Viral Marketing of Startups. How to set up a successful viral marketing campaign

Bachelor Thesis, 2016

55 Pages, Grade: 1.3



1. List of Abbreviations

2. Introduction

3. Research question

4. An overview of viral marketing
4.1 Definition of viral marketing
4.2 Consumer behavior
4.3 Differences between a viral campaign and viral product design
4.3.1 Viral marketing campaign - Ice Bucket Challenge
4.3.2 Viral product design - Dubsmash
4.4 Differences between a business and consumer initiated viral campaign
4.5 Benefits and drawbacks of Viral Marketing or viral product features

5. The peculiarity of viral marketing for start-ups vs. corporations

6. How to set up a business-initiated viral marketing campaign
6.1 Process of a successful business-initiated viral marketing campaign
6.2 How to prepare a successful business-initiated viral marketing campaign
6.2.1 Definition of Goal
6.2.2 Audience
6.2.3 Campaign Seeding
6.2.4 Technical set-up
6.2.5 Timing
6.3 How any business can create viral marketing content that is successful
6.3.1 The role of emotions

7. Viral Marketing Canvas

8. Conclusion

9. Appendix

10. References


Figure 1 - The Viral Coefficient (Ventureharbour, 2014)

Figure 2 - Total Number Of Tweets Using #Icebucketchallenge (Braiker, 2014)

Figure 3 - Dubsmash's Total Number Of Downloads (Burton, 2015)

Figure 4 - Initiator Matrix (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011)

Figure 5 - The Peculiarity Of Viral Marketing For Start-Ups Vs. Corporations

Figure 6 - Conditions For A Successful Business-Initiated Viral Marketing Campaign (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011)

Figure 7 - Process Of A Viral Marketing Campaign (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011)

Figure 8 - Objectives Of A Viral Marketing Campaign (Cruz & Fill, 2008, P. 754)

Figure 9 - Evaluation Framework Of A Vmc (Cruz & Fill, 2008, P. 754)

Figure 10 - Seeding Hubs, Fringes, And Bridges (Theeffectivemarketer, 2012)

Figure 11 - Recommendations For Seeding A Campaign (Hinz Et Al., 2011)

Figure 12 - The Social Diffusion Curve (Unruly, 2013)

Figure 13 - Consumer Sharing Decision Tree

Figure 14 - Positive And Negative Emotions (Mcneal, 2012)

Figure 15 - Puppyhood: Social Motivation Of Referrers (Unruly, 2013)

Figure 16 - Viral Marketing Canvas

1. List of Abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

2. Introduction

The Ice Bucket Challenge (IBC), the Dollar Shave Club, Dubsmash, Old Spice ‘The Man Your Man Could Smell Like’, Share a Coke - all these campaigns and companies are known for one simple reason: Virality. Global megatrends influence the environment of organizations in business. The behavior of consumers evolved, and over 65% of consumers state to be overwhelmed by advertisements. Moreover, over 60% are of the opinion that the displayed advertisements are not relevant to them. Resulting from this, there is strong evidence that consumers avoid the traditional advertising instruments (Il- Horn, Kai-Lung, Lee, & Png, 2008). Especially the emergence of the web 2.0, the megatrend of the twenty-first century, changed the way of communication between companies and their stakeholders (Wienclaw, 2016). The scale and scope of the stakeholder’s influence are increased significantly due to a much higher number of social connections as a result of computer media (Subramani & Rajagopalan, 2003). Individuals are now recipients and provider of information at the same time, communicating, modifying, and sharing content, messages and information among peers as a result of advancements in digital technology (Rakić & Rakić, 2014). This new way of communication revolutionizes data availability and allows news to spread online with an immense speed and broad reach as it is no longer bound to a geographic location. As a result, information spread in social media networks and ‘go viral’. The term ‘viral marketing’ refers to the process of information, content or messages spreading through social networking sites (SNSs) like a virus (Botha & Reyneke, 2013) and was introduced by Knight in 1999 (Phelps, Lewis, Mobilio, Perry, & Raman, 2004). Viral marketing is strongly influencing the public opinion about brands, public personalities, products, political parties, or corporate reputations. Stakeholder use viral communication to share opinions about messages originating from companies (Botha & Reyneke, 2013). Thus, more than ever marketer need to understand the motivations, behaviors, likes and dislikes of today’s consumers. Meanwhile, companies such as Facebook or Uber know and use this development of viral communication, integrate it into their business model using a viral product design and benefit strongly from the conscious usage (Aral & Walker, 2013). Organizations should be aware of the threats and opportunities of this trend. Particularly, in the marketing and start-up environment, viral communication is being used as a cost effective marketing activity to foster topline growth1. In the past, customers wished to be informed about product characteristics to decide whether to make purchase decision. Today, all this information is available online, and the consumer wishes to be entertained by marketing ads (Nobel, 2013). There is a vast number of successful businesses and marketing campaigns which used viral communication effectively to reach their customers. However, there is an even higher number of failures (Lans & Bruggen, 2010). The failures occur due to a lack of understanding about influencing factors which have an impact on the success of such campaigns (Phelps et al., 2004). Researchers disagree about the definition of the term viral marketing and to explore the success factors, several authors have even studied the similarities and contrasts between the spread of online messages and theories about the spread of epidemics and population growth (Botha & Reyneke, 2013). In this context, they analyze the behavior of individuals in interconnected networks, the influence of content and the importance of certain emotions. Having this knowledge can help start-ups to present themselves and successfully enter the market, especially in a time where marketing is very expensive and where the society shapes the 4P2 of the marketing mix due to social media.

