Black British Identities after the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Master's Thesis, 2015

68 Pages, Grade: 2,0



1. Introduction

2. Black British Identity Concepts
2.1 Black Britishness
2.2 The Predicaments of Black British Identity Construction

3. Conceptualizing Autobiographical Writings
3.1 Developing Black British Autobiographies
3.2. Narrating the Self in Autobiographies
3.3 The Dilemma of Black British Autobiographies

4. Identity Performance in Black British Autobiographies
4.1. Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa
4.1.1 Constructing Identity in Equiano's Narrative
4.2. Mary Prince
4.2.1 Constructing Identity in Prince's West Indian Slave Narrative
4.3. Equiano and Prince: Similarities and Differences

5. Conclusion

1. Introduction

“Most of the country’s Black population are now born and grow up in Britain, but may still retain their links with Africa and the Caribbean. In this way the culture of the Black communities and of Africa and the Caribbean has become a part of British culture.”1

Black British identities have always been of importance in Great Britain. Even in the 20th century, the presence of Black British people contributes to Britain’s culture, which can especially be seen on the photograph representing Black people celebrating a Caribbean carnival in the British city of Leeds.2

Even more than 200 years ago, the colonial period was shaped by a multitude of Black people, who, due to their enslavement, forcibly migrated to Great Britain and in thus contributed to the emergence of the Black British culture.3 In this colonial era, several slaves composed significant works in which the horrors of slavery were documented and which contributed to the abolition of slavery.4 Outstanding among these works are Olaudah

Equiano’s and Mary Prince’s autobiographical accounts, which give the reader an authentic insight into the construction of their Black British identities.

The present thesis foregrounds the autobiographical writings of Olaudah Equiano entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African, Written By Himself and Mary Prince The History of Mary Prince: A West Indian Slave Narrative. Equiano and Prince represent famous Black British identities, as they composed autobiographical narratives in order to impart their slave experiences further, and to reveal the cruelties of slavery to the British society. In their Black British autobiographical narratives, Equiano and Prince make use of distinctive narrative forms, in which their autobiographical identity construction can be revealed.

For this reason, the thesis aims to investigate how narrative forms are used in Black British autobiographies to construct both Equiano’s and Prince’s identity. A special analytical focus is set onto the mode of the texts, which represent an autobiographical form. Therefore, significant autobiographical theories are incorporated focusing on the authors’ ability of self­reflection, in which the personal self and other selves portrayed in their writings can be assessed. As the issue of interest bases on Black British identities and identity construction, the work examines the challenges of constituting a Black British identity. These predicaments are applied when exploring Equiano’s and Prince’s autobiographical narratives.

The following quotation explains identity constructions within autobiographical works: “It follows that the writing of autobiography is properly understood as an integral part of a lifelong process of identity formation in which acts of self-narration play a major part.”5 Regarding the given quotation by Eakin, who underlines the process of narrating the self in autobiographies, it can be seen that the autobiographical mode represents a literary form, in which the act of identity construction can be implemented. Therefore, it can be asserted that many writers make use of this textual mode when aiming to reclaim or construct a sense of their identity. On these grounds, Equiano and Prince refer to the autobiographical form in particular to constitute a sense of their selves forming part of their identities, which became disrupted by British colonial forces.

Concerning autobiographical identity construction, several aspects are included focusing on distinctive issues, which are elaborated in the first chapters of the work.

The second chapter provides an overview of Black British identity concepts by clarifying the term Black British. It also focuses on the challenges that are entailed when constructing a Black British identity. Thus, colonial contexts will be included.

Chapter 2.1 refers to Döring’s elaboration defining the Black British concept. Here, the focus will be set on different ethnicities regarded as Black British. Hence, the emergence of the term will be taken into consideration, which is shaped by political and social struggles of Great Britain in the 60s. A definition by Bhabha will clarify what is understood by the process of marginalization within cultural contexts to point out the struggle of social marginalization Black British people have been confronted with.

Chapter 2.2 elaborates in a detailed way the factors leading to the predicaments of Black British identity construction. It is introduced by a definition of the term “diaspora” by Braziel and Mannur, and further outlines the challenges of living in a diaspora. The conflicts of making a home away from home will be discussed by referring to significant quotations of Rushdie’s Imaginary Homeland. Bhabha’s in-between-space represents a further challenge to be incorporated as it plays a crucial role in the formation of cultural identities. The concept itself will be explained on a metaphor developed by Green. The significance of “difference” and “otherness” will be outlined in regards to the struggle of racism in Black British discourses. The issue of racism will be thematised by pointing to further theories by Bhabha and Hall. The various predicaments will be applied to colonial discourses in order to show to what extent Black British people challenged their identity construction in colonial times.

