What Does a Training Provider Need to Deliver in Order to Successfully Capture a Substantial Share of the German Adult Education Market?

Masterarbeit, 2007
85 Seiten


Table of contents




1. Is there a market for additional adult education?
1.1 Overview
1.2 Changes in the German population
1.2.1 Demographic changes
1.2.2 Netimmigration
1.2.3 Changes in the age of entry into the working population
1.2.4 Changes in the age of exit from the working population
1.3 Changes in the structure of work
1.3.1 Employment ratios: permanent employment vs contract employment
1.3.2 From unskilled to skilled
1.3.3 From manufacturing to service
1.3.4 Changes in workers attitudes
1.4 Germany’s position in the educational rankings
1.5 Statutory environment
1.5.1 EU policy on promoting education
1.5.2 Changes in public funding from education towards health
1.5.3 Changes in Federal government influence and reduction in number of public education providers
1.6 Changes in the provision and the type oftraining
1.6.1 Recent trends in company-provided training
1.6.2 Recent trends in adult education provision and enrolment by public communities
1.7 Conclusions

2. Market imperatives
2.1 Overview
2.2 Researchapproach
2.3 Drivers of investment in training
2.4 Commentary on individual market imperatives
2.4.1 Content, participation and price
2.4.2. Change in the structure of the delivery of training
2.4.3 Technology of training delivery
2.4.4 Certification
2.4.5 Reputation of the training provider
2.4.6 Global reach
2.5 Conclusions

3. Discussion

4. Conclusion


List of figures

Figure 1 1 Changes in age profile 2005-2050

Figure 1 2 Employee participation in company training

Figure 1 3 Population development and the recipients of social welfare distribution

Figure 1 4 Net migration in Germany 2001-2006

Figure 1 5 Odds-ratios for students from blue-collar background to be in higher education

Figure 1 6 Persons in employment by economic sectors

Figure 1 7 Distribution of social protection expenditures, Germany 2003

Figure 1 8 Proportion of enterprises offering training activities

Figure 1 9 Share of private providers and specialized training institutions oftotal external course hours

%, 1999

Figure 2 1 Companies’ assessment of drivers for investment in training

Figure 2 2 Assessment of business issues by German companies

Figure 2 3 Participation of employees in leadership and management programs

Figure 2 4 Assessment of distance learning

List of tables

Table 1 1: Segmentation of the German population 2005-2020

Table 1 2: Labor participation

Table 1 3: Participation in adult education by previous educational attainment for the 25 EU countries

Table 1 4: Percentage of GDP by sector 2000/2005

Table 1 5: Employment by economic sector, 2005-2015

Table 1 6: Germany’s position in EU rankings on education and training

Table 1 7: Number of publicly funded adult education providers and learners enrolled

Table 1 8: Structure of direct costs in German enterprises, 1999

Table 1 9: Teaching hours by subject area, taught in community education centers in Germany

Table 1 10: Learner enrollments by subject area

Table 2 1: Research sample

Table 2 2: Major companies’ primary research overview


Appendix 1: ESMT MBAstudent survey

Appendix 2: Basis for the provision of training (survey results)

Appendix 3: Major companies’ primary research

Appendix 4: Effectiveness of current training activities (survey results)


With the European Union’s stated objective of making the EU “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world”[1], the issue of education, as a driver for increases in productivity and employment, is becoming increasingly important. Several EU initiatives, which set targets and strategies on how to increase the level of education and the rate of participation in lifelong learning, suggest that education is, and will continue to be, of high level of priority for all the European states.

Furthermore, the consequences of aging population, the openness of the European labor market, the ongoing move to high skill-level service industries, and the tendency towards short-term employment contracts all require an increased emphasis on education and training for adults. This places more pressure on the policy-makers, training providers, enterprises, and individuals.

Statistics indicate that Germany’s position is below the European average in many of the European rankings on education and training. The arising demand for new skills requires that the system of adult education be ready to adapt to the changing environment and facilitate the provision of market-driven education. At the same time, with changes in employment structure, more responsibility for training is being shifted from enterprises to individuals to ensure their future employability on a mobile labor market.

In addition, recent statistics indicates that there has been a reduction in the provision of both publicly- funded and company training.

Against this background two major questions arise:

1. Is there a market demand, in the short- and medium term, for new education providers?
2. What are the market imperatives that a new provider must meet in order to secure an adequate market presence?


This study explores current and medium-term training needs of the German adult population and implications of training trends and underlying market forces on the provision of adult education[2]. This study consists of four sections.

