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Research Paper (undergraduate), 2015
21 Pages, Grade: "B"
2 The consequences of Poor education structures.
3 Strategies for mitigating hedonistic behavior.
3.1 Teaching about condoms and partner alleviation.
3.2 Inculcating Values.
3.3 Ineffective moral comprehension
4 The Physical transition in teenagers.
4.1 Peer influence.
4.2 Adolescent sexual influences and testing.
5 The Health Belief Model.
5.1 Teaching reasons, skills and strategies for abstinence.
5.2 Ethics on Cultural Policy.
The objectives include:
1. Assessing the ability of learning development in students at teenage stage.
2. To critically examine effects of profligacy against mental processes in learning.
3. To explore theories of learning and heterogeneous sexual behavior
This course is outlined on three major principles: examining schools teenagers’ hedonism, health education, analysis of developmental stages in learning, and theory analysis for instance, behavior theories. Further, the course integrates evaluation of youth cognitive and affective aspects in education.
Secondary school teenagers are categorized as the energetic and the nation’s manpower in improving its economy. However in the 21st century, these youths are encountering challenges based on wrong hedonistic values. It about this licentiousness that Kelly (2008:134) examines a report published by the World Bank in April 2002, on; Education and HIV/AIDS as ‘A window of Hope’ where the UNAIDS executive Director, Peter Piot insisted that:
“We must adopt cross sectoral strategies for fighting HIV/AIDS, one that take full advantage of the benefits of education and help to create a healthy and cohesive society.”
There are several reasons why the World Bank could rightly refer to education as a window of hope in relation to heterogeneous behavior. First school education has been shown to reduce hedonistic behavior prevalence rate among young people.
According to Mirembe (2002:292), Uganda and Zambia have both experienced a dramatic decline in the HIV infection rates in teenagers aged 15-19 years of age because of addressing on this negative hedonism. We should however conceive that formal school education reaches the majority of young people at an early stage when they are in their most formative age therefore, making it to have the potential to significantly transmit important moral values. School education is among the most powerful tools for transforming the poverty and gender inequality environment in which the factor of hedonism may be prevalent.
Likewise, the education of both girls and boys contribute significantly to the transformations of societies into one where there is fewer acceptances of gender inequality and female disempowerment.
Amorphous Hedonism and Youth Susceptibility.
Kelly (2008:136) for instance holds that the task that confronts policy makers in harnessing education’s potential for reducing amorphous relations among the school youths could be summarized as follows: to ensure that the globally agreed upon educational goals are met. Furthermore, policy makers have to provide educational initiatives that strongly favor girls and seek to provide them with amicable learning opportunities. Connected to the former view, education sectors have the responsibility to stream hedonistic related hazards in the curriculum so that learners could be impacted in their social relations. Those teenagers should experience the supportive approach on profligacy inhibition and then be provided with facilitative programs such as games which can easily reduce idleness. Significantly, education policies should bring to light constructive values aimed at helping school teenagers to foster moral development through training. This process could be initiated by authorities even on those teenagers that seem to have the contraction so that they can as well be supported for managing the impact of the disease.
Form the study of Hauerwas (2003:404), it is clearly indicated that schools like any other organizations are build on mobilizing students around values and those learnt concepts which motivate people and which serves as criteria against which we appraise and evaluate actions. Schools have many ways of doing this. It is on this that Zellner (2003:45) confirms that in today’s circumstances, students should most certainly strive through their sexual health and anti-hedonism programs to assist each of them develop a personally held value system that will empower them to make correct and safe choices both while at school and subsequently throughout life. Myths provided in our traditions most perverse the truth against profligacy inhibitive strategies. So as a professional stratum, we have the ultimate obligation of being prepared to confront some of the myths, false beliefs and wrong attitudes that have led many people, young and old, to be affected by the attitude of hedonism. Many of these false beliefs cluster around what many people think it means to be either a man or a woman.
According to Zellner (2003:42) there are two contentious issues in this area; reducing the number of sexual partners and condom use. Both seem to suggest that the individual is already committed to some unlawful use of sex. There has been an outcry in many countries against the way condoms are advertised since the advertisement seem to suggest that having sex is inevitable and so one should be prepared to use the protection of a condom. The question is whether our schools should teach about these things. Schools should have an obligation to inform their students on every means of protection against infection of HIV and other STD’s.
This the latter perspective however means reducing the number of sexual partners, and using the condom. However, Zellner (2003:45) suggests that prominence should be given to instruction and discussions about abstinence and fidelity making it clear that these are the only certain ways for avoiding HIV transmission. Consequently, the school should also confront its students against their false sense of health security. Young people in most cases tend to have a strange belief that they are invulnerable to infection and that they wouldn’t be prone to the pandemic. Those who are already infected know that such belief is false. Those who are not infected should also know that such a belief is dangerous and the school has a responsibility to bring this perspective conspicuously to them. Every one of us can become infected, and the attitude that it will never happen to me is deceiving. Denying the possibility, turning a blind eye to it is no way to protect oneself.