The third chapter introduces autobiographical concepts and clarifies their influence with regard to the development of Black British autobiographies. As Black British autobiographies are a suited literary mode for Black British authors when constructing their identities, the significance of narrating the self in autobiographical narratives will be incorporated in a further subchapter. The final chapter outlines the limits, which are set by the Western literary society in the realm of Black British autobiographies.

In chapter 3.1, the literary genre autobiography will be defined by looking at Lejeune’s concept. It will be shown how the literary autobiographical concept developed in the Enlightenment, and thus influenced Black British literature and Black British autobiographies. Here, social contexts of the emergence of Black British writings will be considered, and a brief overview of significant Black British writers will be given, among which Olaudah Equiano and Mary Prince play a striking role as representatives of Black British autobiographical writings.

Having put the focus on Black British autobiographies in chapter 3.1, chapter 3.2 elaborates theories by Eakin and Bamberg, pointing out how identity is constructed in autobiographical works by narrating the authors’ selves. First, self-concepts will be explained, and after theories of reflections of the self that are applied in self-narrations. The final subchapter of the third chapter points out the limits, which are set for Black British autobiographical accounts, as they are regarded as a Non-Western autobiographical mode. Therefore, Rippl’s argumentation on this issue will be laid out, and a critical approach on Black British autobiographies will be provided.

The main part of the thesis begins with a biographical presentation of the two Black British identities Olaudah Equiano and Mary Prince. After having portrayed the writers’ lives, a profound analysis on Equiano and Prince’s narrative will be laid out. Narrative forms used in their autobiographical writings will be discussed, which reveal to what extent Prince and Equiano constitute their selves and their identities in their autobiographical writings. Autobiographical theories on self-reflections will be included to consider autobiographical features. Ultimately, predicaments of Black British identity construction will be applied to Black British autobiographies based upon diasporic discourses, aiming to construct a home in a foreign land, Bhabha’s space-of-inbetweenness, “difference” and “otherness”, and, last but not least, racial discourses. In Prince’s autobiographical account, a reference will be made to the significance of “feminity” in Black British women’s writing. In chapter 4.3, representing the final chapter of the main part, the findings of the previous analysis will be summarized by juxtaposing similarities and differences mirrored in Black British autobiographies.

Finally, the thesis shall provide an insight into the development of Black British identity construction. In this regard, the reader will acquire knowledge about what is meant by the term Black British, and in which contexts Black British concepts emerged. Beyond that, the reader will gain an overview with regard to the challenges of constructing a Black British identity, including diaspora, home constructions in foreign homes, the productiveness of the in-between-space leading to new formations of cultures, the conflicts of being “different” and being traced as “the other”, as well as racial discourses. The interrelationship between the emergence of autobiographies in the Enlightenment as well as the development of Black British autobiographies, which emerged from Black British writings, will be clarified. A general comprehension concerning the act of narrating the self in autobiographical writings, focusing on various autobiographical theories, will be depicted. The aim of the thesis is to demonstrate how in literary modes, narrative forms make an essential contribution to reveal significant themes reflected in different writings, such as in Equiano’s Narrative and Prince’s A West Indian Slave Narrative, in which narrative instruments are used for their identity construction.

2. Black British Identity Concepts

The present chapter aims to impart some knowledge on both the meaning and the emergence of the term Black British. The definition will also include social and political connotations. In the context of Black British identity constructions, further challenges are related to diasporic conflicts, for example making a home away from home, as well as the struggle of “difference” and “otherness”. The importance of the in-between-space in cultural discourses will also be discussed. In cultural contexts “difference” and “otherness” represent a fertile soil for racial discourses, a further predicament Black British identities are confronted with. These quandaries will be examined in the subsequent chapter and applied afterwards to colonial contexts, as they assume a decisive role in the realm of constituting a Black British identity.

