Master's Thesis, 2011, 83 Pages
The Problem and It’s Setting
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Limitation
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
Population and Local of the Study
Data Gathering Procedure
Validation of the Questionnaire
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Summary, Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
The researcher humbly thanks the following people for their significant contributions and valuable roles in the realization of this endeavor:
Dr. Natividad F. Halog, Ph.D., Associate Dean and Professor of the Graduate School, Philippine College of Health and Sciences (PHCS), Inc., for her moral support as well as for her warm accommodation to every inquiry that the researcher have made;
Dr. Fe Espinosa, Ph.D., her adviser, whose continuous guidance and criticism helped the researcher to develop critical thinking as well as pushed her in polishing this work;
Mr. Leeo Kim, owner of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School, for his support and warm accommodation for this study to be realized.
The students of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School, for providing the researcher with objective responses during the data gathering.
Wolfgang Wilhelm Ulrich for his undying understanding while this study is being made.
Jan Vincent Pascual for being the source of motivation for the author.
Nanay, Papa, Mama, Julie and Ton-Ton who have always been a constant source of strength and encouragement; without them this study could have never been completed.
Finally, to Our God Almighty, for His love, blessings, wisdom and strength that enabled the researcher to overcome all the trials and hardships she encountered during the realization of this study.
TITLE: STRESSORS OF KOREAN STUDENTS OF ASIA PACIFIC COLLEGE (APC) ENGLISH SCHOOL IN LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE: BASIS FOR A PROPOSED NURSING INTERVENTION PROGRAM
RESEARCHER: Maria Clarisa Lucero-Pascual BSN. R.N.
SCHOOL: Philippine College of Health and Sciences, Inc.
DEGREE: Master of Arts in Nursing
Statement of the Problem
This research study determines the stressors of Korean students of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School in learning English language.
Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following variables
1.3 Civil status,
1.4 Educational Background?
2. To what extent do the stressors of the Korean student respondents affects their study of the English language in terms of the following factors:
2.1. Teacher Related factors,
2.2. Peer related factors,
2.3 Academic related factors,
2.4. Environmental related factors?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their stressors that affect their learning such as teacher, peer/classmates, academic and environmental factors?
4. Based on the result or findings of the study, what nursing intervention can be proposed to make Koreans cope with stressors in learning the English language?
There is a significant relationship between the profile of the Korean student respondents and the stressors in learning the English language.
Scope and Limitation
This study is focused on the stressors of Korean students in Asia Pacific College (APC) English School learning the English language for 8 weeks. The study was conducted at the Asia Pacific (APC) English School SY 2011. Also in this study, the researcher included the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, civil status and educational background of the Korean students. The instructional program of the school is one focused on stress which served as basis to formulate the nursing intervention program for Korean students. However, there were other stressors not included in the study such as the instructional program of the school because of the restrictions coming from the management.
Discussion of the topics was delimitated to the profile of the students in terms of their age, gender, civil status and educational background. It involved 48 Korean English learners.
Summary of Findings:
This study made use of a descriptive method or research. The researcher utilized an instrument to determine the stressors of Korean students in learning the English language. Different formulas were used to obtain necessary results of the study.
I. Profile of the Respondents
Based on the findings majority of the respondents (Korean students) belonged to ages 21-25, mostly male and single. Majority of the Korean students have tertiary educational background. Only 7 out of 48 had post graduate background.
Problem 2: To what extent do stressors affect the respondents’ study of the English language in terms of the following factors:
2.1. Teacher Related
2.2 Peer/Classmate Related
2.3. Academic Related
2.4. Environmental Related?
According to the findings obtained by the researcher, The Korean students experienced a high extent of stress in items 1 and 2 “ the teacher understands the students” and “ the teacher is willing to help the students before school, during breaks and /or after school”, whereas, the rest of the items were not factors that give them stress. According to them, some of the teachers are approachable, show appropriate manners and clearly explain the lessons.
Peer/ Classmate Related
The stressors experienced by the Korean students in a high extent are the “Students are able to deal with teachers”, Students are able to deal with different types of co-students”, students respect other students” while they experienced mild stress in item 1 which is “Students are able to relate with classmates of different socio –economic status”.
The Koreans students of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School intensely experienced stress during examinations, their grades, and other requirements. Lessons and class rule placed second to their stressors, whereas class activity is the least stressor among them.
Environmental related factors such as facilities (class room, dorm room, building, library, etc.), ambiance (noise etc.), and class size are major stressors for Korean students in learning the English language, followed by class conduciveness which is to a high extent.