The purpose of this thesis is to provide entrepreneurs, managers, marketers and start-ups with the knowledge necessary to successfully seed and launch a business-initiated viral marketing campaign and to introduce a product with viral features to the market. By taking a start-up centric approach, the paper is not only focusing on the practical implications of the conducted research in this area but also on learnings from successful viral campaigns and interviews with experts of virality. I conducted interviews with

- Roland Grenke, the founder of Dubsmash, an application which enables users to record brief videos of themselves lip-syncing to audio clips. The viral features of the product contributed largely to the international success of the application.
- Kelly Ford, the CMO of Number 26, ‘Europe’s Most Modern Bank Account’, which digitalizes all banking activities of users and also uses viral features as a key component to spread their product and;
- Jay Singh, the founder of Viral Media Solutions, which was one of the first companies in the world focusing on virality. They created viral campaigns for Procter & Gamble, Coca Cola, Seal and many more.

Based on the findings in the literature, the implications of analyzed campaigns (e.g. the IBC in Chapter 4.3.1) and the learnings form the interviews with entrepreneurs and marketing experts, I developed a framework to standardize the process of a viral marketing campaign (Figure 7). Furthermore, I defined a ‘Consumer Sharing Decision Tree’ (Figure 13) which shows how a consumer decides whether to share or not to share content and I adapted the well known ‘Business Model Canvas’ to a ‘Viral Marketing Canvas’ (Figure 16) which will help entrepreneurs and marketers to conceive a business- initiated viral marketing campaign.

3. Research question

This study aims at answering research questions and offering managerial implications related to the success of viral marketing campaigns and to the success of products with viral features by providing:

- An overview of viral marketing: First of all, this study aims to provide the best suitable definition of viral marketing as well as a summary of the topic for start- ups. For this, the study takes a closer look at existing definitions and aims to answer following questions: What is the difference between a viral campaign and a viral product design? What are the benefits and downsides of virality? How does the typical behavior of customers in the twenty-first century look like? What are the differences between a business-initiated viral marketing campaign and a consumer-initiated viral marketing campaign? Furthermore, motivations and behavior of those who pass along messages are discussed as this is essential to increase the effectiveness of a viral campaign.
- The peculiarity of viral marketing for startups vs. corporations: A table provides an overview of the differences and similarities of viral marketing for young companies in comparison to already established organizations (Figure 5).
- Strategies of business-initiated viral marketing: Creating an online campaign that goes viral requires more than mere entertainment. Virality of marketing campaigns can actively be influenced and prepared by individuals and start-ups. This study will provide an overview of the process of initiating a viral campaign and the most relevant impact factors, which should be considered, researched and executed during the preparation phase and for the content creation. These insights will help to set a focus on the most critical success factors before the campaign launch as well as during and after a campaign or product has been initiated. The Viral Marketing Canvas (Figure 16) outlines the nine central factors for a success of a business-initiated viral marketing campaign and is of help for preparation.
- Managerial implications for viral marketing campaigns and business models with viral features: The strategies for business initiated viral marketing have different implications for viral marketing campaigns. This study will provide valuable insights for managers, entrepreneurs, and marketers thriving for starting a viral campaign in a start-up environment.