The first section answers the question of whether there is a market for additional adult education in Germany. By looking at the changes that are currently happening at the macro-level, such as the aging profile of the working population and the changes in the structure of employment, this section of the study analyses the training needs ofvarious segments ofthe German population.

The second section of the study answers the question of what are the market imperatives that a provider will need to deliver in order to gain access to the largest German corporations.

The third section of this study - discussion - provides recommendations to the education providers on how to approach the German adult education market in order to capture its significant share, as well as recommendations on further areas of investigation.

Taking into consideration the analysis performed in the first two sections, the final section of this study provides an overview of conclusions.


- Interpretation of data - drawn from national and European statistical offices and other respected sources - on demographics, the working population, the German education market, national and EU policies.
- Analysis of the market, statutory environment, and trends in education.
- Primary data collection through on-line survey with 130 German companies
- Field-based and telephonic interviews with of the 15 largest German corporations
- Analysis of responses and follow up questions

1. Is there a market for additional adult education?

1.1 Overview

This section explores the population, demographics and other underlying characteristics of the German adult education market. It looks at the current situation and, using respected sources, estimates the underlying market forces in the medium term.

To evaluate the current and possible future market size this study looks at not only base adult population numbers but also the impact of an aging population, since studies show that currently older people tend to participate less in all forms oftraining (1.2.1).

In the past 15 years, Germany has experienced large population shifts, namely, immigration. But recently net immigration has become almost negligible despite recent legislation that encourages immigration of skilled workers from the new EU countries (1.2.2).

Evidence suggests that German companies require increasingly skilled workers as the industry base moves more from secondary (manufacturing) industries towards tertiary (services) industries. Furthermore, studies suggest that adults are much more likely to be in training if they have a higher level of education before entering the work force. This study attempts to quantify the training needs implications of these shifts (1.3.2).

Employers are increasingly turning to temporary fixed-term and part-time contracts rather than indefinite full-time employment contracts in order to increase their flexibility in the face of global competition. It has been suggested that employees on fixed-term contracts receive less training than their colleagues on indefinite contracts. This study attempts to quantify the impact on training demand of this shift from permanent to temporary employees (1.3.1).

Anecdotal evidence suggests that younger workers are seeking a more balanced and flexible life than hitherto. Historically in Germany, many school-leavers entered an apprenticeship scheme (which combined training and practical experience) and tended to develop their careers in the same industry possibly even the same company. Recent acceleration in the rate of change of technology, company ownership, industry structures, and internationalization combined with demands for an improved life­style, may drive younger workers to seek transferable skills from the training programs that they enter and, despite employers’ wishes to the contrary, may be one factor reducing the number of school leavers entering apprenticeship. The implications for training providers may be dramatic in the case where employees, rather than employers, determine what training they themselves receive, if employers are to respond to employees needs in order to retain the best workers (1.3.4).

On a number of international/European measures Germany fares relatively badly. For instance, it occupies 16th place in participation rates in continuing vocational training and 22nd place in the number of young people attaining upper secondary education level (see Table 1 6). The statutory environment relating to training has seen some important recent changes including the reform of the Vocational Training Act[3], and one can expect German legislators and employers will need to move their practices on a par with other EU countries in order not to lose their competitive position. This may change the numbers of workers in training (1.4).

1.2 Changes in the German population 1.2.1 Demographic changes

Germany’s population is falling in line with most Western-European countries: it continued to decline on average by 0.1% over the past four years and is forecasted to decline by approximately 9.5% from the level of 82.4 million of 2006 to below the 75 million by 2050 [20], which means an annual decline of 16,600 people, or about 0.2% of the 2006 population.

Germany has over the past 30 years witnessed a remarkably low number of births. With a current fertility rate of 1.37[4] and a rise in average life expectancy, it is estimated that the ratio of people aged 65 and over will increase from the current 18% to one third of the population by 2050 [1]. As the population age structure drastically changes and the proportion of people aged under 20 decreases from the current 21% to 16%, a larger number of pensioners will be supported by a smaller number of working age people [1].

It is estimated that by 2050 one out of five people in Western Europe will be 60 years old or over and there will be two people of working age per every pensioner from the current four [15]. The implications of the ageing demographics for Germany will become visible from 2015, when the proportion of those supporting the pension system will decline from the current 2 to 1 to 1 to 1, as 24 million people will be over 60 (four million more than today) [9].

