The changing role of women in business


Bachelor Thesis, 2014

63 Pages, Grade: A


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter 1. Overview of the status and perception of women in the workplace
1. The critical aspect of women as an essential labor force participant in developed countries
2. Overview over the overall conditions of workforce participation of women in developing countries
3. Diversity management as an opportunity for women to be more appreciated as a female worker in companies
4. Management and leadership differences between women and men in various positions in companies
5. Women’s leadership in business
6. Barriers that prevent women from getting to decision-making positions in companies
6.1 External barriers of being promoted to executive positions that women experience in the workplace
6.2 Internal barriers that keep women from being promoted to executive positions in companies
7. Discrimination against women in the workplace
8. Stereotypes concerning women and gender bias

Chapter 2. Patterns of change in the employment rate of women focusing on the business leadership representation
1. Influence of women’s education on career opportunities in the business sector
1.1 The educational gender gap between women and men in developing countries
1.2 The educational level of women in developed countries with a focus on tertiary education
2. Female labor force participation
3. Pay Gap between Women and Men
4. Evaluation of the gender balance in business management in European countries and USA in 1996-2011 years
4.1 Women’s under-representation among business leaders
4.2 Women’s under-representation on boards

Chapter 3. Overview of career-driven women in the business sector
1. Women on executive posts and their career in business
1.1 Sheryl Sandberg
1.2 Oprah Winfrey
1.3 Irena Eris
1.4 Chain Laiwa
2. Determinants that influence the success of woman
2.1 Country of origin
2.2 Education
2.3 Support from family and relatives

Conclusions

Bibliography

Introduction

A worldwide change in gender perception puts more and more expectations towards women, hence inter alia the role of women in business underlies continuous progress. It is currently a popular issue touched on by the society and aims to change the perspective of professionally successful women. This topic is extremely interesting considering the fact that more and more women have been promoted to executive roles in the business sector.

The business world deliberates still on new possibilities of profit augmentation, on most effective approaches to management methods and on the application of best leadership styles by executives. At present, the strategy of increasing the number of women in top management levels and in board rooms is applied more often. A lot of attention is also paid to the gender balance in companies due to many advantages that accompany the phenomenon.

Various studies present that advancing to top management positions is much harder for women than it is for men. Women have to work harder and prove themselves more in order to be promoted to decision-making positions. Reasons for this situation are prejudice, stereotypes, gender bias and the overall gender differences that exist in favor of men. The tendency to prefer men than women in promoting them to high management positions differs, of course, from country to country and from one part of the world to another. It can be justified by cultural differences, which are related to economic development of the country, the political system and religion. It is worth to mention that there is a significant difference in the position of women between European countries, USA and developing countries.

The main cognitive aim of this thesis is to identify and examine the role of women in comparison to men, in the business sector across countries all over the world. Other aim of the work is to prove the diversity of women’s leadership style by showing its attributes compared to the leadership style used by men. What is more, a further aim is to present and examine barriers that appear when women are promoted to executive roles in business. Finally, the last detailed purpose is to show the factors that influence the improvement possibilities in achieving professional success.

This work is supposed to verify the hypothesis that assumes that the role of women in business is improving gradually and is getting more and more fundamental to the overall development of companies. It is done by analyzing the gender balance in business leadership as well as the gender gap in labor force participation in countries all over the world, 1990-2013 years. Moreover, this thesis assumes that high emotional intelligence and the affiliate management style contributes favourably to team building and cooperating within company what leads to increased competitiveness of companies in the global economy. A further hypothesis, which is supposed to be verified by this paper, is the question if the external barriers that women encounter in the professional area, are the biggest obstacles while climbing the ladder of success in management. Finally, the work verifies if good higher education is one of the most necessary factors in case of women’s career development.

Such research methods like critical analysis of the literature and articles in periodicals were carried out by the author. What is more, the analysis of the second chapter was carried out by a critical analysis of various reports concerning women’s leadership in business, gender gap in education, in labor force or in pay between women and men in distinct countries. The literature used in this thesis derives from the area of women in business. Furthermore, internet sources were used as empirical analysis, to present and describe the career paths of successful women in business that was consciously chosen by the author.