4. An overview of viral marketing

The use of a viral campaign or the integration of viral components into a product can be the key factor of success in the early stage of a start-up. The term start-up refers to “a human institution designed to create a new product or service under conditions of extreme uncertainty”(Ries, 2011). According to Churchill and Lewis (1983) start-ups pass several stages and during all these steps, growth is of essential importance (p.31). Thus, it is critical to understand how marketing has evolved over time and that it is now an integral part of an organization. According to Morris, Schindehutte, and LaForge (2002) entrepreneurial marketing (EM) is

an integrative construct for conceptualizing marketing in an era of change, complexity, chaos, contradiction, and diminishing resources, and one that will manifest itself differently as companies age and grow. It uses key aspects of recent developments in marketing thought and practice with those in the entrepreneurship area into one comprehensive construct. (p.2)

The term EM is mostly used in the context of small enterprises which are constrained in their resources and make usage of simple marketing tactics which are often creative and strongly involve personal networks (Morris et al., 2002). The main influence factors in EM are the developments in the media usage patterns, the strong focus on the efficiency and effectiveness and the creation of value by involving stakeholders of the firm (Kumar, 2015). Viral marketing includes all these developments and becomes, therefore, a valuable EM instrument to support the growth phases of start-ups.

4.1 Definition of viral marketing

In the digital economy, marketing messages are being transferred by customers like a “virus”. Virality stems from the word “virus” as it symbolizes the manner in which viral messages spread, without concerning the negative connotation of the word (Grewal & Chahar, 2013). Typically, the process starts with the marketer who creates electronic content (e.g. a video, pictures, articles, etc.), the URL (web address) is then being shared with the internet users, which watch the content and after this decide whether to transmit it to their community or not. If they share it, and the new recipients also choose to pass on the content, the campaign has the chance to reach a large group of people at an exponential rate (Ho & Dempsey, 2010). The term “viral marketing” was first being used to describe the marketing techniques which were used by Hotmail in 1996. Integrating a promotional tag on each outgoing email helped Hotmail to generate 12 million new subscribers within 18 months, using a marketing budget of only $50 000 (Hinz, Skiera, Barrot, & Becker, 2011). Viral marketing is not only the development of Word of Mouth (WOM), but a critical electronic extension of WOM (Cruz & Fill, 2008) also called electronic WOM (eWOM) and a result of the advancements in digital technology. According to Beckmann and Bell (2001) the main differences between viral marketing and WOM are:

- a distinction in speed and coverage - viral messages spread wider and on a faster scale than traditional WOM
- differences in the stimuli of the marketing message - viral marketing usually is a combination of verbal and visual content, while WOM relies solely on verbal communication
- viral marketing has a higher degree of control of the content than traditional WOM as it is actively seeded

Other terminology used to describe eWOM includes “word-of-mouse” (Goldenberg, Libai, & Muller, 2001), “Interactive Marketing” (Blattberg & Deighton, 1991), or “referral marketing” (De Bruyn & Lilien, 2008a). SNSs such as Facebook and other platforms become attractive for the viral marketing of start-ups as the transfer of messages within the private network of the members increase the trustworthiness of the information (Rakić & Rakić, 2014, p. 180).

In the literature, there is no coherent definition of viral marketing. Kaplan and Haenlein (2011) state that “viral marketing is electronic word-of-mouth whereby some form of marketing message related to a company, brand, or product is transmitted in an exponentially growing way, often through the use of social media applications”. Wilson (2000) is of the opinion that viral marketing is “any strategy that encourages individuals to pass on a marketing message to others, creating the potential for exponential growth in the message’s exposure and influence” and Laudon and Traver (2001) define viral marketing as “the process of getting customers to pass along a company’s marketing message to friends, family, and colleagues”. All the definitions show that in the end, the ability to go viral depends on the ‘viral coefficient’ i.e. the number of new customers each customer generates by sharing the content.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1 - The Viral Coefficient (VentureHarbour, 2014)

The graph above (Figure 1) is used to illustrate how a start-up grows at different values of the viral coefficient. In this illustration, the X-axis represents time while the Y-axis represents the number of sign-ups. If the viral coefficient equals 1.0, it indicates that each customer generates one new customer and therefore linear growth. If the viral coefficient is above 1.01, the company will experience exponential growth which is shown in the graph by all lines above the dark green line. The higher the viral coefficient, the faster the company will grow. Grenke (2016) and Ford (personal communication, April 1, 2016) are also convinced of the effectiveness of an integrated referral system on the viral coefficient.