As noticed, environmental factors are the major source of stress compared to other related factors.
Problem 3: Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and stressors that affect their learning such as teacher, peer/classmates, academic and environmental factors?
Correlation of the Profile of the Respondents with Teachers, Peers, Environmental and Academic Weighted Mean
Statistical treatment using Pearson ‘r” showed that at 0.01 level of significance, there is a significant relationship between educational background (EB) and teacher related factor weighted mean (TWM) with r = 0.504, and between educational background (EB) and academic related factor weighted mean (AWM) with “r” = 0.730. This may mean that students who reached a high educational level have a better relation with the teachers. Students who have a higher education have more experience in dealing with teachers compared to those who just reached middle school or secondary level. They are also the students who are better in accomplishing the requirements asked of them from the school. They have the understanding that they need to comply with the requirements of the school for them to pass.
Significant relationship was also revealed between age and peer/ classmate related factor weighted mean (PWM) with “r” = -0.374, age and environmental related factor weighted mean (EWM) (“r” = 0.392), and between age and academic related factor weighted mean (AWM) (“r” = 0.648). This can mean that as people age, they are able to adjust with the people that they interact with. As people age and gather more experience in communicating with different kinds of people they, acquire the knowledge of treating people from all walks of life. With the relationship of age and the environment, humans are able to adjust to their surrounding as they mature. Personal experience helps them to try to fit with the situation they are in. For example, older students complain less about the facility than those who are younger. And lastly, age significant relationship with academic related factor tells that as individuals become older; they realize that it is important to comply with requirements asked by the institution for them to pass the program.
Significant relationship is also revealed between civil status (CS) and academic related factor weighted mean (AWM) with “r” = 0.319. This may mean that the respondents feel that it is important for them to pass the program and learn the language while they are still single because it will make their future better.
At 0.05 level of significance, significant relationship was revealed between civil status (CS) and academic related factor weighted mean (AWM) (“r” = 0.319) and educational background (EB) and environmental related factor weighted mean (EWM) (“r” = 0.306). This means that when people study further, they gather more experience and because they are introduced to different surroundings they are able to adjust to it.
Problem 4: Based on the result or findings of the study, what nursing intervention program may be proposed to make Korean cope with the stress in learning the English language?
In the light of the findings of the research study, the researcher herby concludes that the following are:
1. Majority of the respondents belonged to ages 21-25, single, majority are male and had reached a higher level of education (Tertiary).
2. Teacher Related
According to the findings obtained by the researcher, The Korean students experienced a high extent of stress in items 1 and 2 “ the teacher understands the students” and “ the teacher is willing to help the students before school, during breaks and /or after school”, whereas, the rest of the items were not the factors that give them stress. According to them, some of the teachers are approachable, show appropriate manners and clearly explain the lessons.
Peer/ Classmate Related
The stressors experienced by the Korean students in a high extent are the “Students are able to deal with teachers”, Students are able to deal with different types of co-students”, Students respect other students” while they experienced mild stress in item 1 which is “Students are able to relate with classmates of different socio –economic status”.
The Korean student respondents intensely experienced stress during examinations, their grades, and other requirements. Lessons and class rule placed second to their stressors, whereas class activity is the least stressor among them.
Environmental related factors such as facilities (class room, dorm room, building, library, etc.), ambiance (noise etc.), and class size are major stressors for Korean students in learning English language, followed by class conduciveness which is to high extent.
As noticed, environmental factors are the major sources of stress compared to other related factors.
After determining the related stressors of Korean students at Asia Pacific College (APC) English School the following are the researchers’ recommendations:
1. Asia Pacific College English School should formulate clear institutional rules and regulations to all incoming foreign students.
2. The faculty members particularly Filipino nurses must have a training regarding culture and language of Koreans.
3. The administrators, teachers, other personnel, students must conduct an orientation before the start of classes.
4. Monitoring and evaluation must be conducted weekly to determine the problems experienced by the Korean students, teachers and administrators.
5. The administrators should have a complete/ advance technology to facilitate learning the English language by the Koreans.
6. The administrators must improve their facilities such as size of the classroom, completeness of the library materials, and conduciveness of the environment for the Koreans.
