Contrasting Leader and Leadership Development - Implications for Human Resource Management


Term Paper, 2012
16 Pages

Excerpt

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction
1.1. Definition and Historical Development of Leadership

2. Conceptualizing Leadership and Leader Development
2.1. Leadership Development
2.2. Leader Development
2.3. Contrasting Leadership and Leader Development
2.4. Managerial Implications for Human Resource Management

3. Summary

Reference List

List of Figures and Tables

Figure 1 Shift from leader to leadership development

Table 1 Historical development of leadership culminates in a conceptual shift

Table 2 Meta-analysis of five leader and leadership development studies

List of Abbreviations

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1. Introduction

1.1. Definition and Historical Development of Leadership

A large variety of approaches has been suggested to the topic of leadership, which in organizational sciences, is positioned among the most explored and discussed theories (George, 2000); and indeed, leadership has been found out to have considerable effects on companies’ performances, playing a major role in organisational development, change, and rejuvenation (Clarke & Higgs, in press). Mehmood and Arif define leadership as the talent to affect individuals to act differently based on their own will (2011). Table 1 displays the historical development of leadership and the notion’s conceptual shift.

Table 1: Historical development of leadership culminates in a conceptual shift

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Source: Table developed by the author

An increasing complexity of challenges that enterprises have to face in today’s economy led to businesses changing their structures so as to become more responsive to their environment. This alteration in turn, demands for a profound need for employees at each level of the organization to take part in leadership processes (Day, Zaccaro, & Halpin, 2004). Furthermore, increasing investments made by companies in leadership development can be recorded (Clarke & Higgs, in press); constituting a foundation of competitive advantage for many firms (Day, 2001).

Considering a notional misunderstanding about the differences between leader and leadership development (Day, 2001), this paper aims for (1) contrasting the two concepts and (2) deriving managerial implications for human resource management (HRM).

2. Conceptualizing Leadership and Leader Development

2.1. Leadership Development

Whereas a comprehensive doctrine of leadership development has yet to arise, various literature models suggest that the concept affects organizations at different levels (Clarke & Higgs, in press). Leadership development is delineated as growing the group capability of a company’s members to participate successfully in leadership positions and procedures, while leadership roles are considered to be with and without formal competencies (Day, 2001).

The theory involves establishing the faculty for groups of people to learn how to deal effectively with unpredictable problems, whilst implying the use of interpersonal competence as primary emphasis (Day, 2001). Interpersonal competence can be referred to the skill to see differences in other persons’ motivations, tempers, and purposes (Gardner, 1993), including social awareness, such as service orientation, compassion, and the ability to develop others, as well as social skills that refer to building rapport, working together, and handling conflicts (Day, 2001).

Leadership development refers to the interaction between a person and its corporate and social surrounding (Day, 2001), and it is increasingly important not just for HRM, but also for line management, whose role in the development of leadership is becoming more significant (Van Velsor, McCauley & Ruderman, 2010).

2.2. Leader Development

The permanent need for successful leaders makes organizations launch numerous actions to ensure their availability. Besides, companies already utilize external recruiting procedures to meet this need; leader development seems to play a major element in producing valuable leaders internally (Van Velsor, McCauley & Ruderman, 2010).

Van Velsor, McCauley & Ruderman (2010) underpin that leader development can be reinforced by affecting humans’ behaviour regarding change, learning, and prospering. According to LeBoeuf (2006), leader development is a change process that is directed by a set of elemental values. The fundamental building blocks for the change process are: encouraging experiences, individual readiness for these experiences, personal reflection, and enough time for the development phase (LeBoeuf, 2006).

Leader development means, firstly, organizational change; whilst performing leadership activities for strengthening employees’ capability to adapt to changing organizational realities (Van Velsor, McCauley, & Ruderman, 2010). Thus, change management is seen as one of the most significant features in leadership in the near future; thereby, a leader’s personal integrity is crucial within the change process (Roark & Freemyer, 2010). Secondly, leader development intends to improve the performance in existing positions (Van Velsor, McCauley & Ruderman, 2010), while enhancing leaders’ `people skills´, which are essential for leader success (Riggio, 2007). Finally, leader development draws upon the idea about succession management, by growing leaders’ capacity to succeed in higher positions (Van Velsor, McCauley & Ruderman, 2010).

