Ethics, Culture and Contemporary Moral Challenges

Term Paper, 2014

21 Pages, Grade: "A"


Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Perception of morality

3. Three ways of studying morality
3.1. Aspects of Morality
3.2. Sources of morality

4. Moral and ethical cultures in educational organizations
4.1. Cultural policy in education
4.2. The naturalistic philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche
4.3. The loyalty Philosophy of Royce
4.4. George Edward Moore and his ethical realism philosophy
4.5. John Dewey and the philosophy of pragmatic ethics

5. Emerging challenges in Moral/ Ethical living: HIV/Aids in schools
5.1. Ineffective HIV knowledge
5.2. The Physical transition in teenagers
5.3. Peer influence
5.4. Sexual influences and testing

6. Teaching reasons, skills and strategies for abstinence

7. Conclusion


Course Objectives

The objectives of this course include:

1. venturing into the moral conduct and human behavior
2. Examining organizational culture and,

Course Description

This course addresses organizational conduct, as well as morality, which incorporates the uprightness and misconduct in the organization, individual contributions and commitment in the organization. The course also examines cultural perspectives of the organization in a global context.


The purpose of this study is to intensively explore the moral aspects expected in an educational learning institution. It is from this aspect of moral upstanding that discipline in any educational organization is based upon. However, ethics is also considered significantly focusing on basic ethical considerations in an organization.

2. Perception of morality

It is the customs of any social group or community to refer to morality as a set of norms or standards that define, guide and regulate or evaluate acceptable behavior or human conduct among human beings living together in society (Gutierrez 2008). To an extensive simplified view, (Wagner 2012) presumes that moral is the ability of a person to understand morality as well as his capacity to make moral decisions or the actual performance of moral acts or, as being incapable of distinguishing between right and wrong . However, immoral refers to actions which transgress moral principles.

3. Three ways of studying morality

Al-Esmail (2012) implies on the perspectives in which organizations may teach about morality;

3.1. Aspects of Morality

Morality as it is, contains significant aspects that need considerations when addressing on social groups. O’Donoghue (2013) suggests that the cognitive aspect is centralized on thinking and understanding in our minds, the behavioral aspect is for either good or bad conduct/action e.g. bribery, abortion, the motivational aspect is for underlying motives of behavior for instance, why do we do what we do? Is it because of tradition, emotion, religions or ethics?

3.2. Sources of morality

Many scholars like Shegebayev (2012), and O’Donoghue (2014), have deliberated over the main springs of morality by proving the following models;

Religious Ethics come from supernatural source through divine revelation of moral standards in the Law of God.

Social Ethics come from social institutions and differ from time to time and place to place through customs, opinions, national and international laws.

Autonomous ethics come from human reason and conscience.

4. Moral and ethical cultures in educational organizations

Fear-ridden ethos as outlined by O’Donoghue (2014), states that behavior which is characterized by coercion and blind obedience focus on organizational survival at any cost. However, advantage-driven ethos presupposes that employees are rewarded for getting the best for the organization even if it might involve deception. The philosophy encourages private alliances, secrecy and personal advantages. Consequently, members-only ethos refers to principles that demand loyalty and a shared concern to present a good image to those outside the organization (O’Donoghue 2014). Regulated ethos however, provides regulations and accountability written and employees are often expected to self-certify that they have obeyed the rules set for them. In the same way, quality-seeking ethos are principles that aim at seeking to encourage as it may be with President Obama’s comments concerning everyone’s efforts to work to the highest ethical standards (Hairston 2013).

4.1. Cultural policy in education

Cultural rights are central to the identity, coherence, autonomy and self-esteem of nations (Al-Esmail 2012). Pure hearty expressions indicate the love for the clients. Clients in this frame, include the students at your disposal as a teacher (Hairston 2013, & Gutierrez 2008). Art views creativity intrinsically valuable and therefore legitimize goals in themselves in order to reveal the best of the students’ educational outcome (Al-Esmail 2012). In education, there is a need of expositing these two ethical dimensions.

Wallace (2008) has been quite vigilant on addressing this crucial issue of culture and how ethics finds its space in that culture. Much of what is addressed compound the community which may be a school, an educational institution and a staff developing community. In the school atmosphere, students are obliged to live on educational ethic. Most of these students may be from different cultural backgrounds but the school has an ethic which binds them together. This means that classroom attendance is one among other ethical conformations which as a student, must comply with (Al-Esmail 2012).

The other issue focused by Shegebayev (2012) is the ethic of responsibility. The society expects to have children entitled to responsibility. This indicates that students must be trained to understand the self responsible attitude. People usually cherish the spirit of perceiving what should be right and be done at that particular school time (Gutierrez 2008). Knight (1989) spotted some elites who treated morality and ethics as an epicenter of human relations. They include; Friedrick Nietzsche, Royce, George Edward Moore and John Dewey.

4.2. The naturalistic philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche

He believed that contemporary morality is an inversion of true morality which is attainable if we give full expression to our instincts. He acknowledged the natural right of the strong to rule the weak. According to Nietzsche, servants hardly thought of making any revenge either openly or in the underground motion (Knight 1989). Christians were accused of attempting to turn natural moral values upside down. Nietzsche presupposed that the real nature of Jesus Christ made him an ideal person. “The fact that God died for love of man, said Nietzsche, proves that love brings suffering and misfortune; love makes the individual vulnerable to evil influences and adverse circumstances” (Knight 1989).

4.3. The loyalty Philosophy of Royce

The loyalty philosophy was defined as that practical willingness for one to attempt a course of action (Knight 1989). It is presumed that loyalty is composed of the common good of individual virtues. Loyalty is the greatest good man can experience because it is never bad even if devoted to an ill-advised cause. However, a person should keep being obedient and be genuine to the spirit of being loyal to others.

4.4. George Edward Moore and his ethical realism philosophy

It is believed that He stated that accomplishments may sound either wrong or right by considering the value of the outcome of that accomplishment (Knight 1989). If the total consequences of actions make the world a better place to live, then the act is moral but if not then the world is immoral to be able to live into. “The doctrine of Ethical Realism states that genuine ethical properties exist in the overt moral act itself, independent of the human mind’s ascribing any moral value to it” (Knight 1989).

4.5. John Dewey and the philosophy of pragmatic ethics

This theory presupposes the practical and genuine living from all humanity (Knight 1989). It is believed that social reforms that do not account for consequences are best for individual’s responsibility.

5. Emerging challenges in Moral/ Ethical living: HIV/Aids in schools

Kelly (2008:134) examines a report published by the World Bank in April 2002, on; Education and HIV/AIDS as ‘A window of Hope’ where the UNAIDS executive Director, Peter Piot wrote:

“We must adopt cross sectoral strategies for fighting HIV/AIDS, one that take full advantage of the benefits of education and help to create a healthy and cohesive society.”

Likewise, the education of both girls and boys contribute significantly to the transformations of societies into one where there are fewer acceptances of gender inequality and female disempowerment.


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Ethics, Culture and Contemporary Moral Challenges
( Atlantic International University )  (SOCIAL AND HUMAN STUDIES)
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ethics, culture, contemporary, moral, challenges
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Edward Wafula (Author), 2014, Ethics, Culture and Contemporary Moral Challenges, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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