Accommodating growth: The concept of traditional neighborhood development in Westhaven


Bachelor Thesis, 2006
81 Pages, Grade: 1,3

Excerpt

Table of Contents

LIST OF DIAGRAMS

LIST OF MAPS

LIST OF TABLES

1. INTRODUCTION

2. SPRAWLING URBAN GROWTH: IMPACTS AND APPROACHES
2.1 Causes and Problems of Urban Sprawl
2.2 Anti-Sprawl Approaches: Smart Growth, New Urbanism, and TND

3. PORTRAYAL OF WESTHAVEN’S HOMETOWN FRANKLIN
3.1 Location
3.2 Population
3.3 Economics
3.4 Provision of Infrastructure
3.5 Land Use Development
3.6 Urban Growth Management

4. EMBODIMENT OF TND IN WESTHAVEN
4.1 Design of Westhaven
4.1.1 Genesis of the Project
4.1.2 Setting in Franklin
4.1.3 Structure of the Neighborhood
4.1.4 Architecture of Buildings and Landscape
4.1.5 Existing and Planned Service Amenities
4.2 Successes and Benefits
4.2.1 Pedestrian-friendly Environment
4.2.2 Strong “Sense of Community”
4.2.3 High Standard of Living
4.2.4 Increased Awareness of Region
4.3 Failures and Deficiencies
4.3.1 Insufficient Connection to Region
4.3.2 Inadequate Internal Business Establishments
4.3.3 Inefficient Land Use
4.3.4 Unaffordable for Lower-Income Households
4.4 Conclusions of the TND Concept: What Westhaven Teaches Us

5. PLANNING APPROACHES FOR TND TO MANAGE GROWTH
5.1 Integration in Regional Network
5.2 Sufficient Supply with Businesses
5.3 Efficient Land Use
5.4 Offer of Lower-Priced Homes

6. FINAL VIEW ON THE REVISED TND CONCEPT

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DECLARATION

LIST OF DIAGRAMS

Diagram 1: Growth rates of per capita land consumption and of developed land in the U.S. (100 largest urbanized areas 1970-1990)

Diagram 2: Sectors of occupation of Franklin’s civilian labor force (in 2000)

Diagram 3: Allocation of expenditure of Franklin’s General Fund (in 2005)

Diagram 4: Development of (total) road miles in Franklin (1994-2005)

Diagram 5: Development of budget of Franklin’s government (1995-2006)

Diagram 6: Franklin’s residential dwelling units (in 2004)

LIST OF MAPS

Map 1: Location of Franklin in Tennessee

Map 2: City of Franklin

Map 3: Franklin’s existing land uses (in 2004)

Map 4: Franklin’s Design Concept Plan (in 2004)

Map 5: Setting of Westhaven in Franklin

Map 6: Master Plan of Westhaven (in 2005)

LIS T OF TABLES

Table 1: List of the TND Design Guidelines

Table 2: Population growth in Franklin from 1890 to 2020 (census data and *projections)

Table 3: Structure data of the population in Franklin, Williamson County, Tennessee, and the U.S. (in 2000, 2004)

Table 4: Development of residential and non-residential acreage in Franklin from 1990 to 2020 (estimates and *projections)

Table 5: Single-family homes at Westhaven (types; sizes; prices)

Table 6: Categories with examples of primary and secondary facilities

Table 7: Examples of minimum (gross) densities of TND’s in different regions

Table 8: Examples of proportions of land use mix in different regions (in percent of land area within a TND)

Table 9: Examples of six price categories for TND homes

1. Introduction

Many cities in the U.S. have experienced large growth. With a growth rate of 21.6%, there will be 26.9 million new households between now and 2020. The current building boom in the U.S. is projected to continue through 2030.1

The unlimited outward expansion of cities into undeveloped areas on the urban periphery, in the transitional suburban zone between inner city and country, has characterized growth. In many U.S. urban regions, the pattern of growth has occurred in shape of low-dense leapfrog development. This form of suburbanization is commonly referred to as the phenomenon of “Urban Sprawl”. In Sprawl, the typical suburban development is characterized by strictly separated land uses, neighborhoods consisting of single-family homes, uniform and large-scale building components, and automobile dependence.

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Illus. 1: Newly constructed residential neighborhood (Fresno, CA)

The plentiful problems that result from the sprawling growth have become more evident in the past decades as they have largely affected the development of economy, ecology, and society. Coping with the inevitable growth is a major challenge for the population, governments, and urban planners. As a reaction to the critical pattern of Urban Sprawl, several new planning approaches have been developed to accommodate growth and prevent Sprawl.

