Wikipedia, 2012). For example an animal like a dog when feels hot it always flicks out the tongue because of natural temperature balance of its body. From this act the dog is likely seeking homeostasis. The same applies to our daily lives when one feels hot and is in a jacket, one will tend to remove/takeoff the jacket to reduce hotness, this is also likely to seek homeostasis.
The government in this sense is equated to homeostasis, because dramatic changes have been experienced in Education system in Tanzania at all levels of Education due to the changing demand of the society. High pressure that has been exerted by this growing demand of education necessitated various education stakeholders to regulate and design some measures to address the situation. Currently, education is faced with various challenges at global level most of them being issues related to quality. This work therefore flourishes while bearing in mind the following basic question; Are these concerted efforts that produces acts which have been schematized rhetorically as homeostatic actions within government produces pleasant results or settled temperatures? Here temperature being other things that clings to quality education.
This is the stage of education following primary education. Except in countries where only primary or basic education is compulsory, secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university. Secondary education is characterized by transition from primary education for minors to tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g., university, vocational school) for adults. Depending on the system, schools for this period or a part of it may be called secondary schools, high schools, gymnasia, lyceums, middle schools, sixth-form, sixth-form colleges, vocational schools and preparatory schools, and the exact meaning of any of these varies between the systems (Wikipedia, 2012).
This is a place that provides secondary school education. Thus Tanzania Educational and Training Policy, (1995) in Mwenda, (2012) asserts that secondary school education refers to
full program of education provided in accordance with Government approved curricula and availed to students who will have completed primary education. In Tanzania we have two sequential circles which are a four year Ordinary Level Secondary Education and a Two Year program of Advanced Level of Secondary Education.
Without preservation it is generally agreed that education is key to personal and community success. Nelson Mandela as cited in McCullum, (2005) contends that Education is the great engine of personal development. It is through education that the daughter of a peasant can become a doctor that the son of a mineworker, can become the head of the mine, that the child of farm workers can become the president of a great nation.
Nations all over the world are struggling to educate their people. Much pressure has been given from the International organizations to assist these countries accomplish this desire. The Millennium goals in education requires that by 2015 nations ensure that children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary education (Millennium Development Goals, 2000). To meet this goal, countries worldwide initiated some programmes to respond to the goal requirements.
Galabawa, (2000) maintains that quality is the level of excellence performance measured by establishing acceptable benchmarks or criteria and standards of good performance. Pearsall, (2002) considers that quality as the standard of something as measured against other things of similar kind. In educational context, quality may be explained in regard with worthiness of education system to learners. Quality education is the type of education which should be able to bring about change in learners.
According to Adams, (1993) many definitions of quality in education exist, testifying to the complexity and multifaceted nature of the concept, the terms efficiency, effectiveness, equity and quality have often been used synonymously. Rasheed, (2000) observes that considerable consensus exists around the basic dimensions of quality education today, however quality education includes:
• Learners who are healthy, well-nourished and ready to participate and learn, and supported in learning by their families and communities;
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