7. Counseling area for students particularly to those suffering from intense stress should be provided.
8. Further, similar research studies must be conducted to explore other areas of concern of foreign students.
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 – “Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age”
Table 2 – “Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Gender”
Table 3 – “Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Civil Status”
Table 4 – “Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Educational Background”
Table 5 – “Mean Distribution of the Students According to Teacher Related”
Table 6 – “Mean Distribution of the Students According to Peer/Classmate Related”
Table 7 – “Mean Distribution of the Students According to Academic Related”
Table 8 – “Mean Distribution of the Students According to Environmental Related”
Table 9 – Correlation of the Profile of the Respondents with Teachers, Peers, Academic and Environmental Weighted Mean Nursing Intervention Table
LIST OF FIGURES
“Stress and anxiety can affect learning which necessitates a change in the learners, self structure and occurs more easily in a situation in which external or internal threats are at a minimum.” “It depends on how the student achieves their adaptive mechanism.” “Any adjustment of the body to the different circumstances and conditions is adaptation whenever the person is exposed to stress such as learning process.” The ability to cope with stress and to relieve anxiety varies from one person to another. The appropriateness and strength of a person’s coping or defense mechanism determines the success or failure in overcoming stress that may cope with learning the English language. Considering that the students experience many storms and stresses and are in a period of heightened emotionally that they are capable of behavior adjustment. Students, therefore, need to know the behavioral strategies they employ to handle stressful experience. It is important to know how students overcome fears and frustrations and how their personality and environment interact. As a key healthcare provider, nurses play a significant role in minimizing stressors experience by many, particularly students learning different levels of profession. According to general rule, nurses could serve as teachers, counselors advocate, entrepreneurs, clinical practitioners and others. Learning is the outmost reason why majority of Asians flock the shores of the Philippines. To these reasons, learning English for survival gets the biggest percentage that creates another job opportunity for the English speaking Filipinos. Korean-owned language schools occur around the metro like wild mushrooms decorated by Filipino native like English speakers. Korean students coming to a foreign land to learn a foreign language adds up to their anxiety. For the said Koreans they spend long hours of memorizing English grammar, attending classes of numerous teachers venturing on different macro skill of language learning, creating tasks based on special classes such as TOEIC, TOEIC Speaking, IELTS, TOEFL, CNN among others, and compromising the accent and all to save up the expenses, thinking that they could learn it along the way. With these lessons, stress is a very common experience to a Korean student.
A nurse has roles that can be played in an environment such as in a Korean school. One of the most important roles is being a counselor who can guide and help a student cope with stress and anxiety that is incorporated with learning.
Stress is the "wear and tear" our bodies experience as we adjust to our continually changing environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence by nurse-teachers, stress can help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke. The role of nurses in this situation is to more or less minimize the condition experienced by the individual.
With the death of a loved one, the birth of a child, a job promotion, studies, exams or a new relationship, individual experiences stress us, as we readjust our lives. In so adjusting to different circumstances, stress will help or hinder individual depending on how we react to it.
As observed by the researcher, a common reaction to stress is anxiety as experienced during the conduction of lecture, a state of mental uneasiness, apprehension, a feeling of helplessness related to an impending or anticipated unidentified threat to self or significant relationships.” “The anxiety and physiological arousal created by stressful situation are highly uncomfortable; the individual is motivated to do things to alleviate the discomfort.” The process by which a person attempt to manage stressful situations is called coping, and it takes two major forms. The one focus is the emotional; response to the problem; the individual evaluates the stressful situation and does something to change or avoid it. The other focus on the emotional response to the problem; the individual tries to reduce the anxiety without dealing directly with anxiety producing situation. The former is required to a problem focused coping and latter as emotion- focused coping.
Anxiety reactions are common to situations perceived as threatening; however, excessive anxiety may paralyze an individual and interfere with effective functioning. Anxiety and stress are very common reasons college students seek counseling. Stress is a normal, but often-uncomfortable part of being a student. Concerns about grades, projects, relationships, sex, family and friends can accumulate and become overwhelming. A certain amount of stress is actually a good thing. Stress keeps us focused and aware of all the things that need to be done. It can motivate you to study harder when you just aren't in the mood and to be thorough with your work.
But when your stress level becomes more problematic than motivating, you may need to apply stress management techniques to your daily routine. The counselors at Health Services can teach you ways to better manage your stress. As an educator particularly in classroom handling foreign students learning English language the physical, behavioral, and mental techniques that can increase the individual ability to handle stress and anxiety.