Research shows that participation in training decreases dramatically with age: only 17% of those 50 years of age or older participated any kind of continuing training in 2003, compared with 31 % for the group of 35-49 year old [21]. And, according to the latest survey of 2005 on continuing vocational training conducted in German companies, the participation rates of employees of over 55 years of age in courses and seminars remain low, with the highest percentage of participation in smaller companies [6]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1 2: Employee participation in company training

Source: Statistisches Bundesamt, Wirtschaft und Statistik 7/2007

The above diagram (Figure 1 2) depicts percentage of employees who participated in company- provided training in 2005 with a breakdown by three age-groups of employees and company size.

Another factor that may increase the proportion of older people available for work is a possible increase in the effective average retirement age (see section 1.2.4 below).

The below table shows population estimates to 2020 together with segmentation by age groups and working population and is based on the estimates provided by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany: with retirement age of 65, birth rates almost constant and migration rate of 100,000 per year [20].

Table 1 1: Segmentation of the German population 2005 - 2020

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Federal Statistical Office, 2006

In the next few years, at least, changes in the age structure of the population will increase pressure on the social security system and public finances and may make required expenditures on education more difficult.

Another factor effecting age distribution is that many Eastern areas of Germany (with fewer employment opportunities) have, for the past 15 years, seen the movement of young qualified people to Western Germany and other areas. If employers in these areas don’t have enough young qualified people available, it is important that the area becomes economically more attractive to recruit labor from other places in order to remain competitive and to ensure equal and stable economic development across the country [9]. One of the ways to sustain competitiveness in the global market is through lower taxation rates. However, because of the changing age profile, increasing expenditures on pensions and health are likely to continue to represent an enormous burden on the federal budget [7] and come in conflict with the EU strategy, and Germany’s need, to promote training and education especially since Germany’s proportion of GDP spent on education is already one of the lowest in the EU (see Table 1 6).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1 3: Population development and the recipients of social welfare distribution

Source: Berlin Institute for Population and Development, 2006

Over time, the German government has an obligation, together with other European countries, to increase the participation of women, younger people and older people in work [1]. Although under Federal law, changes in education will mainly happen at the lander level, it is the Federal government’s role - in response to EU and OECD recommendations [5] -, to ensure that there is equal development in all parts of the country.

The implications for an education service provider may be the following:

- An overall decline in the total German population is likely to increase competition among existing providers and may make the entry of new providers more problematical.
- With lower rates of training today in the older members of the working population, and increase in the proportion of older people could imply reduced opportunities for training providers.
- However, there may be an opportunity here too, for an education provider to define the needs and supply accordingly to this increasingly important, but relatively poorly educated, market segment. These special needs may include a focus on, for example, health and retirement skills.
- Those lander where education provision today is lowest may present more opportunities, particularly if more Federal funds are directed towards those areas in the near future.
- In looking at participation in education by age segments, it was noted in Figure 1 2, that relatively more people (in all age groups) participate in education in smaller companies than in larger ones. It may be that these smaller companies will provide an interesting market for standardized education solutions (in section 2 we look at the implication for larger companies).

1.2.2 Net immigration

It is estimated that one out of six German citizens has come to live in the country through immigration [9]. However, since 2003 the number of people immigrating to Germany no longer offsets the deficit of births [9]. Net immigration has declined from the peaks of several hundred thousand of previous years to just 40,600 in 2006 - a further decline of 50% from 2005 [15] mainly because of tighter asylum rules and despite the new German immigration law of 2005, which eases immigration for highly-qualified non- EU citizens such as engineers, academics and business leaders, but makes it more difficult for others [14]. Although people with mid-range qualifications can obtain a limited residence permit but only if they have a job offer that could not be filled by EU citizens. The below chart provides information on immigration in Germany in the period 2001 - 2006.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1 4: Net migration in Germany 2001-2006

Source: Euromonitor International, 2007

Until recently, legislation restricted immigration into Germany from the new EU states. However, EU law requires complete openness of borders within all EU states by 2011. It may be that the gradual lessening of these restrictions will result in increased migration into Germany but probably in numbers insufficient to halt the decline in total population. According to the “Social Situation Report 2002’ published by the European Commission, EU labor market and pension system will not be on a sustainable level even if the fertility rate were to improve from the current 1.37 and the immigration rates were to double [12].