The thesis consists of three chapters. The first chapter, called Overview of the status and perception of women in the workplace is a theoretical part and describes the strategic aspect of women in the workforce and the opportunities for women and companies in connection with applying diversity management. Afterwards, there are presented the management and leadership differences between women and men with the focus on women in leadership roles in the business sector. The last part refers to the external as well as internal barriers that affect the career of women in the workplace, the gender discrimination and stereotypes concerning women all around the world.

As far as the second chapter, called Patterns of change in the employment rate of women focusing on the business leadership representation is concerned, it deals first and foremost with an analysis of the educational gender gap between women and men both in developing and in developed countries and how education as a determinant, with the focus on tertiary education, affects on the career opportunities in business in the case of women. In the next points of the chapter, there is examined the labour force participation of women, the pay gap between men and women and the gender balance in business management concerning the representation of women among business leaders as well as on boards of international companies.

The last chapter, under the title Overview of career-driven women in the business sector includes portraits of top-listed women with different backgrounds and start possibilities that were consciously chosen by the author and examines their career paths by various determinants like for instance the country of origin, higher education and level of support from family and friends that contributed to many achievements in business by them.

Chapter 1. Overview of the status and perception of women in the workplace

The status of women, especially in European countries, in the United States and in some countries in Asia has improved considerably in the last 50 years. Women possess nowadays unlimited access to education and trainings that continuously develops, providing many women with the necessary qualifications to aspire to jobs in senior management. No longer are women associated with low expectations and qualifications both in education and the workforce.

There is no doubt that significant progress has been achieved in strengthening gender equality in the labor force market over recent decades. Women have been moving steadily into occupations, professions and managerial jobs previously reserved only for men. What is more, women now seek and obtain the highest leadership roles in education, government and business. Women’s advancement in management career is influenced by the individual factors of the person, organizational factors which are located within organizations and societal and institutional factors that contribute to encourage employers to hire women instead of men. It is important to keep in mind that there are important institutional differences between countries, notably regarding their educational and academic systems but all this will be explained in further chapters.

Nevertheless, there are still many obstacles preventing women from obtaining well-paid jobs in senior management level. Real obstacles still remain invariable, and they are often rooted in the way work itself is organized or in the challenges that women face while trying to reconcile work and family commitments. Working mothers, especially, are stereotyped as not being serious or reliable enough to take positions as managers because it is supposed that their priorities lean more towards raising a family than performing their employee duties. This is often presented as an either/or argument, effectively advancing the myth that successful executives are unable to manage multiple priorities. Discrimination against women manifests itself in various forms, like for instance in job segregation, pay gaps, sexual harassment, the refusal of career development chances including mentoring and poor performance evaluations, and a lack of promotion opportunities.

Considering all facts gathered together, women still face substantial barriers and hindrances that prevent them from further career development, despite the huge progress that emerged over years in developed countries. The third world countries experience also development in women’s education and employment, however the growth percentage in that case is still very low.

1. The critical aspect of women as an essential labor force participant in developed countries

The twentieth century witnessed the advancement of women and in the twenty-first century will emerge the economic, political and social consequences of this process of progress. Few events had such a profound impact on the present life of every human being, as the fast change in the status and role of women. For over 30 years and also the first time in history, women worked shoulder to shoulder with men at the same positions and in the same companies, as well as presented the same level of education and qualifications and similar ambitions.[1] Currently, they are both part of a larger talent pool and market in highly developed countries like for example Sweden, Denmark, USA and Germany.

According to some USA scientists, who base on the fact that half of the US workforce is now female, believe that this generation of employed women is going to bring about changes to men, women, families, organizations and society as a whole. More working women have children at present times, showing through this that the mother role can be reconciled with professional ambitions of women. An increasing number of women earn more salary than their husbands or partners do. These facts are changing the nature of families, and the roles that men and women play. Both, women and men are increasingly desirous of workplace flexibility and lower workloads and job demands.[2]

In addition, the role of women has an unprecedented impact on economic life. The same USA women make 80% of consumer purchasing decisions.[3] The massive entry of women into the labor market in the twentieth century appears as the economic revolution, which has far-reaching consequences. In developed countries women play a major role in the search for solutions to the labor market when the workforce ages and birth rates fall, and companies complain about the lack of skilled workers.