This Bachelor Thesis focuses on the concept of “traditional neighborhood development” (TND), an urban model, developed by architects of the anti-sprawl movement “New Urbanism”. Regarding the issues of the uncontrolled growth pattern of Urban Sprawl, the paper intends to find out, if the implementation of the TND concept can reduce or solve the problems of sprawling growth while conducting a good standard of living.

Therefore, the goal of this paper is to answer:

“Is TND a viable urban model to accommodate growth and prevent Urban Sprawl?”

In order to answer this question, the implementation of the TND concept in the case study of Westhaven, located in the growing city of Franklin in Tennessee, is examined. With this example as the centerpiece of the Thesis, the issues of sprawling growth and the planning approach of TND to accommodate this growth are elucidated and critically discussed.

In the following chapter, the origins and problems of Urban Sprawl are subject to this paper as well as some of the approaches towards the prevention of the sprawling growth pattern.

2. Sprawling Urban Growth: Impacts and Approaches

2.1 Causes and Problems of Urban Sprawl

In almost every era of urban history, there was the transitional zone that housed activities and individuals, which still were intimately connected to urban life but that could not be accommodated easily within the city. For example, it provided space for some industries, marginal and poor citizens, and working farms or villas of affluent families.2

As cities became economically mature and prosperous, they tended to spread out at decreasing densities.

The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century accelerated the

economic and population growth effects in several cities in the Western world. The piling up of density at the center due to increased commercial and industrial activities caused living conditions of many citizens to decline.

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Illus. 2: Suburbanization around the urban core (Los Angeles, CA)

Therefore, people fled from the dense mass of buildings and congested streets of the city centers, and the birth of suburbs began. Suburban development expanded along the urban periphery, and along railroad lines radiating outward from the city.3

In the early decades, mainly upper-class citizens were privileged to live in the new suburbs whereas the working class and the majority of the middle class could not afford the typical single-family detached houses, and rarely an own automobile in order to reach it.

Nevertheless, with economic growth, reinforced in the interwar boom-period in 1920’s, Sprawl became a mass phenomenon. Unprecedented levels of affluence, development of road and technical infrastructure, and rising automobile ownership gave a larger portion of the American population access to the suburbs.

This expanding middle class and its desire to rise above urban, working-class conditions caused people to move to the suburbs to live in the typical single-family homes. The residential enclave, surrounded by spacious yards offered privacy and protection from the outside contamination of the cities.4

The houses were presented as “ideal villas in nature” to nurture family life and protect children from urban vice.5

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Illus. 3: Popular single-family home subdivision (Franklin, TN)

This growth pattern continued after World War II at an even stronger pace. Due to post-war prosperity and the prodigious baby boom, the demand on houses enhanced as the population increased from 150 million to over 200 million, during the first decades after the war. The improved economy led to higher incomes and increased automobile ownership making single-family homes in the suburbs accessible to many more people.

Particularly since World War II, some federal policies fuelled this growth. Mortgages, subsidies, and homeowner deductions in the federal income tax made new homes more affordable.

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Illus. 4: Expanding U.S. highway system

The widespread use of the automobile was also encouraged by the government. The Federal Highway Act of 1954 led to an ever- expanding national network of highways, which became the largest highway system in the world. This highway system combined with the low price of gasoline made it much easier for people to commute from their suburban homes to their urban jobs.6

Urban Sprawl also intensified because of significant changes within the households. As the baby-boomer generation matured, the national average household size declined from 3.14 persons per household in 1970 to 2.63 in 1990. While population grew and household size sank, the demand for single-family houses increased. Due to the affluence of many households, in particular large house sizes were desired. The median house size expanded from 1,000 square feet in 1950’s to nearly 2,500 square feet by the end of 20th century.7

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Illus. 5: Large single-family home (Spring Hill, TN)

Along with the outward dispersal of population came the outward dispersal of jobs. As many companies relocated on the periphery to be proximate to the workforce, several commercial centers with offices and factories emerged. New economic trends such as the use of computers and the shift from the “product sector” to the “service sector” enforced the development of low-rise office parks in the 1980’s. For example, from 1973 to 1985 five million blue-collar jobs were lost nationwide, while service fields gained from 82 to 110 million jobs. This resulted in 1.1 billion square feet of office space constructed in new suburban employment complexes.8 In addition, shopping centers and most civic institutions settled on the periphery as well.