Although Federal authorities do not expect net migration to be much greater than 100,000 per year in the foreseeable future (basis for the forecast in Table 1 1), it is feasible that will be as high as 200,000 a year. According to the Federal Statistical Office an assumption of 200,000 a year would increase total population in 2050 by as many as five million people (to 73.958 million from 68.743 million with net immigration at 100,000 a year) [20]. It also has to be noted that majority of immigrants in 2002/2004 were in the 20 to 35 year age group, while people that emigrate tend to be, on average, older [20]. It has been estimated that people of Turkish descent represent the biggest of the share of all the immigrants at 2.4% of the population. Other ethnic groups, such as Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, etc. amount to 6.1% of the total population [11]. This data implies that there are about 7 million immigrants of non-German origin and about 6.5 million of German origin. A study done by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation showed that less than a third of 182,000 jobs applied for by young qualified people were given to those with immigrant background and there seems to be a preference for native Germans when it comes to choosing a candidate [31]

The level of integration of the immigrants of both German and non-German origin into the German culture, their level of employment and dependence on social welfare are increasingly becoming a matter of concern. Following the change in law most of the new migrants will be highly educated but there remains a substantial population of recent immigrants and their descendants who tend to have lower qualifications, are in low-skilled jobs and have high unemployment rate - a concern raised by the OECD Secretary-General in Berlin in September 2007 [8]. Over 51% of people with a migration background are without a training qualification compared to 27% of the population without such background [14]. As an example, the achievements of German youth in education and employment look more significant than those of the Turkish youth living in Germany. In 2005, 84 % of Germans were either employed or pursued studies, while the rate ofinvolvement in these activities oftheir Turkish peerswas only 61%.

The implications for the training provider may be the following:

- With an open European labor market, one can see significant implications for training provided to migrating workforce, even though these people may, under current regulation, enter Germany with high level of qualifications.
- Working across borders will expand the demand for education beyond occupational training, increasing the need for social knowledge and language training. Mobility will become successful when there is intercultural competence, which will allow new residents to function more effectively in the German environment. The above data would suggest substantial opportunities for intercultural learning, including German language training, (but whether this can be best provided by a non-German company is open to question).
- The total population of people of Turkish descent, the biggest of the share of all the immigrants, is 2.4% of the total population. However, if we add that proportion of the total population of the population of origins other than Turkish such as Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian 6.1%, and some six million people of German descent that immigrated recently and who seem to be treated as immigrants, there is a total immigrant population of some 13.5 million people which may represent a significant opportunity for education providers. (the issue is further discussed in section 3)

1.2.3 Changes in the age of entry into the working population

On the prospective of changes in the age of entry into the working population, it has to be noted that historically, German university entrants (who represent 0.5% of the population with 400,000 starting university each year) graduated at the age of 25-26 compared with 21-22 in most other western European countries and so entered the workforce later. This is due to mainly the fact that German university students study continuously through a bachelor’s level to a master’s level education without a break. Also, many German students have to fund their own education which requires them to work part­time often delaying graduation. According to OECD, drop out rates in the traditional 5-6 year universities can amount to 35% [8]. However, the EU Bologna Declaration directs EU states to standardize in their provision of tertiary education such that separate diplomas are offered at bachelors, masters, and doctorate levels [13]. This may mean that German students will break from their university education at bachelor level around 21 to 22 and enter the work force rather than being considered as university ‘drop outs’.

Incidentally, the above EU initiative also encourages universities to provide European credit transfer certificates which, in principal, allow students to move schools at the end of every year. Apart from the potential for German graduates to enter the work force earlier than hitherto, the Bologna Declaration implies that state universities no longer have a captive student population for their masters level program and must therefore, become more competitive especially since private education providers - often with more modern, flexible and global resources have entered the market place.

Because of the Bologna process, there will be a short-term but almost a double increase in the number of students in Germany wishing to apply to universities and the current perspectives of those who are unable to enter universities must either enter the workforce or to become unemployed. If those who enter the workforce will be employed on part-time or temporary contracts, it is likely that the responsibility for their education and training will fall on themselves. If, however, they enter long-term contracts, the responsibility for training will largely fall on the companies.

The above analysis, presents several implications for the training providers.

Marketing approach: From this perspective, companies providing training may need to start marketing their products more to young individuals who:

- completed their studies at the Bachelors level
- are unemployed, or
- on temporary work contracts

Even if only one quarter of students decides to leave university two years earlier than today (graduating with the equivalent of a Bachelors degree) about 130,000 graduates a year would be eligible to enter the workforce. A training provider would be able to approach them either directly, or through the companies they join.

