Administrative Intelligibility in an Educational Organization

Term Paper, 2014

19 Pages, Grade: "B"


Table of Contents

Course Objectives

Course Description

1. Introduction

2. Power and Authority

3. Application of power in educational administration.

4. Setting objectives in an educational organization
4.1 Specific
4.2 Measurable
4.3 Attainable
4.4 Relevant
4.5 Time bound

5. Administrative strategies in the education organizations
5.1 Administrative Theories

6. Performance Appraisal
6.1 The significance of organizational appraisal

7. Coaching for improved performance
7.1 The rationale of coaching in higher education organizations

8. Performance and payment
8.1 Scheme of organizational performance payment

9. Educational information and technology in higher education institutions

10. Conclusion


Course Objectives

The objectives of this course include:

1. Evaluating policies and educational reforms,

2. Examining Technology advancement in the educational sectors.

3. Assess technology and its contribution in education.

4. Analysis of administrative strategies in higher education

Course Description

This course examines different educational policies, the contribution of technology in educational advancement, internal efficiency of an organization, development of policies and goals, management of human relations and behavior in an organization. Nonetheless, several administrative strategies will be scrutinized.

1. Introduction

Fayol (1949) & Babyegeya (2002) defined ‘administration’ as a process of determining how to serve the functions for which the organization is established. It is also noted that in the course of effecting, the administration is responsible with directing and controlling the activities of an educational organization so that those activities can achieve the objectives intended (Samier 2002). While it is affirmed that the term administration is not used only in educational organizations, (Koksal 2011, Samier 2002 & Fayol 1949) identified that administration is purposefully intended to facilitate the achievements of predetermined organizational goals. Organizational administration, therefore, is a mechanism which is used to organize the activities of an organization to achieve both its long and short term goals (Mitchell 2011).

2. Power and Authority

Ivanko (2012) & Babyegeya (2002) assert that within the educational organization power is rendered as the likelihood that one player in a common relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will regardless of resistance. However, Schermerhorn (2004) indicates that authority is the capacity that has influence over people’s behavior. Power thus refers to a relationship between two people in which one person has the ability to cause the other to do something which he would otherwise not do (Nantel 2011, Babyegeya 2002 & Samier 2002). Fayol (1949) has outlined several types of powers that affect higher institutions educational administration. Legitimate power for instance, is similar to authoritative power that a person possesses by virtue of his or her position in an organization Babyegeya 2002, & Fayol 1949).

Nevertheless, expert power is possessed by a person when people see him or her as having knowledge or expertise which is greatly valued (Samier 2002). In his explanations, Samier indicates that teachers and professors like Max Weber possess expert power in the classroom because of both their mastery and delivery of a particular subject matter (Samier 2002). Furthermore, Referent power is portrayed by a person when he or she has personal qualities, characteristics or reputation which others want to be identified with (Sterrett 2012, Fayol 1949). For instance, marketing managers take advantage of this power when they ask celebrities to do advertising for their products. Babyegeya (2002), Ticoll (2004), & Wedell (2009) contend that in an educational organizational setting, managers who possess referent power require charismatic qualities (Stedrak and Justin 2013).

3. Application of power in educational administration.

According to Okumbe (2007), the use of power in educational organizations like other organizations in general, in a fact of administration, is quite significant when it is based on the objectives set by the higher educational organization (Armstrong and Baron 1998). Teachers and other employees in educational organizations however, have a right to know that power must be applied by leaders in such a manner that complies with ethical standards which prevent any form of abuse of responsibilities, morals and properties (Okumbe 2007). An educational manager who applies legitimate power should ensure that he or she has confidence, is cordial and follows proper channels of providing adequate administrative skills (Abdulkareem 2011 & Babyegeya 2002). For instance, the rewards offered should be the ones valued by the teachers and they should be accurately tied to positive performance justified by the Board of Directors (Dome’nec 2013 & Douglas 2013). Coercive power can be applied effectively without jeopardizing good leadership. However, the manager should be sternly concerned about the expected outcome of this administrative type in the organization. In applying coercive power, the educational manager ensures employees are well informed about ojrganizational rules, regulations and ‘infractions’ in advance (Babyegeya 2002). Concerning the referent power, Coser (1968) says that educational administrators hold that teachers and other subordinates need much of motivation and embracive feelings over their areas of achievements and interests and further, should nonetheless experience a sense of security from their administrator (Douglas 2013, Dome’nec 2013, & Campion 1993). The expert authority that an individual possesses as a result of his or her own extra ordinary ability of doing things with a high level of understanding; for instance, a good English teacher, or a good administrator in educational management are characteristics which people acquire in their professions as a result of their exhibition of extra ordinary expertise that can improve the welfare of the organization (Fayol 1949, & Cunningham 2003).

4. Setting objectives in an educational organization

According to Babyegeya (2002), one function of administration is to set goals and these goals should have the characteristics which are described as ‘S.M.A.R.T’ (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bound).