In developing countries, women's participation in economic life is increasingly seen as a key to sustainable development. So far international public opinion was not so focused on the role of women in the economy and the need to enable them to fully exploit their potential, but it changed immediately.[4] Their status as workers and leaders is considered as a measure of the health and maturity of the company and its ability to maintain potential.[5]

Both in the case of countries and companies there are serious reasons for not prioritizing gender issues. The first of them is fierce competition for talented people. In 2006, "The Economist" reported that "talent has grown to become the most wanted commodity in the world. Its deficiency causes serious problems.”[6] In turn, in 2007 the magazine "Harvard Business Review" said: "The talent management is the hottest topic developed by HBR largely because the economy of the twenty-first century knowledge-based talent will be the rarest of the rare resources. Companies will compete primarily on the resources of talent and the functioning and success of these companies is highly dependent on resources.”[7]

Enterprises realize that talent is a scarce resource and therefore seriously engage in his quest. In this situation, companies could achieve much more if they optimally utilized important part of the pool of talent that they already have, or talent of women. Currently, girls perform better than boys in many subjects in almost every stage of education. Women represent the majority of graduates from universities in Europe and the United States and other OECD countries. In most developed countries account for half of the labor force.

Enterprises operating in a multicultural, heterogeneous and unpredictable business world are beginning to realize that the exchange of the most important leaders in leadership positions can be a good solution. In a situation where the business world is characterized by enormous diversity and complexity, it best represents the future of the companies in which the executive committees and boards include white males between the ages of 50 to 65 years, often of the same nationality, and sometimes that of an identical education.

The increased attention being paid to the role women play in boosting economic growth comes against a background of falling birth rates and ageing populations in much of the developed world.[8]

Countries, like companies, can address the demographic and talent crises by adapting to the changing realities of women’s and men’s lives. Countries can update logistical systems based on the 20th-century notion of full-time mothers at home. The few countries which created societies based on the concept that both parents work, notably the former communist states of Eastern Europe, actually went backwards on gender balance on their journey to “freedom”. For women in these countries, discovering what really happens on the other side of the Wall has been a bittersweet journey characterized by a dramatic drop in birth rates. Policies and programs need to respond better to women and their modern motivations. Recognizing that today most children have two working parents is an important first step.

2. Overview over the overall conditions of workforce participation of women in developing countries

In previous decades, the commonly used term was Third World countries, rather than developing countries. Third World is still used today, but fewer people, organizations, and governments are using this term because of political and economic changes in the world, as well as the negative connotation of the term to many people.[9] The term generally means less developed countries, or countries with relatively low per capita incomes, short life expectancies and high rates of illiteracy.[10]

Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America include countries that are one of the poorest in the world. These countries have similar problems they face due to highest poverty, and are distinctive from developed countries with their high unemployment rates, food shortages, lack of healthcare facilities and resources, and mortality rates. What is more, what also seem to differ in developing countries from others is the inequality in welfare between men and women, especially regarding to quality of life, education, legal rights and workload.

While governments see value in educating all citizens, the reality is that many women in developing countries have not access to education.[11] As girls, they are less likely to attend school than boys, especially in many sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. Some cultural or religious beliefs may keep parents from enrolling their daughters in school. What is more, parents may believe that it is important for their sons to attend school in order to become successful in life, but they expect their daughters will get married and move into their husband’s homes and therefore not provide the parents with any return on their investment.[12]

The role of the majority of women in developing countries is to raise children and support their households with farming responsibilities that leads to a situation where women are the most exploited and least privileged members of households. In spite of the change that has occurred in women’s participation in the workforce, women spend an immoderate amount of time on the double burden of paid work and family responsibilities. Women experience there lack of support and privileges from government and institutions that should help women to be more independent in their actions – beginning with the right education for them. It is worth to mention that there is a clear difference between women living in rural and urban areas in developing countries. Most resources to be more independent by being more supported by institutions are located in urban areas, which are hard for women of rural areas to access.

Women often earn less than men in many occupations and are usually found in lower-level jobs. Some changing economic policies have affected women and their position in the economy of many developing countries. Industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in developing countries and this enabled women to increase their participation in this sector in recent years.

Considering the employment levels in the services sector continue to grow for both women and men. In the more developed economies, the female workforce is generally employed in services. This sector accounts for at least three quarters of women’s employment in most of the more developed regions and in Latin America and the Caribbean.[13] In contrast, agriculture still accounts for more than half of the employment of women and men in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Southern Africa) and of women in Southern Asia.[14] In those regions, the majority of women workers are in vulnerable employment, being either own-account workers or contributing family workers.