Certification: Training providers who are able to issue recognized certificates of course completion are more like to be successful in marketing to the above groups, as certificates provide proof of education to employers who are increasingly using temporary workers.

Content of training: Since much of the early university education is of a general nature rather than vocation-specific, there may be an opportunity for private educational providers to deliver more general education packages to replace what failed university applicants would have received if they had to attend university. This would be another reason for the training companies to address their solutions to individuals.

1.2.4 Changes in the age of exit from the working population.

With regard to the exit from the working population, it is becoming evident that Germany’s state provision of retirement pensions, like that of most Western European countries, is becoming unsupportable as the ratio between working population and retirees declines. One solution is to increase the retirement age to encourage people to stay in employment longer (a process underway in France that has had some resistance from previously government-protected jobs). According to EU policy, under the Lisbon agreement, the EU governments intend to offset to a certain extent the impact on the working population of a higher proportion of older people by increasing the average age of retirement by five years by the year 2010, which will result in the average retirement age of 64.

In addition to the retirement age in many countries older people find themselves unemployed (mainly due to a lower level of skills in relation to current needs and to a perceived lack of flexibility). The Lisbon agreement sets a target that 50% of the people in the 55 to 64 age group will be in employment by 2010 compared with 45.4% employment rate as of 2005 [7]. Since participation in training is negatively correlated with age these EU initiatives indicate that there may be a requirement for changes in the current provision of training to older people.

The implications for the training provider may be as follows:

- In light with the above EU objective we can expect to see an increase in demand for the provision of training to older age people. Providers must be prepared to address the training needs of the older members of the population, for whom the learning needs and capabilities may be different from those of younger people.
- A demand-driven market will require the providers to deliver greater diversity in the kinds and forms of training to accommodate the needs of the various groups of people, both in terms of their employment status (employed, unemployed) and their age.

1.3 Changes in the structure of work

1.3.1 Employment ratios: permanent employment vs contract employment

Along with other European countries, Germany saw deregulation of legislation on fixed-term employment in the 1980’s [3]. The emergence of new forms of employment that are characterized by atypical periods and forms of gainful employment (consecutive short-term contracts, homework, temporary agency contracts) is changing the structure of the working world across the European countries [21]. According to Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training Germany is similar to many other European countries in terms of the proportion of people with normal employment contracts with about 60% of the working population [21]. It has also been noted that within the German workforce some 25% were employed on part-time contracts and 15% on fixed-term contracts [19] These statistics represents an increase of one million people on temporary and fixed term contracts between 2002 and 2006 offsetting a reduction of the same number of people in normal employment. Workers on temporary and fixed-term contracts have fewer benefits than people in normal employment including lower levels of employer-provided training. The vast majority (some 42%) of all fixed-term employment contracts are of a duration of up to one year, some 15% are between one and two years and about 7% are between 2 and 3 years [3].

Over the last five years (2003 to 2007) the number of the economically active population[5] has remained relatively stable at around 43.5 million people. Within the economically active population the number of employees (at year-end) has increased by some 500,000 people since 2003 as unemployment has remained fairly static, although there is some improvement likely by the end of the 2007. The group of self-employed has also seen some increase and it is likely that a significant proportion of the self- employed are on short/fixed-term or temporary contracts.

Table 1 2: Labor participation

illustration not visible in this excerpt

4 Note: the 2007 data are for end quarter three - the latest data available Source: Destatis, Employment Accounts, Quarterly Data, Federal Statistical Office

The proportion of people in atypical employment is likely to increase further as employers seek flexibility in the size and cost of the workforce in the face of increasing global competition. As new working models encourage more dynamics on the labor market, life-long employment is becoming a thing of a past imposing more uncertainty with regard to security of career paths of individuals [32].

In terms of the impact on training demand it has been estimated that people on fixed-term contracts are less likely to be in work-related training than people on conventional contracts, because employers are less likely to spend money on training for people who are with them for a short period of time [3]. With more firms introducing flexible employment and switching to part-time jobs, the responsibility for training shifts from employers to employees who need to update their own skills and develop new competences in order to meet the ever-changing demands of the competitive market.

As enterprise-training in Germany is characterized mostly by ad hoc and updating measures with a focus on short-term company specific goals [21], employees find it difficult to apply the outcomes of learning in other companies. Furthermore, primary research conducted in largest German corporations (see section 2) shows that few companies that offer training to their employees are interested in receiving certification upon completion of training, unless they are required to prove qualifications of their personnel to the third parties. In other cases, companies with corporate universities provide internal certificates, which are recognized mostly only internally in the company.