“Stress and anxiety can be involved in any type of work or activity such as playing, interaction with different kinds of people and especially studying. An event is considered stressful depending on the person’s resources, psychological defenses and coping mechanism.” (Korean students)
Normally, an individual is in an equilibrium or homeostatic state. Every day, a person had new experiences in different aspects such as physical, social, environmental, emotional and psychological or a combination of these. Individuals are constantly subjected to variety of agents capable of inducing stress and anxiety. These agents are commonly referred to as stressors. Stressor is any stimulus that evokes stress, and stress reaction is the observable consequences of the stressor.
It is thus important that students are equipped with behavior strategies. These enable them to grow through conflicts and crises, and develop increase strength and coping skills. They will be able to build into their personality a defensive structure to anxiety. Educators and psychologists believe the personality characteristics of teachers are important variable to investigate in relation to dealing with pupils in their respective stations. This is so teachers are considered not mainly as a source and transmitter of information but also act as models of personality which their pupils consciously or unconsciously admire and imitate.
These observations motivated the researcher to study the student’s repertory of adjustment mechanism. There are some behavioral strategies that are wholesome and some students who have been unsuccessful in their development of certain coping patterns. However, there are students with an inappropriate coping mechanism, and who have not employed a variety of mechanism to varied situation. It is hoped that this study will give insights into behavioral strategies that students may experience to varied conflicting situations.
Nursing practice is holistic, meaning that we treat the client as a whole both physical and psychological need. We all have body, mind and spirit dimensions that make up our whole selves.
This study is anchored in the Psychoanalytical theory of Sigmund Freud. He proposed that unconscious psychological forces powerfully affect human thought and behavior. These forces originate in the emotions of childhood and continue their influence throughout life. The Korean culture is a diverse condition from other nationalities and because of this, according to Freud, the ego uses various strategies to resolve intra-psychic conflict. “Defense mechanism are psychological strategies by which person reduce or avoid negative state such as conflicts, frustrations, anxiety and stress.” These defense mechanisms are adopted if direct expression of the id impulse is unacceptable to the superego, dangerous in the real world. All defense mechanism begin with repression of unacceptable impulses, that is, forcing them to be conscious.
The theory of self identity development is similarly developed and provided by the researcher to describe development of defense mechanism during the interaction of Korean student respondents learning English language in the institution for 8 weeks. The interactions with students, both in and out of class and the curriculum that involves students actively in their learning reflect these seven factors as we work with students to:
1. develop intellectual, physical, and manual competence
2) manage emotions
3) move toward interdependence
4) develop mature relationships
5) establish identity
6) develop purpose in future directions
7) develop a value system
The theory of transformation, find that students bring to belief systems about their abilities, and these beliefs affect the way they view themselves.
The theory of learning styles and preferences identified field-dependent and field-independent learners, with those who are field-dependent as having more difficulty distinguishing significant from non-significant details. If teachers provide some direction, this structure aids field-dependent learners, especially within the social interaction of the classroom, while not interfering with field-independent learners. Students need a variety of instructional approaches to meet different learning preferences. Learning preferences can be modified if students incorporate learning strategies into their structures for learning. They provide a variety of lesson formats to address differences in learning styles and preferences.
The theory of meta-cognition helps explain how one knows himself and the task at hand so as to use his repertoire of learning strategies to approach new learning.
Interpersonal relations and the socialization process are important to how individuals feel about themselves. There are individuals that strive for security and relief from anxiety to protect their self-systems. And according to some psychologists, anxiety is the first great educative experience in living. And also this is one of the great tasks of psychology to discover the basic vulnerabilities to anxiety in interpersonal relations, rather than to try to deal with the symptoms of anxiety.
It is critical that nurses recognize the choices or potentials that exist in the emerging relationship between the client and the nurse. In Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, Peplau addressed the term unexplained discomfort, which includes the needs, frustrations, and conflicts that arise within the relationship. She considers them to be experiences that influence behavior by providing energy to the relationship.
Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative.
Since then, a great deal of further research has been conducted, and ideas have moved on. Stress is now viewed as a "bad thing", with a range of harmful biochemical and long-term effects. These effects have rarely been observed in positive situations.
The most commonly accepted definition of stress and anxiety (mainly attributed to Richard Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize .
This theory will serve as a guide of whom mechanisms are commonly used by the students in coping with stressful experience. With these mechanisms one can prevent stress and anxiety to happen that affects the personality of an individual. They use other behavioral strategies to improve their personality. It will also guide the individual to prevent or lessen stressful experience.