Viral marketing intends to use peer-to-peer communication instead of company-to- consumer communication as a fast and cost efficient approach for information spreading (De Bruyn & Lilien, 2008b). For start-ups it is important to understand the main characteristics of viral marketing: the fast pace in which the message is being spread (Yang, Yao, Ma, & Chen, 2010) the peculiarity of communication among consumers (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2011; Phelps et al., 2004), the increased confidence of the consumers (Yang et al., 2010), the increased trustworthiness of a voluntary passed on message in comparison to a paid advertisement or testimonial (Dobele, Toleman, & Beverland, 2005) and the comparatively little needed budget (Camarero & San José, 2011).

4.2 Consumer behavior

Consumers attribute more importance than ever to advice and recommendations within the personal or professional network when having the intend to make a purchase (Hill, Provost, & Volinsky, 2006; Iyengar & Lepper, 2000). Product recommendations from friends and family are trusted by 86% as a study by Nielsen (2013) showed. The stronger the tie with one’s friends on SNSs, the more likely it is that a message is passed on to them (Shan & King, 2015; Xie, Kukla, & Morrison, 2012). Viral marketing “as unpaid, peer-to-peer, web-indigenous communication of branded content” (Hayes & King, 2014) is an honest and trustworthy form of communication (Rollins, Anitsal, & Anitsal, 2014). Since the amount of time spent consuming online information is an important indicator for eWOM (Ho & Dempsey, 2010, p. 1004), the age group between 18-25 years becomes especially attractive for viral marketing as they are particularly active on the internet and on SNSs (Rollins et al., 2014). The behavior of consumers has evolved from a passive towards an active and critical state and is consistently changing. It is essential for start- ups and marketers who intend to successfully launch a viral campaign or product to understand their audiences’ behavior, likes, dislikes, motivations and sharing habits (Rollins et al., 2014). According to Shan and King (2015) the engagement of consumers with eWOM can be classified into three categories:

- endorsee (opinion giving): the user creates own brand messages or shares content about the product or brand and thereby expresses his affiliation, influences others and creates a buzz (Price, Feick, & Guskey, 1995);
- recipient (opinion seeking): this type of consumers simply receive the messages created and shared by others. The individual is searching for information and advice (Flynn, Goldsmith, & Eastman, 1996);
- referrer (opinion passing): actively communicates or shares marketing messages about the brand or product (Sun, Youn, Wu, & Kuntaraporn, 2006);

In order to reach the highest degree of engagement it is important to have a closer look at the audiences’ motivation to share content as this process is entirely voluntary (Ho & Dempsey, 2010). The motivation of individuals to share content lies in an expectation of receiving extrinsic or intrinsic benefits. (Hayes & King, 2014). Studies in the area of eWOM prove the following key drivers for opinion giving and opinion passing:

- altruism (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh, & Gremler, 2004; Smith, Coyle, Lightfoot, & Scott, 2007; Xie et al., 2012);
- tangible (e.g. sample products, coupons) and intangible benefits (e.g. self- expression, self-worth) (Hennig-Thurau et al., 2004);
- and the consumer-brand relationship (Hayes & King, 2014, p. 107; Shan & King, 2015, pp. 18,19).