2.1 Black Britishness

Döring examines Black British identity concepts and foregrounds the following definition:

[...] ‘Black British’ was introduced to speak about people with African, Caribbean and Asian backgrounds, especially South Asian (i.e. Indian, Pakistani and Sri Lankan), but sometimes also includes East Asian, e.g. Chinese. As such, the term is clearly not a marker of ethnic identity nor of cultural belonging. It refers to people of many different ethnicities and diverse cultures, and subsumes them all under the same label ‘black’ only with regard to their shared political position: socially marginalized and often institutionally oppressed.6

Black British refers to various ethnicities, such as people from Africa, the West Indies as well as different Asian populations. The term embraces the cultural backgrounds of Black people and labels all ethnicities of different backgrounds by using the denotation “black”. It is argued that the term Black British emerged from political struggles and controversies about the social make-up of Britain in the late 60s. During this time, Black people stood outside of the social mainstream, which led to a marginalization of the Black British population. Marginalized identities are described as “[...] the alienated, those who have to live under the surveillance of a sign of identity and fantasy that denies their difference.”7 This marginalization furthermore influenced the term Black British. In Black British contexts it can be claimed that it is the British identity controlling and denying Black British identities. Having viewed different constitutions, which formed the Black British identity, it may be stressed that the term served “[...] as an umbrella term for the entire spectrum of non-white British citizens and their communities, all living under difficult conditions in white-dominated society, as a ‘second class citizens’ Hall comments on Black identities and claims: ”The fact is ‘black’ [...]8 has always been an unstable identity, psychically, culturally, and politically. It, too, is a narrative, a story, a history.”9 These citations underline that the Black identity was influenced by psychological, cultural, and political forces. Being subjected to these complex forces, which in the course of time brought forth various struggles in different realms, it can be assumed that Black identity constructions were and are a demanding and difficult process. Black history deeply shaped by slavery in colonial times and afterwards was confronted with these challenges. Hall’s assumption can be reconstructed when he describes the Black identity as an unstable construction, which has been challenged over centuries.

A more current concept on Black British studies has been developed by Adi in 2014:

Today there are hundreds of thousands of people in Britain who have migrated from Africa and the Caribbean. They and their children and grandchildren, who were born in Britain, are British Citizens, but are still sometimes treated as if they are unwelcome foreigners. [...] In some areas, where there are large numbers of Black people, distinct communities have been formed, although these have never been totally separate from the wider British population.10

It is pointed out that Black people with African and Caribbean backgrounds have become part of the British culture. This implies that since various generations the Black British culture has developed further in Great Britain. Even if they form part of Britain’s civilization they also become socially marginalized. Though still forming part of the British culture, Britain’s black population may construct their own cultural groups. Striking are the facts that Blacks are still regarded as foreigners, as “the other race” which points to their different cultural background than the British reveal. This cultural conflict emerges out of different ethnicities, such as it is represented in white and black cultural discourses.

2.2 The Predicaments of Black British Identity Construction

Döring asserts that one of the most elementary challenges Black British people have to face refers to the diaspora.11According to Braziel and Mannur, diaspora is defined as follows:

Etymologically derived from the Greek term diasperien, from día-, “across” and - sperien, “to sow or scatter seeds,” diaspora can perhaps be seen as naming of the other which has historically referred to displaced communities of people who have been dislocated from their native homeland through the movements of migration, immigration, or exile.12

The definition describes diaspora as a process in which people have to leave their original homeland due to migration processes or exile. For this reason, they have to migrate to foreign countries and form dislocated communities. These communities are frequently characterized as “the other”, as they are alien migrants of different countries whose cultures appear foreign and not traceable.

Alongside the issue of diaspora, further issues are intertwined revealing the predicaments of constructing a Black British identity. For instance, diasporic contexts are connected to issues of the “homeland”. The homeland entails the conflict of how to create a home, which is segregated from the original home. This conflict becomes clear in Rushdie’s essay Imaginary Homeland. Here, the author describes a photograph, which depicts a house in his homeland and claims: ”[...] it reminds me that it’s my present that is foreign, and that the past is home, albeit a lost home in a lost city in the mists of lost time.”13 The conflict between the feeling of belonging to the past, where the native homeland is rooted, and the present, which takes place in the new foreign country, becomes obvious in Rushdie’s illustrations. It entails the predicament of being rooted in both the original country of belonging and the country of migration. Moreover, this disclosure unfolds that as long as one feels a sense of belonging to one’s true homeland, identity can never be established entirely in the foreign country. As a consequence, diasporic subjects face a dilemma towards the establishment of a new home away from one’s original home. Rushdie asserts also that reclaiming a certain homeland or a past cannot be realized: “But if we do look back, we must also do so in the knowledge [...] that we will not be capable of reclaiming precisely the thing that was lost.”14 However, this seems to be a difficult realization, and therefore the feeling of cultural belonging always remains and challenges identity construction in different realms, as underlined in the following comment: “This is why postcolonial diasporic subjects have made rather greater imaginative investments in constructing a sense of cultural belonging, across linguistic, geographical and other divides which have historically shaped them [.. ,].”15