Many rural women are forced to create their own small trade business or services, which allow them to continue household, the childcare and agricultural work. This helps them to develop economically. In Asia, many women are involved in rice farming activities, especially in the production and post-harvest phases[15]. Their roles vary widely, depending on economic, religious and social factors within each country.

Furthermore many women in West Africa and Latin America work as traders and entrepreneurs for lack of formal job opportunities elsewhere. Unfortunately, women’s economic importance to contribute in the role in business and society has to be developed much more by supporting their development needs by policy makers and appropriate institutions.

3. Diversity management as an opportunity for women to be more appreciated as a female worker in companies

Several definitions of diversity management can be mentioned, some are connected with the approach to human resources of the company and some with examples of good practice.

According to Roosevelt Thomas Jr., striving for diversity is more than an affirmative action or creating opportunities for women.[16] It is a universal phenomenon relating to each team of people, consisting in making the best use of talents of employed persons.[17] Especially, the attention should be paid to the significant changes in the approach to management that has just generated diversity in the workplace.

Policy of equality between women and men is part of the diversity management and gives concrete economic benefits. Research carried out systematically in the UK shows that the presence of women in executive positions is conducive to achieving strong financial performance.[18] Similarly, research studies of major companies of prove the existence of a strong correlation between high proportion of women in managerial positions and high profitability.

Surely this can be explained by the diversity of talents and skills set companies in reaching out and using creativity and knowledge of a wide pool of potential labor resources.[19] Changes taking place in regulations, forced globalization and openness contribute to combating stereotypes and a wider participation of women in the decision-making sphere of management, whether it is their own business or as a manager at the highest levels in organizations.

Knowing that women have diverse talents in the working environment, leads to better productivity and increased competitiveness of companies in the global economy, increasingly reaches the employers.[20] Companies that understand this as the first, they can count on financial success.[21] It is important that employers are aware of the mixed labor resources that are more effective than teams of one sex. At the same time the diversity in the workplace is appreciated and will take action at ensuring equal opportunities for both sexes.

4. Management and leadership differences between women and men in various positions in companies

In the literature of management, there are arguments that women and men differ in terms of management style, as well as the statements that the management style does not depend on gender, but rather on the nature of the company, its culture and the operating conditions.

Judy B. Rosener suggests that differences in management styles based on gender still exist. According to her, women are characterized by an interactive leadership style, in line with their life experience, characterized by a focus on cooperation and communication with others.[22] Men prefer the command-and-control style, which is managed by the transmission of commands from the top to down, in other words - in an authoritarian manner.[23]

Helen Fisher considers similarly, she states that women tend to think about the context as well as see the issues more broadly than men do by taking into consideration more data, factors and options, and see more possible ways of doing things.[24] According to the author, women’s thinking is some kind of network thinking as opposed to sequential thinking that is focused, compartmental minds, linear, and is characterized by men.[25] While men see the company as a fragmented collection of various elements, women tend to perceive the company as a whole - as a system of interdependent and affect each other immaterial and material resources.

According to Rosabeth Kanter, the differences in management styles between men and women in their various positions in company are exclusively cultural factors, not arising from natural predisposition to one or the other sex.[26] According to her, if there exist comparable status and power between men and women, and it is not because men still have power and status in society and the workplace, then as manager, they would behave similarly.[27]

In turn, Garry N. Powell argues that there is no difference in styles because men and women exhibit similar management potential and are similarly motivated to strive for managerial positions.[28] Women are more often focused on self-development and on interesting challenges, while men focus on the work environment, its prestige, opportunities to influence and strive for the highest salaries, although women tend to democratic governance and the men autocratic management, it is not on this basis concluded that women are less suitable for management than men or that men are better suited to manage than women.

According to Garry N. Powell, there is little reason to believe that only women or only men can become an excellent manager.[29] Representatives of each sex can be great, mediocre or lousy managers. Enterprises should therefore make the best use of the talents of both sexes, because only then market competition will be met. That voice is part of a trend associated with the claim that differences in leadership styles between men and women blurred. This trend is already visible in Western Europe, but not in Poland, where an effective manager is still associated with the image of an authoritarian man.

