Term Paper, 2012, 29 Pages
Stralsund University of Applied Sciences, Grade: 1,3
Master's Thesis, 40 Pages
Research paper, 18 Pages
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 144 Pages
Research paper, 16 Pages
II. TABLE OF FIGURES
2. EFFECTIVENESS OF INNOVATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLES
2.1. WHAT MAKES A GOOD LEADER?
2.2. LEADERSHIP STYLE
3. CUTTING-EDGE LEADERSHIP STYLES
3.1. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
3.1.1. DEFINING CHARISMA
3.1.2. COMMUNICATION & CONVERSATION OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS
3.1.3. MANAGING A TEAM
3.1.4. MANAGING DECISIONS
3.1.5. THE APPROACH OF CHARISMATIC LEADERS
3.1.6. THE COMBINATION OF CHARISMATIC-TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
3.2. SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
3.3. SUPPORTIVE LEADERSHIP
3.3.3. WHAT DOES A SUPPORTIVE LEADER NEED?
3.4. VISIONARY LEADERSHIP
Figure 1: Four Stages of Charismatic Leadership (ref. to Bertocci, 2009)
Figure 2: Ten Steps of Transformational Leadership (ref. to Bertocci, 2009)
Figure 3: Leadership Styles
Figure 4: Maturity Levels
Figure 5: Leadership Styles and Maturity Levels (Manktelow, 2010)
Figure 6: Ideal Flow of Coaching (Haubrock & Haubrock, 2009: 111)
Leadership is not a "one size fits all" thing. Often, leaders must adapt their style to fit a situation or a specific group. Therefore, it is useful to gain a thorough understanding of the cutting-edge leadership styles. Cutting edge leadership styles are advancements of other leadership styles to meet the requirements of a business which becomes more and more speeded up. Four different styles will be analyzed: The situational, charismatic, visionary and supportive leadership style. The situational one focuses on the maturity level of the follower and the leader can decide between four approaches which fit the most to the maturity level. The charismatic leadership style is more or less a nature given talent which cannot be trained. The leader needs to have the talent to deal with people in a very special way to motivate them, especially in critical situations. By practicing the supportive leadership style the leader’s behavior expresses concern for the followers and their individual needs and each follower is considered individually. The visionary leadership style is supposed to transmit energy to the employees by giving them a sense of hope and confidence in achieving a certain vision. But all in all there is no right or wrong leadership style and it needs to fit to the follower, the situation as well as to the leader. Also a good leader varies with many different leadership styles because every situation has its peculiarities and needs handled always differently.
The following passages are composed by Jasmin Radloff:
2. Effectiveness of Innovative Leadership Styles
3.2. Situational Leadership
The following passages are composed by Laura Herrmann:
3.3. Supportive Leadership
3.4. Visionary Leadership
The following passages are composed by Christin Fechner:
3.1. Charismatic Leadership
In today’s times there are many different hard and soft skills that are required when applying for a specific position. One of the most important sets is leadership skills. This has become so important because we have attempted to adapt to the escalating changes in modern society and also workplaces over the past century. As we try to take command of our own future and guide the destinies of our families, communities, organizations and our planet, the need for leadership ability becomes obvious. But what is leadership? Is it an inherent knack or is it something that one can learn? Most of the literature about leadership focuses on characteristics and abilities of leaders. But unfortunately most of those definitions are much too general to be applied in everyday work and life. For example the advice to be honest does not provide any applicable skills or guidance (Dilts, 1996). In a broad sense, leadership can be defined as “the ability to influence others towards the accomplishment of some goal” (Dilts, 1996: 3). In companies and organizations, leadership is often put in contrast to management, which can be defined as getting things done through others. Leading always combines wide-reaching attempts that range from classical, autocratic to creative, participative approaches. In the last years, many different leadership styles have been developed and generated promising success. But more and more specialists come to the point, where different situations need different leadership styles and once an appropriate one has been found, it has a huge influence on the motivation and working efficiency of employees. Thus, classical methods like the „Authoritative‟ or the „Laissez-Faire‟ leadership styles fade more and more into the background and belong to the past, while they get substituted by modern and cutting-edge leadership styles. This paper aims to give an overview on several modern styles of leading employees, also pointing out the appropriate field of use.
There are many different leadership styles in the business world. They have a wide range, from a directive approach to a more relaxed role and each leadership style is required at different times. A good leader will choose the most fitting style of leadership to suit any given situation. That means the effectiveness of innovative leadership styles depends not just on the leadership style itself but also on the leader personally. Therefore it is necessary to figure out what makes a good leader at the beginning and afterwards explaining the difference between normal leadership styles and innovative ones.