At the same time, the ongoing changes in technology and business landscape are placing more pressure on individuals to be flexible, self-sufficient and adaptable to project-based working. It seems, however, that the employees themselves do not invest in their own training [21] which logically reduces their long-term employability because the value of earlier gained experiences and qualifications are reduced due to changes in the skills required to meet an increasingly technologically-oriented work place [2]. It has been identified that people on fixed-term and/or part-time contract consist of a higher proportion of older people, women and young people with only partial vocational training [21]. For example, in 2005, there were 43.8% of women working part-time but only 7.8% of men [1 ].

Training providers should consider:

- The changes in employment structure and how they are affecting the number of individuals who are not getting training from companies.
- The probability of more demand for training coming from individuals, if workers in atypical employment are to remain employable.

Because people on temporary contracts do not generally upgrade their skills, the German government, through legislation or persuasion, needs to find ways to induce this increasingly important part of the workforce to update their skills so increasing their employability and to be more flexible in terms of their geographic location. Enterprising education providers should note this change in the profile of the workforce and produce and target training materials towards individuals not merely companies.

1.3.2 From unskilled to skilled

EU studies show that while one third of EU workforce (some 72 million workers) are low-skilled, only 15% of new jobs expected to be created will be low-skilled jobs. Some 50% of new jobs will demand tertiary level qualifications [7]. Currently, it is estimated that about one sixth of all the jobs in Germany are low-paid [19]. Furthermore, if it may be inferred that low-skilled workers generally have a low level of education, it is interesting that in the EU only 1.4% of workers with low-level education are in any form of formal[6] training and they have a much lower level of participation in any form of education (informal[7], nonformal[8], formal) than those with higher levels of education.

Studies show that the probability of taking part in training is markedly dependent on the occupational status of an individual [7]. The level of already acquired skills is considered to be a significant predictor of training perspectives: the higher the level of occupational skills, the higher chances there are to receive further training.

Table 1 3: Participation in adult education by previous educational attainment (25 EU countries)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Eurostat LFS, Ad hoc module on lifelong learning 2003 in the report of the European Association for the Education of Adults, 2006

Based on the above table, it can be concluded that further training is focused on provision of additional skills to those who already possess formal qualifications. This is consistent with earlier results of the First Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS1), according to which a manager’s rate of participation in training is six times that of semi-skilled or unskilled personnel [21]. As a result, those with managerial skills will have an advantage over those with lower levels of qualifications. However, the effect of this seems to be different for men and women. At the lower end of the skills spectrum, there is more probability for women to participate in training, whereas at the upper end of professional skills men are likely to get more training.

From a business productivity point of view, it is doubtful whether informal education improves productivity, although it represents half of all adult education. Interestingly, the number of adults in any kind of education in Germany is only 8.2% (compared with 34.7% in Sweden and 29.1% in the UK) putting Germany in the 11th rank of countries in the Union [1]. One reason which could explain such low rates of participation in training in Germany lies in the concept of the German ‘dual system’ of education, which has a long tradition.


[1] Source: The Lisbon European Council of2000, Council ofthe European Union [26]


Adult education includes everything described as basic and continuing education and assisted learning for youth and adults, formal, non-formal or informal [7].

[3] Vocational trainings means vocational training preparation, initial training, further training and retraining (Section 1, Part 1 of Vocational Training Act 2005 [23])

[4] Fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with prevailing age-specific fertility rates (Euromonitor International)

[5] Economically Active Population includes wage earners, salaried employees, public officials, marginal pert-time workers, soldiers, including self-employed and unpaid family members

[6] Formal learning - typically provided by an education or training institution, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support) and leading to certification. Formal learning is intentional from the learners perspective [7]

[7] Informal learning - resulting from daily life activities related to work, family or leisure. Not structured (in terms of the learning objectives, time or support) and typically does not lead to certification. In most cases non-intentional[7]

[8] Non-formal learning - provided by an education or training institution and typically does not lead to certification. It is, however, structured (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support). Intentional from the ‘learner’s perspective.[7]

Ende der Leseprobe aus 85 Seiten


What Does a Training Provider Need to Deliver in Order to Successfully Capture a Substantial Share of the German Adult Education Market?
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Anonym, 2007, What Does a Training Provider Need to Deliver in Order to Successfully Capture a Substantial Share of the German Adult Education Market?, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/157517


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