Having the understanding about the own consumers in the background, start-ups can now apply different concepts and strategies to influence the level of engagement of their audience. According to Nobel (2013) ‘Advertising Symbioses’ is one of the concepts which is likely to influence the consumers interaction. The idea of ‘Advertising Symbioses’ suggests that advertisers and consumers should have a mutual benefit from the act of sharing content. Nobel (2013) is of the opinion that emotion need to be addressed so that the viewers actually watch an add while the personality needs to be addressed for them to pass it on. The author suggests several approaches for the creation of value for the audience. One of the ways is putting the viewer in the center of the attention and thereby providing the intangible benefit of self-expression. One start-up which consciously integrated this component into their product is Dubsmash, an app that enables users to record brief videos of themselves lip-syncing to audio clips. Roland Grenke (2016), the founder of Dubsmash, emphasized in an interview which importance the factor of self-expression has for their audience. According to him, message transmitting is all about “how much value do you (as a company) create for the users” (Grenke, 2016). Teixeira (2015) believes that other factors include

- offering the viewer privileged access to valuable content or first access to samples (startups conducting a crowdfunding campaign often leverage this motivation of their audience (Agrawal, Catalini, & Goldfarb, 2014, p. 73));
- the opportunity to publicize his or her values to others (e.g. Spotify) (Ho & Dempsey, 2010, p. 1004);
- the opportunity to showcase a badge of honor and relate to tribes (e.g. Dollar Shave Club);
- the opportunity to show the ability to find strange hidden gems (e.g. Blendtec’s wacky blender videos) and;
- according to the interviews with Grenke (2016) and Ford (personal communication, April 1, 2016) the end-to-end experience of the customer with the product or brand.

The better start-ups and marketers understand the motivation of the targeted audience, the more likely the message is going to be spread online (i.e. ‘go viral’). The Net Promoter Score (NPS)3 is an important indicator which can be used during a testing phase to find out whether content is likely to be shared.

4.3 Differences between a viral campaign and viral product design

Virality is not to be seen as a single feature but rather as a design principle. It is not only a result of luck but rather an engineered concept with a deep underlying understanding about the audiences. There are different options to use viral marketing as a start-up or marketer. On the one hand, start-ups can plan a viral marketing campaign to spread via digital technology and on the contrary they can integrate virality in the nature of their product. Fundamentally, we differentiate between viral characteristics and viral features . The viral characteristics are all about the campaign’s or product’s “content, and the psychological effects content can have on a user’s desire to share the product with peers” (Aral & Walker, 2011). Viral features concern “how the product is shared - how features enable and constrain a product’s use in relation to other consumers” (Aral & Walker, 2011). Viral features and viral characteristics are always going hand in hand to make a campaign or product successful. However, for a viral marketing campaign, the viral characteristics are being a predominant component while for a product with a viral design the viral features are prevailing. In the following, the differences are shown by understanding the success factors of the Ice Bucket Challenge (IBC) as a viral campaign and the success factors of Dubsmash, a product with viral features.

4.3.1 Viral marketing campaign - Ice Bucket Challenge

Whenever a start-up or marketer aims for virality of a campaign, it is important to design the campaign in an enhancing way, mainly focusing on the viral characteristics. The Ice Bucket Challenge (IBC) is one of the most recent successful international viral campaigns with the participation of celebrities, politicians, CEOs and influencers, such as Will Smith, Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg and much more. Participants of the IBC had to empty a bucket with cold water above their head and nominate three people in their network do to the same. The challenge aimed to raise awareness for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The graph below shows the total number of tweets which included the ‘#icebucketchallenge’ which peaked at ~90 000 times (Figure 2). The graph also illustrates the short time frame in which a campaign ‘goes viral’ (see also 5.2.5 Timing).

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2 - Total number of tweets using #icebucketchallenge (Braiker, 2014)

Over 2.4 million related videos were uploaded and helped to raise $95.5 million more in comparison to the prior year. The campaign, therefore, did not only drive awareness but also results (Braiker, 2014). Many aspects of the IBC will help marketers and start-ups to succeed with their campaigns as well.

The first key success factor of the IBC was the identification of the goal and cause (Boko, 2014). The campaign aimed to raise funds for ALS research and did not require a very high effort of the participants. The message was simple, engraving and linked to a good cause.

Secondly, the challenge was fun and easy to join (Boko, 2014). People from all over the world enjoyed seeing their friends and their role models cringe from water as cold as ice. Furthermore, it was made easy to participate: either donating online or by pouring an ice cold bucket of water over the head.

Thirdly, a time constraint and therefore immediacy were added to the campaign (Boko, 2014). Whenever people were challenged to participate, they had only 24 hours to do so. It is essential that a campaign spreads as rapidly as possible. This touch of urgency made it happen for the IBC.