Clearly explaining, some schools in developing countries have hardly developed the teaching curriculum with an integrative relevance on sexual relations among school teenagers. Consequently, Kelly (2008:153) contends that we need to consider the importance of integrating sexual health and AIDS education in the curriculum of our secondary schools. Good quality sexual health and AIDS education will equip young people with the information which they rarely get from their parents and senior family members. This education according to Hamavhwa (2007:75) should go beyond the biological facts to include many aspect of behavior and ultimately of attitude and values. Human life as it may demands efforts on how to make it positive however, it is of great relevance to acquaint with feelings that our schools should seek to influence behavior and inculcate values. This is regarded as the traditional role. Schools consciously seek to influence students through the curriculum and the whole climate of the school, and through and estimate of the values the student may have attained during the learning span. Teachers should never be ashamed of these efforts to influence students into adopting appropriate value systems.
However, Kelly (2008:138) on the other hand suggests that there is a misconception that for one to be a man he must experiment with sex, have many sexual partners and take risk no matter what consequences it may take and be able to show a list of sexual conquests. Some people belief that sexual inactivity may harm a man and even worse, admit that licentiousness is a clear indication of manhood. Also, there is the totally perverted attitude that it is all right for a boy to exercise heterogeneous sexual behavior around whereas a girl must remain faithful to one partner. These beliefs are very common around us in the East African society. They may not have been adamantly adopted in Africa in particular, but they are globally found. These false beliefs contribute strongly to the increase of sexual licentiousness and further affect family cohesiveness. The argument of Weaver (2003:46) on the issue of taking sin seriously is important. In his findings, sin is taken as the disruption of our proper relationship with God. Sexual immorality is a result of lustful sexual desires. So, students who fail to control their sexual desires find themselves involved in noxious sexual activity which is the major contributory factor for HIV/Aids. Actually, they ought to be instructed on how to abstain themselves and live an ethical life.
In his research about life ethics, Symeonide (2005:9) emphasizes on teachings as a source of moral healing. His findings indicate that teaching ethics becomes a therapy for better judgments on living. I feel that blameless life among teenagers is a channel to blessings and is only reflected in their conduct after receiving ethical education. Based on Cladi’s findings on Redeeming Love, an individual should be aware on the hazards of sexual immorality and gender relations (Cladi 2000:222). Students sometimes, get delighted in what is wrong and forget to foresee the consequences. This is certainly true with peer groups in schools. However, moral instruction to them is an essential factor on how they should approach life in the era of HIV/Aids.
While focusing on the foundations of morality, Forde (2001:398) certainly reveals that the true ground of morality can only be found in the law of God who sees people in spiritual and ethical darkness. This means that those students who involve in sexual immorality, depreciate in their moral standards and furthermore their thinking capability is relatively limited. I assume that they even fail to make right choices on what should be prioritized -sex or education. This is probably why Engler (2000:340) poses a wide understanding on sin and its discourse by providing compelling challenges facing the contemporary society such as hedonism sailing in the pool of the deadly disease. Secondary school students should be offered such opportunity of learning these challenges of related to the consequences of hedonism. However, in his arguments on Christian ethics, Hauerwas (2003:401) states that individuals have the capacity to contain themselves within the context of emerging calamities and sins regardless of their cultural context. At present, HIV/Aids is one of the calamities facing secondary school students in East African countries. Therefore, Education with HIV/Aids component would be reasonable in search of health living for students in secondary schools.
The responsibility of the society is nonetheless, not to assume that God knows and will be able to control everything in the name lustful desires that can perverse the education dreams of teenagers but to bring to light in our granted wisdom what God does not expect out of us. In their findings, Koch and Beckley (2006:393) indicate that state schools also, have the responsibility to create school atmosphere with moral values which most students would prefer to inherit as opposed to sordid which aggravates sexual attitudes. This involves the accountability of heads of schools because, no parent would admire filthy and unbecoming situation on their children. Similarly, Dickson (2003:60) coherently suggests an enforced restrictive principle on sexual morality especially to those students who generally involve in homosexuality. However, students might be faultless on their side since parents also have the responsibility of raising their children irreproachably. Practically, subject educators should insist on upstanding dressing morals of uniforms and parents should on the other hand deal with transparent dresses students wear in vacations as this would reduce the danger of men’s sexually lustful desires against female students for the purpose of avoiding sexual vices.
However, elsewhere in Tanzania, Vavrus (2003:947) focuses on reasons as to why the prevalence of HIV among Tanzanian school girls is increasing as compared to Kenyan school girls. Her findings indicate that lack of information about HIV/Aids is an important, contributory factor. Comparatively, sexual desires in teenagers are higher than it is with elders which therefore push them to indulge in premarital sexual practices which the societies decry. Boerma et al (1998:221) has contributed on various methods of protecting school girls from sexual exploitation. Their findings show that inadequate instruction on self awareness of school students expose them to rape and sexual harassment which also contribute to HIV/Aids infection in Mwanza, Tanzania.
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