Computerization and globalization force managers to take into consideration the increasing number of factors and holistic thinking turns out to be very helpful in this case, which characterizes women. Men need to learn it, while women - to reach for their resources and talents.

According to Tom Peters, who is an American specialist in business, women are better suited for leadership than men because they are more robust and easier to gain confidence than men.[30] According to him, women are also better sellers due to the high communication skills and investors thanks to prudent decision making.[31] What is more, they are better educated, are open to change and they have talents badly needed in the new economy. The new economy favors women because they attach less importance to the hierarchy than men. They establish contacts and maintain relationships easier, tend to cooperate more than compete. According to him, the talent of women is simply an incredible opportunity.[32]

Iwona Majewska-Opiełka stresses the importance of intuition in guiding others, and this is an immanent feature that is associated with women and, until recently, no businessman would dare to admit to using it in fear of making a laughing stock out of him.[33]

Research on emotional intelligence gives further advantages to women. According to the results, women achieve better results than men in almost all components of such intelligence, namely: have greater empathy, recognize and call their own feelings easier, tolerate better frustration and stress, have greater ability to concentrate, solve more effectively interpersonal conflicts and problems.[34] And lose with men only in one feature namely women lack self-confidence and faith in success.

Modern psychologists define emotional intelligence as appropriate to the place, time and circumstances, and therefore an intelligent use of emotions. The creators of the term - John Mayer and Peter Salovey - have identified four emotional skills: the ability to perceive, assess and express emotions, the ability to manage emotions, the ability to understand their own emotions and knowledge, which results from them, ability to control emotions.[35]

It is the high emotional intelligence and ease of establishing and maintaining contact that contribute to achieving success by women, as well as occupying managerial positions. At the same time, these skills are highly desirable in modern management.

Most women characterize the democratic and participatory management style that is named also affiliate management. Such management shapes the attitudes of employees’ active participation and taking responsibility for business development, identifying with companies and even motivates subordinates to work. According to William Nickels, the higher the level of management, the greater the role of skills to work with people and conceptual skills, and the less the technical skills.[36]

Partnerships and teamwork are more effective than authoritarianism and individualism. And women have a talent for collaboration, integrating people and laying a good relationship between them, the flexibility and the elimination of failures. More women than men managers have a high sense of internal control in the work environment, which sees itself as the perpetrator of changes and are convinced that they can shape reality and make it information society, because thanks to changing working conditions more and more people can do their work at any hours, often at home, using the Internet, fax, laptop or mobile phone.[37] These increase the chances of women to have access to many jobs, including management, because such solution allows combining family responsibilities with the career.[38] These features make the women more effectively motivate employees.

5. Women’s leadership in business

The increasing role of women in business, successfully filling managerial and leadership functions, causes an increasing concern of management and leadership science which attempt to determine what the essence of success of „businesswoman” is.

Women are appointed to the highest government positions in the state of Germany and Finland to Chile and for the first time in history reached the decisive stage of the battle for the presidency in France and the United States. In countries such as Spain, France, Finland and Sweden, women constitute half of the members of the government.[39] In addition, several women also manage major corporations, including multinational American corporation PepsiCo engaged in the production of food and beverages and a French group Areva nuclear.[40]

Although women in influential positions are no longer the exception, their presence at higher levels is also not the rule yet. In general it can be said that they relatively quickly manage to climb on middle management but then obstacles begin to emerge on the path to high management positions. However, despite the large number of women in the labor market, only a small percentage of them hold the position of management in large enterprises.[41]

The higher up the hierarchy, the fewer women there are. In the economic field, gender equality is still lacking. With greater participation of women in the labor market and in education, one would expect a corresponding improvement in terms of using women’s talents effectively. But still only about three percent of the largest publicly quoted companies have a woman chairing the highest decision-making body.