Fourthly, the IBC took advantage of the power of multiplication (Boko, 2014). Each person participating was encouraged to challenge three further individuals to join, thus creating a multiplier effect (viral coefficient >1). The IBC showed that a clear call to action can make a huge difference.

Fifthly, spread across media clutter (Boko, 2014). The IBC appeared across all SNSs including Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, etc. This made it easy for people to get involved, not depending on which platform they preferably use.

Sixthly, the IBC put the individuals in the center of the challenge and thereby gave the participants a chance to feel good (Boko, 2014). By joining the challenge, they automatically showed their support for a good cause and had a good feeling because they were helping others. Therefore, the intangible benefit of self-expression was a clear motivation of the participants.

Of course every business-initiated campaign is different. However, understanding other successful campaigns and replicating the key success factors can increase the likelihood of virality.

4.3.2 Viral product design - Dubsmash

Start-ups and marketers can also create eWOM and social contagion by integrating viral components into their product. In the opinion of Aral and Walker (2011), companies should not put their effort into the marketing campaigns and hope to make the next big hit, but rather integrate viral components into their product. The viral design of physical and digital products can enhance peer-to-peer communication, for example by incorporating user-generated personalized invitations or a ‘Share’ button (Rakić & Rakić, 2014). In a study comparing the effectiveness of traditional banners in comparison to viral product design, it was shown that the adoption of the users was up to 10 times higher using viral features (Aral & Walker, 2011, p. 34).

Viral product design is “the process of explicitly engineering products, so they are more likely to be shared amongst peers”(Aral & Walker, 2011). Aral and Walker (2011) conducted a randomized trial that suggests that the social contagion evoked by the integration of viral features into a product can be increased by up to 400% (p.18). Until today, the topic of viral product design has mainly remained absent from the literature. In practice, however, some of the international largest growing companies such as Eventbrite, Snapchat, Dropbox, Whatsapp or Dubsmash already take huge advantage of a viral product design. The two predominantly used viral features are a tool for personalizing referrals and an automated process for broadcast notifications. Personalized referrals “allow users to select their friends or contacts from a list and invite them to adopt the product or service, with the option of attaching a personalized message to the invitation” (Aral & Walker, 2011). Automated broadcast notifications are

passively triggered by normal user activity. When a user engages the product in a certain way (e.g. sends a message, updates his or her status), those actions are broadcast as notifications to the user’s list of contacts. Notifications build awareness among friends of new activities or products a user is adopting or engaging with, and can encourage those friends to eventually adopt the product themselves.(Aral & Walker, 2011, p. 3)

Automated broadcast notifications also exude social proof and can be beneficial for companies with a perceived social risk (Botha & Reyneke, 2013). Uber used this feature in the beginning to reduce the fear of riding with an unknown person by showing that friends already used the application. According to the study of Aral and Walker (2011) “designing products with passive-broadcast viral messaging capabilities generates more total peer influence and social contagion than adding active-personalized viral messaging capabilities such as personalized referrals” (p.18). Viral channels produce higher response rates in comparison to traditional advertising channels and as implementing viral features comes mostly with a low one-time fixed costs it might be more cost effective than traditional digital advertising (Aral & Walker, 2011).

For a better practical understanding, we will look at the case of Dubsmash. The integration of viral features allowed the application to grow their audience exponentially. By now the app is being used across 192 countries and has been downloaded more than 75 million times (Figure 3) (Index-Ventures, 2015; Walgrove, 2015).


1 Topline growth refers to a company’s gross sales or revenues (Investopedia, 2016)

2 The 4Ps are: Product (or Service), Place, Price, Promotion (Yoo, Donthu, & Lee, 2000)

3 Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a metric for assessing customer loyalty for a company's brand, products or services. It can be calculated using the answer to a single question: How likely is it that you would recommend (brand) to a friend or colleague? (NetPromoterNetwork, 2016)

Excerpt out of 55 pages


Viral Marketing of Startups. How to set up a successful viral marketing campaign
Otto Beisheim School of Management Vallendar
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Viral marketing, framework, entrepreneurship, start-up, marketing, virality
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Sascha Firtina (Author), 2016, Viral Marketing of Startups. How to set up a successful viral marketing campaign, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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