According to the Scottish Police Department (2012) a leader should have the following qualities:
- Be positive and effective
- Be focused on performance
- Be able to develop people
- Always ambitioned on personal development
- Be able to communicate effectively
- Demonstrate integrity and commitment
Probably most people would state that they are positive and effective and able to communicate effectively for example. But what labels really a good leader in detail and how will he or she know if this position is the right one? For that, studies in self-awareness can be quite helpful because then the participants can see how they behave as a leader, what is the impact of this behaviour and of course what are the results of it, means whether the engagement level of the team increases or not (Hanson & Bo, 2011). Furthermore a certain level of personal emotional intelligence is a must in being a good and effective leader. According to Goleman (2011) emotional intelligence gives humans the „ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively”. For that there are four fundamental qualities needed: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and socials skills. Manuel London (2002) suggests something quite similar. He stated that there are 3 needed psychological factors to be a good leader:
At first the leader needs to understand himself. Only then it is possible to understand the needs and perspectives of followers. That means a good leader needs to be aware of the personal and typical behaviour and how the perception of others is.
For Leaders it is not the best idea to act habitually and use the same strategy in different types of situations. It is necessary to control impulses and to learn how situations can be analyzed. That can help to think about the big picture and long-term results. Self-regulation is good for the leader to learn how to initiate the correct actions at the right time and in the right situations.
It is very important to develop a personal leadership to be a positive role model for followers. This includes being aware and informed about ethical values to guide behaviour. This is a continuous learning process and an important part of the “leadership journey” (Ronald & Riggio, 2011).
When it comes to the leadership style itself it is very important to mention that there is no right or wrong leadership style. The effectiveness of leadership styles depends, besides the leader as mentioned before, on the situation, task and people that need to be managed. It is necessary to consider how experienced the team is, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the team members, how complex the task is and how much time exists to complete the task and of course which resources are available for the project like time and people for instance (Lesley, 2006). A leader is confronted with various situations, which are all different. The challenge is to estimate the situation and all related factors, to choose the most effective leadership style in the right way. Therefore, it is the best to be familiar with many different leadership styles to have a wide choice and not to deal always just with one or two different leadership styles in all situations. Inevitable this would go wrong someday and this is what distinguishes a good from a bad or average leader (Lesley, 2006).
Researchers have shown this as well. The results show unmistakable that the best leaders are the ones who are able to deal with more than just one leadership style. It is simply more effective to choose the style of leadership according to a certain situation, group atmosphere, business situation and follower than just rely on one leadership style, just because the leader always use this certain style for example (Goleman, 2011). Some people may ask themselves whether the leadership style has such an importance on the success of a business and team. This must be clearly affirmed because in large part business success depends on employees who are correctly motivated and treated, clearly aware of their contribution and the part they are playing in the company’s actions. This process includes for instance concepts of reward and positive reinforcement (Maurer, 2011). In turn the leadership-style a leader is using should achieve exactly these goals. For that the leader can use classical or innovative leadership styles. One example for that will be given now: A new project forces a team to work in a completely different environment. The team members do not know each other very well and the task is still not that familiar to everyone. Here a more complex and directive leadership style which is highly connected to the project might be required. In this case it is necessary to set guidelines and milestones to make sure that the team focuses on the goal of the project. At this point when the team is completely aware of the tasks and directions, the directive leadership style is not needed any longer. From now on the leader should just chime in if support is needed. In comparison innovative leadership styles focus more on the people and less on the task itself. They have the purpose to create an atmosphere in which the team and the members individually are able to work in a self- confident way and without feeling pressured within their allocated tasks. Innovation does not mean to do things in a completely new way but rather to renew things that are already being done. This is meant by the terms of innovative and creative leadership. More in detail it is about self-improvement and being creative in leadership styles that are already proved in practice and not creating a whole new leadership style (Krutza, 2008). Moreover Krutza (2008) states that innovation is meant to “consider the current needs of the team and how to adjust leadership styles to promote and stimulate the team's ability to complete tasks at any stage of the project including the direction stage”. An innovative leader needs to know how to direct the team in a certain time and situation the best way to empower them. Simultaneously, the innovative leader needs to take care that the team is able to take responsibility of the project or task to develop their personality (Krutza, 2008). So it becomes obvious that innovative leadership styles mostly make the follower feel more comfortable than the classical ones.
Rey Ramsey is the Chief Executive Officer of TechNet, a company which offers resources and tools for IT professionals. He stated that "Leadership is a journey, not a destination." This means that every leader needs to work constantly on the personal leadership development, it does not matter what is his or her position or successes. One should never rest on its success (Ronald & Riggio, 2011). This statement also shows that innovative leadership styles, which are a development of other styles, can be very effective if the leader is able to handle them the right way.
As mentioned before the leadership style has the biggest impact on the level of engagement the team has in relation to their work and the organisation in general (Hanson & Bo, 2011). It is of special importance for the success of the company that the leader realizes that it is not only necessary to be a good leader but also a good team member as well (Maurer, 2011). Therefore leaders need to have a diverse set of skills to perform roles such as coach, mentor, manager and team player as well in a successful way (Hanson & Bo, 2011). In the following, four “cutting- edge leadership styles” will be discussed and it will be figured out whether this leadership styles are able to increase the engagement of a team.