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Illus. 6: Low-rise office and retail building complex (Spring Hill, TN)

In order to regulate the rapidly spreading urbanization of land, local governments used the method of zoning. Originally, this instrument was used to separate residential homes from noxious development types, particularly industries. However, local governments tended to use it more for the separation of compatible uses. The different kinds of land uses were divided into “single-use” zones. Consequently, districts emerged that contained one particular land use. Strip shopping centers and big box stores, industrial and office parks, freestanding civic institutions, and solely residential areas emerged. Since car trips were required in order to reach the spatially dispersed zones, governmental zoning policies demanded wide arterial roads as connectors and large parking lots. The arterial roads led into the auto-oriented street system within the residential subdivisions, consisting of large local streets and cul-de-sacs.

Suburban governments also used zoning to restrict building types, heights, lot sizes, and densities in each zone. The conventional suburban neighborhoods were very low in density and consisted predominantly of single-family homes with deep building-setbacks.

The building boom in the U.S. led to a mass production. Due to higher profitable efficiency, the building industry involving factories, developers, builders, and architects preferred large- scale and standardized building materials and development types. This way of production reinforced the spreading of suburban development and contributed to the uniform appearance.

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Illus. 7: Strip shopping mall and large parking lot („Cool Springs- Galleria” in Franklin, TN)

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Illus. 8: Typical deep building- setbacks (Franklin, TN)

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Illus. 9: Standardized building types (Franklin, TN)

The population growth and the typical sprawling growth pattern have continued until the present time, causing negative impacts on the physical and cultural landscape in the U.S. The main problems are indicated in the subsequent sections.

Since population and jobs have moved out on the urban periphery, some metropolitan areas have experienced a Decline in the Inner City. As low-income households are less mobile, they have no access to peripheral job or living opportunities and are forced to stay in the city, often being unemployed. Furthermore, the lower housing prices in inner-city regions lead to a concentration of the poorer population.

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Illus. 10: Deficient conditions in inner cities (Franklin. TN)

Governments fuel this, since they have turned their interest to the urban periphery, while neglecting inner cities. This is due to high investments into suburban infrastructure as well as subsidies or mortgage tax incentives for homeowners.9

The pattern of Urban Sprawl is blamed to cause Social Segregation. Since the residential clusters often have different price classes for houses, subdivisions consist of residents with similar socio-economic status. This leads to spatially segregated homogenous societies.

Many developers promote the concept of exclusivity, meaning “if you live within these gates, you can consider yourself a success”.10 The secession of the more affluent and successful population segments has triggered “Gated Communities” to become a standard form of U.S. settlement. Gated Communities are self-contained neighborhoods, surrounded by gates or walls that only provide access to the residents.

The homogeneity of the society bears less understanding of what is different and has less concern for the world beyond the subdivision.11

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Illus. 11: Isolated Gated

Community (Franklin, TN)

Critics claim that low-density development causes the Loss of Social Connections between neighbors and members of other communities. Residents are spatially isolated from each other due to the large-scale development. The large yards surrounding the single-family houses create small private isles. The lack of gathering places within residential areas for community activities or recreation discourages social interaction between neighbors. In addition, the dependence on the automobile makes residents spend more time in the car instead of taking part in social activities.12

The outward appearance of the typical development in Urban Sprawl, characterized by the uniformity of mass-produced buildings and large tracts of land used for pavement cause Aesthetic Objections. According to some critics, the American landscape has transformed into a new “ultimate aesthetic wasteland”13 that most people find ugly and even stressful.

Lewis Mumford describes the scenery of Sprawl as “a multitude of uniform unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibility, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal waste”.14

Since daily life involves several activities, which are spatially apart from each other, there is a High Automobile Reliance in the typical suburban development.

Illus. 12: Isolating environment (Franklin, TN)

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Illus. 13: Agglomeration of uniform homes (Franklin, TN)

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Illus. 14: Congested U.S. Interstate

“In suburbia, there is only one available lifestyle: to own a car and to need it for everything”.15 The suburban roadway system, consisting of individual roads all entering one collector-road, causes traffic congestion. In the U.S., about 86% of the population uses the car as transportation mode. According to a survey in California, people in suburbs conduct an average amount of 11 car trips per day.16 The long commute times and traffic congestion lead to stress, time loss and high travel costs. Automobile usage also causes a decline of health. Particularly the high emissions in the U.S. have immense negative impacts on the environment. For example CO2, contributing to the greenhouse effect.17

Due to the leapfrog and low-dense development, Sprawl causes the Vast Consumption of Land and Natural Resources. In many metropolitan areas, much land is urbanized. The growth rates of the urbanization of land are often higher than growth rates of the population.