4.1 Specific

This means the goal is clear and explicit. To bring the goal specification, administrators should inform employees exactly what is expected out of the organization, and who is possibly involved and which organizational attributes are important. For example, according to the study that was conducted in Pennsylvania, Stedrak (2013) indicated that with the rapid growth of online enrollments in higher education, there has arose concerns about student retention rates, have higher ‘erosion rates than traditional face-to-face’ students. According to Stedrak (2013), multiple factors can influence online student retention in the higher education environment for instance, the factor of personal time management, self independence in course work and personal schedule of other activities. Based on Fayol (1949), a specific goal will usually answer the five “W” questions: what do l want to accomplish? Why: specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal. Who: who is involved? Where: identify requirements and constraints.

4.2 Measurable

The second term stresses the need for concrete criteria of examining development toward the attainment of the goal (Fayol 1949, Babyegeya 2002 & Bennet 2009). The though behind this is that if a goal is not measurable, it is not possible to know whether students are certainly making progress toward successful completion of the given curriculum assignment or not (Okumbe 2007). Measuring progress is supposed to help students stay on track, reach their targeted dates, and experience the exhilaration of achievement efforts required to reach the ultimate goal (Elen 2013). According to Fayol (1949), a measurable goal will usually answer questions such as: How much? How many? How will l know when it is accomplished?

4.3 Attainable

The third term stresses the importance of goals that are realistic and attainable (Fayol 1949, & Armstrong 1998). That is, the goals are neither out of reach nor below standard performance, as these may be considered meaningless. When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true (Emine 2011, & Fayol 1949). As an administrator, you develop the skills and financial capacity to reach them (Agharuwhe 2014).

4.4 Relevant

The fourth term stresses the importance of choosing goals that have the positive impact in the organization. Relevant goals move the organization ahead. A goal that supports or is in alignment with other goals would be considered a relevant goal. According to Jaradat (n.d), Musaazi (2006), & Fayol (1949,) a relevant goal can answer yes to these questions: Does this seem valuable?

4.5 Time bound

The fifth term stresses the importance of grouping goals within a time frame, giving them a date of accomplishment (Fayol 1949). A commitment to a deadline helps administrators focus their efforts on completion of the goal on the due date or even before the due date (Okumbe 2007). This implies that a time-bound goal is intended to establish a sense of urgency. According to Prokou (n.d) in the historical view of Greece, the domain of higher education, at the beginning of the 1980s, the issue was that social justice and equality of educational opportunities became an ‘imperative,’ meaning that the approach to educational administration was that of "social demand" rather than ‘human resource development’ (Robbins 2007).

5. Administrative strategies in the education organizations

The educational administration normally has an impact on how the educational administrator can put it procedures all together, and lets him know whether there are any gaps that need urgent review in the system. According to Fayol (1949), the system of administration thus considers administrators interaction with the employees for example when they first join the educational organization. It also includes ways to keep staff motivated, developed and loyal to the work in the long term process of getting acquaintance with the organizational goals (Robbins 2003).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1. Illustration of administrative strategies (Originally developed).

According to Babyegeya (2002), renewal of human resource will involve getting together with an employee and evaluating expectations for a set period of time. The first stage in the planning process will be to evaluate an employee’s current role and performance (Buchanan 1979). According to Elen (2013), this will lead to gaining an initial idea about areas of improvement and also checks on realistic targets. Implementing the plan and managing performance is however, focusing on tomorrow implying that the administrator includes the provisions of support to employees at all times and hopefully ensures that the appropriate system tools are available to maximize performance expectations for best production in the higher education organization (Bisno 1988, Armstrong and Baron 1998, & Sajid 2011).

On the other hand, reviewing of academic resources involves ensuring that the performance structure set out in stage one is being followed up and this may be particularly useful if there are new updates of performance that could have a direct effect on other areas of the educational organization (Jaradat n.d, Babyegeya 2002 & Nantel 2011). Speaking to an employee half through a performance and questioning them over frequent attempts to attend workshops is a good chance to however, pull their objectives depending on the immediate factors surrounding them. If all of the objectives have been met in the school organization, then as an administrator, reward your employees (Fayol 1949). This is done after analyzing the previous objectives and recognizing that they have been achieved by the organization. Ways of satisfying employees can differ from an annual additional benefit to distributive plan option. According to the study on rewarding by Prokou (n.d), he does, nevertheless presuppose that there has been a series of steps taken to support the less advantaged groups of employees in the organization. Okumbe (2007) for instance implies these steps as being the abolition of the annual contributions for each member of the education organization, and perhaps give sponsorship to employees’ children on postsecondary preparations for entrance to higher education, supportive teaching and an increase in salary scale (Prokou n.d & Babyegeya 2002).


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Administrative Intelligibility in an Educational Organization
( Atlantic International University )  (Social and Human Studies)
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administration, administrative, intelligibility, educational, organization
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Doctorate Edward Wafula (Author), 2014, Administrative Intelligibility in an Educational Organization, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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