To discuss critically about this term of leadership, it is necessary to define, what is meant by charisma: The word charisma has its origin in the Greek language and means gift. In Ancient times all spiritual terms, which cannot clearly explained, were called charismatic (Bertocci, 2009). The American Heritage Dictionary offers the following definition: Charisma is “a rare personal quality attributed to leaders who arouse fervent popular devotion and enthusiasm” (Dale, 2011). Charisma could be the magical essence of leadership, which only few possess. Often charismatic executives are thought of as heroes who are able to use their personal allure to lead others. Nevertheless, it is hard to explain what characteristics an executive has to have for being a charismatic leader. Definitely, the charismatic behavior cannot be learned in seminars and is given by nature. It is not only a single trait which makes a leader charismatic; it is a collection of personal traits which make a leader exuding charisma. Charismatic leaders are able to reach people on a very deep emotional level and “[…] win [the] followers’ respect and support for [their] vision of how good things could be.” (Bertocci, 2009: 43) In fact, “charismatic leaders with […] good intentions have the power to inspire and transform the people […]. Immoral charismatic leaders can be forces of devastation and destruction.” (Frenz, 2012)
Charismatic persons focus on managing their own image. Therefore, it is a main characteristic of the charismatic leadership style “…to communicate on a very powerful emotional level…” (Bacal, 2012) to influence employees by inspiring, motivating and giving them the feeling of being beneficial to achieve the company’s goal as a collective goal. But to be able to communicate on that level it is necessary to generate trust and convince employees of the leader’s authenticity. This could simply happen by the leader’s personal appearance and self- confidence. Often, the way of communication is supported by an active use of body language as well as verbal language. In addition, charismatic leaders apply communication methods like storytelling, symbolism and metaphors. When stepping into a room charismatic people begin to scan their environment and pick up the individuals’ behaviors and moods exactly in advance. Thus, they are able to pay a lot of attention on how people feel and to be aware of what is said by the counterpart. Additionally, they can react appropriately by tolerating other opinions respectfully and changing their attitude and presentation to suit the needs of the person they interact with (Frenz, 2012). As a result, people feel like the most important person of the world for that time (Straker, 2004).
A further main characteristic of the charismatic leadership style is explained as the ability to feel the needs of employees. Charismatic leaders are able to fulfill these needs in order to increase the organizational benefit as well as by generating trust among their employees. This feeling is intensified by the way the charismatic leader articulates his vision. The leader explains the company’s goals as the employees’ goals and gives them a sense of togetherness. Thus, people enjoy working and being with the leader. In fact, employees who see themselves involved in future plans of the company are willing to work more efficient and are also set to accomplish additional tasks. But only relying on charisma can be problematic for a leader as well. Charismatic leadership in absence of other leadership characteristics and skills such as integrity led followers into situations that turned out disastrous. Beside recognizing the needs of employees as well as aiming to retrieve the best of them, there is the danger that workers can become highly dependent on their charismatic leaders. If the whole company is dependent on one charismatic leader, employees became more and more insecure and afraid to say „no” or employees stop thinking themselves due to the leader’s ability to convince and transform people. Additionally, employees may feel uncomfortable with the leader and his behavior or may have difficulties relating to his vision of the future. Resistance and reluctance to work are recorded frequently. Therefore, charismatic leaders should draw their attention to a sort of combination of their charismatic and other leadership approaches. By building a group a charismatic leader focuses strongly on structuring the group clearly and chooses the team members exactly by their skills to differentiate this group from others and become unchallengeable by attaching themselves firmly to the identity of the group (Straker, 2004). To ensure success in the team, the charismatically leaded group is challenged by the group leader to meet the leader’s expectations. Therefore, charismatic leaders are essential for short-term projects that require the talent and creative work according to their strengths in communication and motivating people when a team has to achieve goals within a short time frame. But if a charismatic leader who has the ability of holding a group together would leave the company, the leader should be careful that team members do not easily drift apart due to a lack of enthusiasm or identification.
The charismatic leading behavior can help to transform a company in certain conditions by driving employees to perform their best. If leaders communicate their vision with the right intentions it may become essential for a company’s success, especially in times of crises. Thus, in controversial situations charismatic people deal with dissonances in a very harmonious way. They keep calm and use their personal charm to get ambiguities managed and process effectively (Bertocci, 2009). Furthermore, charismatic leaders possess the potential of taking risks to achieve their visions but evaluate those critically in advance and communicate their approach to the employees as “a matter of the heart”. In fact, charismatic leaders arouse admiration by doing things which others are afraid to do since they are convinced of their approaches and infect people by their enthusiasm.
Master's Thesis, 40 Pages
Research paper, 18 Pages
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 144 Pages
Research paper, 16 Pages
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