As shown in Diagram 1, developed land in the U.S. is growing more than twice as fast as the per capita land consumption. Most commonly agricultural land is used for new developments because it is cheap. Also environmentally fragile lands such as forestland, wetland or meadowland are consumed.

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Diagram 1: Growth rates of per capita land consumption and of developed land in the U.S. (100 largest urbanized areas 1970-1990)18

Population growth also expands the demand for other natural resources like water, energy and other minerals. Moreover, the high car reliance triggers the consumption of fossil fuels such as gas and oil. The large-scale and dispersed pattern of Sprawl increases the consumption of gas and water. In addition, the extraction of minerals is reinforced since a lot of building materials are needed for constructing large-scale developments.19

Urban Sprawl triggers High Costs of Infrastructure. This is reflected in the increasing expenditure of governments and utility companies, which also influence private household budgets due to increased fees and taxes.

Burchell et al. states, “Sprawl creates a never-ending upward spiral of costs.”20 The low-dense development necessitates that more yards of linear infrastructure for water and sewer mains, roadways and curbs need to be built. Single-use zoning raises costs because parallel infrastructure systems have to be provided for each development zone. Since many new subdivisions are constructed away from other development, the existing infrastructure cannot be used. As the result, the need to construct more supply facilities increases.21

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Illus. 15: Typical inefficient pattern of Sprawl

2.2 Anti-Sprawl Approaches: Smart Growth, New Urbanism, and TND

As the problems of Sprawl became increasingly evident during the building boom after World War II, people began to perceive that the rapid growth of the low-dense suburbanization had largely affected cities and regions. It triggered much criticism among professionals, governments, and population. Floods of literature were published, and several anti-Sprawl movements, preservation groups, and governmental agencies were formed. In the beginnings of 1990’s, some of these anti-sprawl campaigns developed the guiding motto of “Smart Growth” in order to manage urban growth.

Advocates of Smart Growth promote the mix of land uses, higher densities and compact development, walkable and human-scale environments, preservation of open space, and a strong sense of place. To implement these principles, governments and professionals have developed planning new approaches. These are reflected in more flexible zoning codes and land use policies, in the establishment of Urban Growth Boundaries (UGB), and in the development of regional plans. The town of Portland in Oregon is one famous example that resembles the Smart Growth approaches.

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Illus. 16: Regional plan of Portland (OR)

Established in reliance on a regional plan, Portland consists of regional and town centers, a public transportation system, all surrounded by an UGB that is combined with a greenbelt.22

One of the most prominent groups that advocate Smart Growth is the “New Urbanism” movement. It is a coalescence of international architects, urban designers, engineers, journalists, public servants, and citizens. The New Urbanism movement was officially founded in 1993, in the first Congress of New Urbanism (CNU). Since then the CNU’s are held annually. At the fourth Congress in 1996, the Charter of New Urbanism was established. This is a declaration of principles that aim to improve the urban design.23

New Urbanists mainly blame the aesthetic deficiencies of the suburban design to be the major cause of the problems in many urban regions. As antidotes to Sprawl, several New Urbanism architects have developed concepts that suggest alternative designs of urban development.

Former urban models, such as Ebenezer Howard’s “Garden City”, a self-sufficient small-town development in the countryside, Le Corbusier’s model of the radiant “Dream City”, and the “City Beautiful” movement, praising the monumental city, have influenced their ideas of the “ideal urban form”.24 With these inspirations in mind, New Urbanists have striven to create neighborhoods that contain more mix of land uses and house types, built in higher densities and are more walkable and visually appealing than the typical suburban neighborhood.

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Illus. 17: Model of Howard’s “Garden City” concept

A lot of attention received the New Urbanism architect Peter Calthorpe due to his concept of “transit-oriented development” (TOD). Rooted to regional planning, Calthorpe suggests that growth should be channeled into compact, walkable, and mixed-use nodes connected to a public transit station.