By problematizing issues of home and the sense of belonging, further predicaments emerge in the field of identity construction, which are intersected in Bhabha’s “space of in­betweenness”. This space can be comprehended best by referring to a metaphor by Green.16 In this imaginative illustration, Green describes a stairwell representing the space-of- inbetweenness. Positioned at each end of this stairwell, one can find different identities, portrayed as black and white. Bhabha characterizes the engagement of these in-between spaces as interstices, in which the differences of cultures come to the fore and overlap.17 This space exhibits an ambivalent relationship with regard to the opposing cultures. On the one hand, it points to the discrepancies between blackness and whiteness, as it emphasizes its cultural distinction of otherness. It is a kind of bonding between the opposing black and white cultures, which forms difference. On the other hand, it is exactly this difference which becomes highly productive within the space-of-inbetweenness: ”These ‘in-between’ spaces provide the terrain for elaborating strategies of selfhood - singular or communal - that initiate new signs of identity, and innovative sites of collaboration [...].”18 The space is productive insofar as it offers the possibility to argue with self-focused issues resulting in the construction of new cultural identities. Therefore, the intersection of different cultures, such as black and white, may lead to new identities representing hybrid identities, which again can be underlined by the following comment: “The social articulation of difference, from the minority perspective, is a complex, on-going negotiation that seeks to authorize cultural hybridities that emerge in moments of historical transformation.”19

A further challenge of identity construction contains the issue of “otherness”. In this regard, Bhabha brings forth the assumption that “[...] cultural difference, a mediator or metaphor of otherness must be found to contain the effects of difference.”20 “Otherness” emerges due to conflicts aroused by cultural difference. Therefore, “difference” can be regarded as an agent of “otherness”. “Otherness” and “difference”, which are brought forth by the conflict of diasporic experiences, are to be regarded as intertwined predicaments of identity construction. “Otherness” also becomes an important component to be looked at when examining racist discourses:

Racism, of course, operates by constructing impassable symbolic boundaries between racially constituted categories, and its typically binary system of representation constantly marks and attempts to fix and naturalize the difference between belongingness and otherness.21

As Hall’s definition on racism puts forth, racism emerges out of invented categories and bases on a representative system, which constantly seeks to emphasize difference and belonging in order to achieve racial segregation. The black subject being defined as “the other” forms part of a society, which is made up of white interdependences. As a result, Black identities become excluded from society and racism finds a fertile soil. This assumption is underlined by Hall’s clarification in which it was emphasized that “[...] the term black was coined as a way of referencing the common experience of racism and marginalization [...].”22 These conflicts of forming an identity in Britain led to segregation from Britain’s social mainstream.23 Thus, this segregation contributed to the Black people’s role of becoming a victim of racism in Britain.

From a colonial perspective, diaspora refers to the Black African Diaspora, when the slave trade began: “Some scholars estimate that as many as 12 million West Africans were sold into slavery and forcibly exiled to the ‘New World’ during the almost 400-year-period of legalized slavery which began in 1502 [,..].”24 The quotation proofs that the diaspora is a process leading back to the beginnings of the colonial period. For centuries, millions of slaves had to face diasporic experiences when they were forced to leave their original homeland and were brought into new countries. In this process, they not only had to struggle with identity conflicts, but also with their sense of belonging. In this regard, Döring asserts:

In general terms, the history of colonialism, with centuries of slavery, violent dislocation, enforced migration and actual genocides, has radically shaken up, if not eliminated, the traditional structures of belonging.25

Loosing structures of belonging involves to be forced to construct a home away from the original home. Here, the “homeland” is thematised in regards to colonial contexts. The experience of living in a diaspora has been fixed in various Black British writings. These narratives can especially be dated to the colonial period, when during the 18th and 19th century, several Black British authors such as Olaudah Equiano and Mary Prince reflected their diasporic experiences in their works.