Although in many companies’ women are hired to work on an equal footing with men, they still discover very often that the current culture in them differs from their own leadership style. The higher they manage to conceive in the hierarchy of the company, the more clearly the differences are drawn. In this situation, many women decide to leave the company, to take control over their own lives and start their own business.[42]

In surveys of the International Women's Forum, in turned out that women often applied transformational leadership, often use their personal influence like for example charisma, success, professionalism than men who appealed to the hierarchical authority, the authority of an executive position, the pressure on the control function.[43] Both women and men describe themselves as individuals with a balanced mix of personality traits of female and male.[44]

According to the teachings of management guru T. Peters, women in the near future should dominate the business management because they are "true leaders" and the current situation by ignoring their leadership skills can be considered as a manifestation of incredible stupidity and short-sightedness of men, because in contrast to men who like to compete, establish hierarchy and pecking orders, women are focused on cooperation, teamwork, interpersonal communication and exchange of ideas.[45]

The list of advantages of women's leadership by Judy Rosener, includes:[46]

- Rather connect than divide employees,
- choose a management style based on cooperation,
- maintain fruitful cooperation,
- are not afraid to share information,
- sharing authority consider as a success, not failure,
- are ready to accept vague situations
- appreciate both intuition and rationality,
- are flexible in nature,
- tolerate cultural differences.

All this positive features of women’s leadership style mentioned above contribute to the changing attitude towards women working in business. The list of advantages shows that women are able to compete with men on the same level of executive positions and cannot be underestimated any more by employers.

6. Barriers that prevent women from getting to decision-making positions in companies

Women generally face a number of barriers, while climbing the ladder for executive positions at a company, especially when it is a big company with a hierarchical structure, but there are also difficulties in entering middle or low level managerial positions as well. These barriers consist of both social and corporate culture, as well as factors that reside in women’s life values. Considerable meaning has also the barrier derived from the actual role of women in family, like care for children or elderly grand-parents.

6.1 External barriers of being promoted to executive positions that women experience in the workplace

Women encounter real obstacles in the professional world, including blatant and subtle sexism, discrimination or sexual harassment. For pursuing a career while raising children, it is very important that flexibility and access to child care and parental leave are offered to women by many employers what is not the case in too many workplaces.[47]

According to Anna Titkow, Bogusława Budrowska and Danuta Duch-Krzystoczek - the authors of a study on the barriers and limitations of women's careers in business and politics - several external barriers can be distinguished:[48]

- methods for the selection of persons for a decision-making position - preferring men, because they are associated with elites and availability, and having the features needed to manage;
- the existence of male solidarity mechanisms, and thus the search for candidates primarily "among men" and adapt the recruitment process to such an approach;
- different standards for evaluating the work of women and men, dictated by stereotypical views on the functioning of women - ascribing to their traditional roles as wife, mother and person responsible for the functioning of the family and household;
- dislike, which is rationally justified by men, for women in the roles of supervisors.

one of the factors that hinder or prolong women the way to promotion to a managerial position is - according to employers – motherhood and the difficulty of reconciling the role of the mother with the professional role, so mothers are overlooked for promotions.[49] The second important factor is the personality traits of women - lack of decisiveness and firmness in applying for promotion.[50] The third factor is gender stereotypes and their attributes, so lack of conviction to the competence and qualifications of women by the male employers.[51]

Social prejudices and stereotypes according to which women are less suited than men for leadership roles because they are less available in cause of the burden of family, tend to look after others and not delegate tasks, are too soft, sensitive, emotional and unpredictable, still have great importance in the process of not promoting women to managerial positions.

Features within the stereotype of masculinity, such as firmness, consistency, rationality, courage, taking the initiative, creativity or strategic thinking, all this are traits, in the evaluation of employers, of a good manager. For a long time, all what was masculine was valued higher than that what is feminine. Male characteristics guarantee success, that is why the issue of gender while searching for a candidate for a managerial position is not lack of concern for employers. Women recognize the existence of male bias relative to them, especially in the so-called male sectors and managerial positions, manifested in patronizing treatment, reducing achievements and underestimating their knowledge and skills.

[...]


[1] A. Wittenberg-Cox, A. Maitland, Why Women mean Business: Understanding the Emergence of our Next Economic Revolution, Willey Editorial Offices, 2008, p. 28

[2] M. Davidson, R. Burke, Women in Management Worldwide: Progress and Prospects, Gower Publishing Limited, Surrey 2011, p.2-3

[3] A. Wittenberg-Cox, A. Maitland, Why Women mean …, op.cit., p. 32

[4] Ibidem, p. 32

[5] Ibidem, p. 32

[6] The Battle for Brainpower, “The Economist”, April 2006

[7] How to manage the Most Talented, „Harvard Business Review Online”, March 2007

[8] A. Wittenberg-Cox, A. Maitland, Why Women mean …, op.cit., p. 19-20

[9] K. L. Kinnear, Women in Developing countries: A Reference Handbook, ABC-CLIO, California 2011, p.1