His regional plans for Portland, Sacramento and San Diego in the 1990’s are some of the most famous examples.25

The husband-and-wife team Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, co-founders of the New Urbanism movement, conceived the concept of “TND”. Since the founding in 1980, their firm “Duany Plater- Zyberk & Company” (DPZ), with offices in Florida, Maryland, and North Carolina, has completed 250 communities.26

The TND approach bases on the codes of Smart Growth and New Urbanism principles, while it adapts to the design of the traditional American small towns of the 1920’s. In their most famous book Suburban Nation, DPZ lecture about the qualities that distinguish TND from Urban Sprawl and argue that TND is “the only proven alternative to Sprawl”27. In this book, their basic arguments about TND are reflected in the “TND Checklist” (also referred to as “TND Design Guidelines”), which includes the main principles of the concept.

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Illus. 18: Urban model of “TOD” (by Calthorpe)

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Illus. 19: Comparison of Sprawl and TND (by DPZ)

These guidelines are recommendations directed towards developers, planning officials, and municipalities in order to design new towns, neighborhoods, or villages.28

A summary of the TND Design Guidelines is shown in Table 1:

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Table 1: List of the TND Design Guidelines29

In Suburban Nation DPZ indicate, “there are always exceptions, but the majority of TND’s correspond to the majority of the rules”.30

Since the establishment of their first and most famous project “Seaside” in Florida in 1981, several more TND’s were constructed all over the U.S (see Illustration 20)

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Illus. 20: Examples of TND’s, developed by DPZ

DPZ has also been involved in designing the TND “Westhaven” in Franklin.

The next chapter portrays the city of Franklin, the setting of the case study. In order to illuminate Westhaven’s role in urban growth, the essential characteristics of the region and its urban development are indicated.

3. Portrayal of Westhaven’s Hometown Franklin

3.1 Location

The city of Franklin is located in Williamson County within the metropolitan area of Tennessee’s capital Nashville.

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Map 1: Location of Franklin in Tennessee31

Franklin was founded along the Harpeth River in 1799. It first consisted of 640 acres, divided into 196 half-acre lots formed into 16 blocks around the town square.32 Five streets were established running north and south, and five streets were laid running east and west. In 1815, the town was incorporated.

During its first 180 years, Franklin became the center of a plantation economy and many factories settled in this area.

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Illus. 21: Franklin’s town square and city hall (in background)

As the population steadily increased to 1,500 in 1835, several public buildings were established around the town square.

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Table 2: Population growth in Franklin from 1890 to 2020 (census data and *projections)33

Until the middle of 20th century, the population of the town increased in a gradual pace. However, with the beginnings of the national suburbanization trend after World War II, Franklin experienced a massive population outgrowth and followed the path of the growing metropolitan area of Nashville. Between 1980 and 200 the population more than tripled with a growth rate of 62 %. This caused the compact physical entity of the city to change to a dispersed shape.

Today, Franklin (shown on Map 2) is the ninth largest city in Tennessee covering an area of 35 square miles and having a population number of 46,416 (in 2004).34 It is the County Seat of Williamson County and part of the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) “Nashville- Davidson-Murfreesboro”.

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Map 2: City of Franklin35

Within the MSA, Franklin is connected to larger cities such as Brentwood (population: 31,750) and Murfreesboro (population: 68,816), and to Nashville (population: 575,261), which is located 20 north of Franklin.36 Nashville is the location of

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Illus. 22: Skyline of Nashville’s core

several companies and corporate headquarters. According to Expansion Management Magazine, Nashville is No.One in “America’s 50 hottest cities” ranking in 2005.37

Within the MSA are several colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Belmont University, and the Ivy League Vanderbilt University.38 In the context of educational facilities, Williamson County is particularly well known for its high-standard schools.

Concerning the transportation network in the region, Franklin is 18 miles away from the port on the Cumberland River and 25 miles away from the international airport in Nashville. The city also connects to the railroad, which crosses the region from north to south, and is used for the transportation of industrial goods.

The largest roadway, Interstate-65, runs from the gulf coast, passing Franklin and Nashville, and continuing north to the Chicago area. Besides the Interstate, several major arterial roadways connect Franklin with its surroundings as shown on the Map 2. They all converge at the “Five-Point-Intersection” in downtown Franklin. East of this area is the half-finished Mack Hatcher Parkway, which is planned to be built as a circumferential route looping around the center.