Bhabha’s “in-between space” becomes similarly relevant in colonial contexts: “It is not the colonialist Self or the colonized Other, but the disturbing distance in-between that constitutes the figure of colonial otherness - the white man’s artifice inscribed on the black man’s body.”26 27 Otherness in colonial contexts is also included in Bhabha’s space-of-inbetweenness. Bhabha describes the distance within this space as a disturbance as it is produced by whites, who broach the issue of blackness and whiteness. Thus, the issue of otherness is brought to surface.

As otherness is related to difference, it may be supposed that difference is reflected as well in colonial discourses. In Black Skin, White Masks, Fanon remarks: “Wherever he goes, the Negro remains a Negro.” Bhabha comments on this, and underlines that “[...] his race becomes the ineradicable sign of negative difference in colonial discourses.28 From a racial perspective, the Black identity is always marked as a different race and this characterization cannot be altered. Through the identification of difference, the colonial subject can exercise power, to be seen in Bhabha’s further elaborations: “It is my object to suggest that the construction of the colonial subject in discourse, and the exercise of colonial power through discourse, demands an articulation of forms of difference [,..].”29 Therefore, the articulation of difference, that is to say of separating races, becomes crucial in colonial contexts. Uncovering the Black identity as a different race leads to colonial execution of power.

As the previous examination has already shown, difference is attended by racism. In order to illustrate in which way the Black identity is viewed from a colonial perspective, Bhabha suggests:

The black is both savage (cannibal) and yet the most obedient and dignified of servants (the bearer of food); he is the embodiment of rampant sexuality and yet innocent as a child; he is mystical, primitive, simple-minded and yet the most worldly and accomplished liar, and manipulator of social forces.30

Bhabha demonstrates that due to contradictive characteristics with regard to the white people, it is difficult to trace the Black identity. Therefore, it is a tedious undertaking to put the black “subject” into categories, and, as a consequence, separate identities are formed, such as blacks and whites. Due to the act of separation, the subject to be colonized becomes traceable. The separation simultaneously asserts that the colonized subject is not able to govern in the same way as the Western colonial power. Consequently, colonial power can be performed due to the display of different subjects. Segregation, however, leads to racial perspectives, as it demands to distinguish between dissimilar subjectivities and to judge them from certain positions. These predicaments of Black British identity constructions were in particular reflected in Black British writings. Within these writings, the Western literary genre “autobiography” influenced Black British autobiographies as it represented an appropriate model for self-referential writing which contributed to Black British identity constructions, which will discussed in the next chapter.

3. Conceptualizing Autobiographical Writings

Chapter 3.1 examines how Black British autobiographical writings emerged within the development of Black British literature. Here, the writing about the self becomes a significant literary model as it represents a paradigm for identity construction in Black British autobiographies. To comprehend what is meant by autobiography, the chapter explains autobiographical concepts and refers to its literary development, which is characterized by self-studies. As self-studies emerged in the period of the Enlightenment, which intersects with the colonial period, a linkage between autobiography and the development of Black British literature can be traced leading again to the emergence of Black British autobiographies.

In subchapter 3.2, it will be clarified how writers make use of the autobiographical mode in order to construct identity. Self-concepts and elementary theories will be viewed to understand the meaning of selves in the field of identity concepts. This lays the path for reconstructing the relevance of textual selves towards autobiographical identity construction.

Chapter 3.3 concentrates on the limits Black British autobiographies are confronted with. In so doing, a comparison between the significance of the Western autobiographical mode and the Black British mode, representing a Non-Western literary form, will be made in order to outline the dilemmas of writing Black British autobiographies.

3.1 Developing Black British Autobiographies

Philippe Lejeune provides the following definition in order to describe autobiography: “A retrospective prose narrative produced by a real person concerning his own existence, focusing on his individual life, in particular on the development of his personality.”

Lejeune characterizes autobiography as a narrative, which bases upon the existence of an author’s life and concentrates on the events of his life. It is important to note that autobiography is not merely to be regarded as a simple form of writing one’s life. It is characterized to be an individual literary form as it aims to impart the author’s personality by transmitting further personal accounts. Smith and Watson explain the term autobiography from a semantic viewpoint: “In Greek, autos denotes ‘self’, bios ‘life’, and graphe ‘writing’. Taken together in this order, the words self life writing offer a brief definition of31 autobiography.” Having translated the Greek terms, it can be recognized that they consist of different conceptions involving issues of life and references to the self, which are manifested in a written form. Important to consider is the aspect of the self, which plays a striking role in autobiographical narratives and becomes an elementary constituent for identity construction.