2.3. Contrasting Leadership and Leader Development

In the past, leadership focused on individual traits, making a clear difference between a leader and his/ her followers, as Table 1 already conveys.

The contingency theory represents a remarkable transition in the concept of leadership, since it illustrates the changing focus from concentrating on solely the leader to a greater attention with regard to the relationship between a leader and his/ her followers. Based on this shift, one must distinguish between leader development and leadership development. The contingency theory assumes that the challenge for a leader, in order to be effective, lies in the way he/she handles a particular situation; hence, leadership style requirements will change according to dissimilar situations. Concluding, this theory implies that the style should be attributable to an analysis of surrounding variables (Bolden et al., 2003).

Today’s research shows that a multifaceted interaction exists between a leader and his/ her surrounding; and, a leader’s ability to influence the performance of a group of individuals can only be effective if leaders and followers effectively communicate with each other (Fiedler, 1996). Figure 1 depicts the main differences between leader and leadership development, whereas it can be distinguished between the focus on either human or social capital.

Figure 1: Shift from leader to leadership development

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Source: Adapted from Day (2001), and lecture on Leadership Development Nicholas Clarke (11/2011)

Developing leaders places the focal point on investing into human capital (HC), which is referred to the development of employee expertise and knowledge through the provision of training and teaching (Lepak & Snell, 1999). The reason behind this approach lies in the aim of forming intrapersonal competence, which is comprised of self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-motivation (Day, 2001).

In contrast, leadership development, which is based upon investments into social capital (SC), focuses on the concept of mutuality as a means of creating shared assets through relationships; implying that a strong social network leads to an improvement in performance through faster learning, mutual trust, and greater levels of co-operation (Staber, 2003). As a result of interpersonal exchange, underpinned by social awareness, organizational value can be created (Day, 2001). Further, developing leadership can be supported through the use of networks; hence, through the use of cross-functional connections that aim at solving problems more effectively (Day, 2001), and as indicated by O’Connor & Sauer (2006), there is a positive correlation between SC and humans’ activities in social networks. Other practices, such as 360-degree feedback, the most used multisource feedback method (Liviu et al., 2009), and coaching, focus more on the individual-based level, and can therefore be classified as instruments that intensify the investment into HC (Day, 2001).

2.4. Managerial Implications for Human Resource Management

Scientific research about leader and leadership development draws upon a diverse range of paradigms; thus, managerial implications for HRM may diverge likewise. With the purpose of including different angles, Torraco’s (2005) concept of an integrative literature review serves as a framework for the meta-analysis of five leader and leadership development studies. The meta-analysis contains the following steps: (1) selecting studies, (2) analyzing their results, (3) stating their conceptual focus, (4) rating their degree of implications for HRM, and (5) deriving managerial implications for HRM. Table 2 summarises the results of the first four steps.

[...]


[1] Stogdill (1948)

[2] Blake & Mouton (1994), Lewin & Gold (1999)

[3] Fiedler (1967), Hersey et al. (2000)

[4] Graen (1978)

[5] Bass et al. (2003), Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber (2009)

Excerpt out of 16 pages

Details

Title
Contrasting Leader and Leadership Development - Implications for Human Resource Management
College
University of Southampton
Course
Human Resource Management
Authors
Year
2012
Pages
16
Catalog Number
V186888
ISBN (eBook)
9783656112709
ISBN (Book)
9783656112693
File size
484 KB
Language
English
Tags
HRM, Human Resource Management, Leader Development, Leadership Development, Leader, Leadership, Human Resource Development
Quote paper
Bachelor of Arts International Management Alexander Michalski (Author)Ivana Vilotic (Author), 2012, Contrasting Leader and Leadership Development - Implications for Human Resource Management, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/186888

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