Within the downtown area, Franklin provides public transportation. Since 2003, mainly tourists and some residents use the bus shuttle “Molley Trolley”, which commutes between five transit shelters on three routes in Franklin’s center area.39

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Illus. 23: Main connector to Franklin: Interstate-65

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Illus. 24: Business district “Cool Springs” (Franklin, TN)

Franklin’s major area of interest is the business-district “Cool Springs”, located adjacent to Interstate-65, northeast from downtown. It is the location of larger companies and corporate headquarters, several retail and entertainment facilities, restaurants, and “Cool Springs Galleria”, the second largest mall in Tennessee. In Cool Springs, most of Franklin’s employment concentrates.40

Downtown Franklin is characterized by “traditional” small-scale design. This area includes preserved historic monuments, buildings from 18th and 19th century, several boutiques and coffee shops along the town square and Main Street. There are living options on small-sized lots, in historic homes and apartments above shops or offices.

The National Register of Historic Places lists several places in Franklin, and the Main Street has won the “National Main Street Award”.41 Concerning the 2006 Household Survey (6,572 responses), the small-town, historic atmosphere of Franklin was the main decisive factor for 22% of the questioned households for moving to the city.42

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Illus. 25: Historical small-town charm in Franklin downtown

3.2 Population

Franklin is a wealthy region as the mainly high-income citizens and the low poverty rate of 6.7% indicates.43 The crime rate is also low with 1.7 incidents per population of 1,000 in 2003.44 With reference to a report, in the past years the number of crimes in Franklin has steadily decreased.45

According to Franklin’s residents, the quality-of-life index in Franklin is very high. In the 2006 Household Survey, 95% of the respondents rated the quality of life in Franklin as “very satisfactory” or “satisfactory”.46

Table 3 shows a selection of population structure data of Franklin in comparison to the surrounding region and the U.S.

[...]


1 Broberg 2006, [Magazine], p.9

2 Bruegmann 2005, p.21

3 Bruegmann 2005, p.18-28

4 Bressi 1994, p.xxvi

5 Dutton 2000, p.16

6 Burchell et al. 2005, p.16

7 Bruegmann 2005, p.58-104

8 Calthorpe 1993, p.19

9 Burchell et al. 2005, p.121

10 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.44-45

11 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.45-46

12 Burchell et al. 2005, p.112

13 Bruegmann 2005, p.134

14 Mumford 1961, p.506

15 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.25

16 Calthorpe 1993, p.48

17 Burchell et al. 2005, p.109

18 Sprawl-City Org. 2000, [Online]

19 Barton 2000, p.35

20 2005, p.3

21 Burchell et al. 2005, p.3-50

22 Bruegmann 2005, p. 203

23 Dutton 2000, p.29

24 Jacobs 1992, p.19-24

25 Bressi 1994, p.xxx-xxxi

26 DPZ 2006, [Online]

27 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.20

28 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.245

29 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.246-252, Illustrations by DPZ (source: DPZ 2006, [Online])

30 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, Speck 2000, p.246

31 Superior Mapping Company 2004, [Map]

32 City of Franklin 2006, Fiscal Year 2005-2006 [Online], p.3

33 City of Franklin 2004, Land Use Inventory [Online], ch.4.2 (Note: “Growth Rate” and “Persons per Square Mile” base on own calculations)

34 City of Franklin 2004, Land Use Inventory [Online], ch.4.2 (Note: Population number bases on census data)

35 City of Franklin 2006, Urban Growth Boundary – Map [Online]

36 Williamson County – Franklin Chamber of Commerce 2006, [Magazine], p.81 (Note: population numbers base on estimates in 2005)

37 Johnson 2005, [Online]

38 Johnson 2005, [Online]

39 Franklin Transit Authority 2005, p.1-4

40 City of Franklin 2003, Major Thoroughfare Plan [Online], ch.4.3

41 City of Franklin 2006, Fiscal Year 2005-2006 [Online], p.3

42 City of Franklin 2006, 2006 Household Survey [Online], p.37, (Note: response rate: 30%)

43 U.S. Census Bureau 2006, [Online]

44 U.S. Census Bureau 2006, [Online]

45 City of Franklin 2006, Fiscal Year 2005-2006 [Online], p.51

46 City of Franklin 2006, 2006 Household Survey [Online], p.3

Excerpt out of 81 pages

Details

Title
Accommodating growth: The concept of traditional neighborhood development in Westhaven
College
University of Hamburg  (Department of Urban Planning)
Course
-
Grade
1,3
Author
Year
2006
Pages
81
Catalog Number
V111868
ISBN (eBook)
9783640160846
File size
3985 KB
Language
English
Tags
Accommodating, Westhaven
Quote paper
Mareike Schuppe (Author), 2006, Accommodating growth: The concept of traditional neighborhood development in Westhaven, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/111868

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