Self-studies within autobiographies32 developed centuries ago. Even before the 18th century, several autobiographical authors debated historical, political, religious or scientific issues, and put the focus onto self-referential writings.33 During the 18th century, autobiography found its path into Western literary society: “Autobiography, as we have seen, became the term for a particular generic practice that emerged in the Enlightenment and subsequently became definitive for life writing in the West.”34 In the Enlightenment, autobiography was used to describe a process of narrating lives, which was characterized as a mode of Western life writing. Within the emergence of this literary genre, the significance of arguments with the self gained higher relevance and theorists conveyed views, which concentrated on self- focused issues. These embraced the meaningfulness of the awareness as well as perceptions of selves, which were fixed in autobiographical writings.35 It should be taken into consideration that the 18th century was not only characterized by the Enlightenment in which the autobiographical genre emerged. In particular, it was also shaped by the colonial period and its atrocities of the slave trade:

A recent history of black and Asian writing in Britain (Innes 2002) sets the date around the middle of the eighteenth century, when British involvement in the slave trade became so strong that its effects were keenly felt on the domestic scene, with growing numbers of Africans and Indians held as servants in English household.36

In the late 18th century Britain embodied a leading power in the slave trade. It has been claimed that Black British writings emerged in the mid-18th century, when slavery had a deep impact onto British domestic fields. Due to the challenge of Britain’s treatment of human rights, the abolition movement emerged between 1787 and 1807.37 For this reason it is asserted that:


1 Adi, Hakim: The History of the African and Caribbean Communities in Britain. China: Wayland, 2014, p.44.

2 Cp. ibid.

3 Cp. ibid., p.8-22.

4 Cp. ibid., p.17-18.

5 Eakin, Paul: How our Lives Become Stories. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1999, p. 101.

6 Döring, Tobias: Postcolonial Literatures in English. Stuttgart: Klett Lernen und Wissen GmbH, 2008, p. 159.

7 Cp. Bhabha, Homi: The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge Classics, 2004, p. 90.

8 Döring 2008, p. 159.

9 Hall, Stuart: Minimal Selves. In Smith and Watson; Black British Cultural Studies. London: The University of Chicago Press, p. 116.

10 Adi 2014, p. 4.

11 Cp. Döring 2008, p. 31.

12 Braziel and Mannur: Nation, Migration, Globalization: Points of Contention in Diaspora Studies. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2003, p. 1.

13 Rushdie, Salman: Imaginary Homelands. New York: Penguin Books, 1992, p. 9.

14 ibid., p.10.

15 Döring 2008, p. 32.

16 Cp. Bhabha 2004, p. 5.

17 Cp. ibid.

18 ibid., p. 2.

19 ibid., p. 3.

20 ibid., p. 45.

21 Hall, Stuart: New Ethnicities. In: Houston A. Baker & Jr. Manthia Diawara & Ruth H. Lindeborg: Black British Cultural Studies. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996, p. 167.

22 ibid., p. 163.

23 Döring 2008, p. 159.

24 Braziel and Mannur 2003, p. 2.

25 Döring, 2008, p. 31.

26 Bhabha 2004, p. 64.

27 Fanon, Frantz: Black Skin, White Masks. London: Pluto Press, 1986, p. 173.

28 Bhabha 2004, p. 108.

29 Bhabha, Homi: The Other Question: Difference, Discrimination, and the Discourse of Colonialism. In: Houston A. Baker & Jr. Manthia Diawara & Ruth H. Lindeborg: Black British Cultural Studies. Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996, p. 88.

30 ibid., p. 105.

31 Lejeune, quoted in: Anderson, Linda: Autobiography. USA and Canada: Routledge, 2011, p. 2.

32 Smith and Watson: Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press 2001, p. 1.

33 Cp. ibid., p.2.

34 ibid.

35 Cp. ibid.

36 Döring 2008, p. 162.

37 Innes, C. L.: A History of Black and Asian Writing in Britain, 1700-2000. Canterbury: Cambridge University Press 2002, p. 12.

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Black British Identities after the Transatlantic Slave Trade
University of Dusseldorf "Heinrich Heine"
Re-Membering the Transatlantic Slave Trade
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M.A. Comparative Studies in English & American Language, Literature & Culture Hannah Lütkenhaus (Author), 2015, Black British Identities after the Transatlantic Slave Trade, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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