[10] Ibidem, p.1

[11] Ibidem, p.11

[12] Ibidem, p.11

[13] World’s Women 2010, United Nations Publication 2010, p.9

[14] Ibidem, p.9

[15] K. L. Kinnear, Women in Developing …, op.cit., p. 27

[16] R.R. Thomas Jr., Building on the promise of diversity. How we can move to the next level in our workplace, our communities, and our society, American Management Association, New York 2006, p. 103

[17] Ibidem, p. 103

[18] Przewodnik dobrych praktyk. Firma równych szans, Gender Index, EQUAL, UNDP, Warszawa 2007, p. 32

[19] Ibidem, p. 32

[20] E. Lisowska, Kobiecy Styl Zarządzania, Helion Publisher, Gliwice 2009, p. 152

[21] Ibidem, p. 152

[22] J.B. Rosener, Kobiety, mężczyźni i płeć, IFiS PAN Publisher, Warszawa 2003, p. 349-352

[23] Ibidem, p. 349-352

[24] H. Fisher, Pierwsza płeć. Jak wrodzone talenty kobiet zmienią nasz świat, Stantorski i S-ka Publisher, Warszawa 2003, p.21-23

[25] Ibidem, p.21-23

[26] Budrowska, D. Duch-Krzystoszek, A. Titkow, Szklany sufit. Bariery i ograniczenia karier kobiet, Instytut Spraw Publicznych, Warszawa 2003, p. 76

[27] Ibidem, p. 76

[28] G.N.Powell, Kobiety, mężczyźni i płeć, IFiS PAN Publisher, Warszawa 2003, p. 362

[29] Ibidem, p. 362

[30] T. Peters, Biznes od nowa, Studio Emka Publisher, Warszawa 2005, p. 271

[31] Ibidem, p. 271

[32] Ibidem, p. 271

[33] I. Majewska-Opiełka, Umysł lidera, Medium Publisher, Warszsawa 2012, p. 67

[34] S. Pinker, Tabula rasa. Spory o naturę ludzką, Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne, Gdańsk 2005, p. 489

[35] H. Weisinger, Inteligencja emocjonalna w biznesie. Jak zwiększyć własne szanse na sukces, Business Press Publisher, Warszawa 1998, p.76

[36] W. Nickels, Zrozumieć biznes, Bellona Publisher, Warszawa 2005, p. 342

[37] L. Porzuczek, J. Danaj, Jaki jesteś kierowniku? Z badań polskich menedżerów, „Personel” 1998, nr 7-9, p.38

[38] Ibidem, p.38

[39] A. Wittenberg-Cox, A. Maitland, Why Women mean Business: Understanding the Emergence of our Next Economic Revolution, Willey Editorial Offices, 2008, p.9

[40] Ibidem, p.9

[41] Ibidem, p.12

[42] A. Wittenberg-Cox, A. Maitland, Kobiety i ich wpływ na biznes, Wolters Kluwer Polska, Warszawa 2010, p. 37

[43] Harvard Business School Press, Harvard Business Review on Women in Business, Harvard Business School Publishing 2005, p. 201-222

[44] Ibidem, p. 201-222

[45] A. Hendler: Przyszłość należy do kobiet. Interview with T. Petersem. „Manager” 2005, nr 7, p. 46-49

[46] Harvard Business School Press, Harvard Business Review …, op.cit., p.271

[47] Sheryl Sandberg, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead, Publisher Alfred A. Knopf, New York 2013, p. 8

[48] B. Budrowska, D. Duch-Krzystoszek, A. Titkow, Szklany…,op.cit., p. 164-194

[49] Rola kobiet w innowacyjnej przedsiębiorczości wysokich technologii. Raport końcowy z badań jakościowych, PARP, Warszawa 2007, p.34

[50] Ibidem, p.34

[51] Ibidem, p.34

Excerpt out of 63 pages

Details

Title
The changing role of women in business
Grade
A
Author
Year
2014
Pages
63
Catalog Number
V351302
ISBN (eBook)
9783668379046
ISBN (Book)
9783668379053
File size
1044 KB
Language
English
Tags
women, business, leadership
Quote paper
Kamila Olsza (Author), 2014, The changing role of women in business, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/351302

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