The Nursing Intervention is provided by the researcher to cope with the different factors that may or may not be experienced by the Korean student respondents in terms of relationship relative to different socio economic, co-students and values status of peer/classmate factors. Second factor deals with academic requirements such as examinations, projects, grades, lessons, activities and rules and regulations in the classroom. Third factor deals with environmental variations such as class conduciveness, class size, facilities and ambiance. The fourth factor is focused on teacher related which includes attitude towards the Korean English learner students of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School. Within this factor knowledge of the teacher plays an important part in dealing with methodologies and strategies towards teaching. The profile was tested against the above mentioned factors to determine whether there is significant relationship.
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RESEARCH PARADIGM OF THE STUDY
Stressors of Korean Students at Asia Pacific College English School in Learning English: Basis for Nursing Intervention Program
This study sought to determine the stressors of Korean students of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School in learning English language.
Specifically, the study attempts to answer the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following variables:
1.3 Civil status,
1.4 Educational Background?
2. To what extent do stressors affect the respondents’ study of the English language in terms of the following factors:
2.1. Teacher related,
2.2. Peer related,
2.3 Academic related, and
2.4. Environmental related?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and stressors that affects their learning such as teacher, peer/classmates, academic and environmental factors?
4. Based on the result or findings of the study, what nursing intervention can be proposed to make Koreans cope with stressors in learning the English language.
There is a significant relationship between the profile of the Korean student respondents and the stressors in learning the English language.
This study is focused on the stressors of Korean students in Asia Pacific College (APC) English School in learning the English language for 8 weeks. The study was conducted at Asia Pacific College (APC) English School SY, June 2011. Also in this study, the researcher included the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, civil status and educational background of the Korean students. The instructional program of the school which the researcher believes is one focused on stress which served as basis to formulate the nursing intervention program for the Korean students. However, there were other stressors not included in the study such as the instructional program of the school because of the restrictions coming from the management.
Discussion of the topics was delimitated to the profile of the students in terms of their age, sex, civil status and educational background. It involved 48 Korean English learners.
The findings of this study will be of great significance to the following:
Student. They may provide themselves with coping strategies to be able to cope with the anxiety level in connection with their learning.
Instructors. This will be a great help in teaching Korean students in learning English language thus promote better relationship with them which can create a stress free classroom.
Administrator. This study will serve as an eye opener in accepting Korean students and provide them ahead of time the rules and regulations of the school so as to prepare them to cope with stress factors such as teacher, peer/classmate, environmental and academic.
Researchers. This will serve as a document that can be a basis for improving teaching methodologies, understanding the communication gap between Korean students and other foreign nationalities. It can be a guide to the researcher, whenever she goes to a non-English speaking country.
Koreans. This will be a guide for Koreans in making their experience of learning the English language easier for them. This will also serve as their basis for other Korean students who wish to study English language in the Philippines.
For clearer understanding, the following terms are defined as used in the study.
Stressors This refers to the factors that are internal or external to the body that affect the learning of English language by the Korean students such as teacher related, peer related, environmental related and academic related at Asia Pacific College (APC) English School.
Students This refers to 48 Korean students enrolled in 8 weeks English program at Asia Pacific College (APC) English School and were chosen as respondents.
Academic-Related This refers to the completion of requirements as to grades, examinations, homework and other related classroom projects by the Korean students at Asia Pacific College (APC) English School.
Teacher-Related This refers to the knowledge, skills, and attitude of teachers teaching English to Korean students at Asia Pacific College (APC) English School.
Environmental-Related This is focused on the surroundings of Asia Pacific College (APC) English School in terms of class conduciveness, facilities and class population during the 8 weeks of stay of Korean students in the institution.
Nursing Intervention – This refers to the assessment of the stressors of the Korean students learning English language and the formulated strategies and methodologies identified by the researcher in coping with the stressors.
This chapter presents the local and foreign related literature and studies both focused on the stressors that may be experienced by foreign and local students in learning English language which were reviewed by the researcher to substantiate the information and give better views to the cited problems of the study. This chapter contains adequate literatures and studies.
Related Literature and Studies
One thing is certain, people have many different ideas about the process of learning English and stress and anxiety is a part of it. Since stress is the way one reacts physically and emotionally to change or in emotional crisis. According to Kranes (2005) stress can either be positive or negative and that it may be the sense of concentration one feels when faced with a new and challenging situation. Or it may be the vague sense of anxiety one feels after “one of those days”. But in any situation individual can learn to manage stress and anxiety so they can be in control as Kalman(2005) had added.
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