Well being and Anxiety across the phases of Adolescence


Master's Thesis, 2016
89 Pages, Grade: A

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Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
Statistics of adolescent population
Global
India
Development of adolescence
Adolescent physical development
Adolescent cognitive development
Adolescent moral development
Adolescent emotional development
Adolescent social development
The stages of adolescence
Early adolescence
Middle adolescence
Late adolescence
Factors
Well being
Well being in the Indian context
A life span perspective on well being
Types of well being
Psychological well being
Social well being
Emotional well being
Factors affect adolescents well being
Measurements
Anxiety

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
What is adolescence?
Biological, cognitive, social, and emotional processes in the development of adolescents
Well being of adolescents
Anxiety
Rationale for the study
Research Questions
Objectives
Hypotheses

CHAPTER 3: METHOD
Design
Participants
Research instruments
Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being
WHO Well-being Index
Manifest Anxiety Scale
Procedure

CHAPTER 4: RESULT
Well being
Indian Scale of Adolescence Well Being
Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being (Total Well-being)
Control (dimension 1)
Freedom from anxiety (dimension 2)
Spiritual quality (dimension 3)
Freedom from depression (dimension 4)
Social support (dimension 5)
Interpersonal trust (dimension 6)
Personal morale (dimension 7)
Autonomy (dimension 8)
Personal competence (dimension 9)
Achievement (dimension 10)
Lifestyle (dimension 11)
Social contact (dimension 12)
Anxiety
Manifest Anxiety Scale
Well-being
WHO Well-being Index
Relationship among the measures
Graphs

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
Implications
Limitations

References

Abstract

Adolescence is considered as a complex period in the process of life span development. Adolescence is characterized by changes in physical, cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is important to maintain a relative well-being to pass the stage adolescence, successfully. Most of the adolescents pass this stage without creating problems. But, some adolescents are facing problems and consider the challenges are unsolvable. In this situation, the study aims to find out the well-being and anxiety across the phases of adolescence. A between subject design was used. The sample consisted of 300 adolescents and purposive sampling was used. Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being, WHO Well-being Index, and Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. The data was analysed using One Way ANOVA, post-hoc test, and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation. There was a significant difference found across the phases of adolescents on three dimensions (personal competence, interpersonal trust, and achievement) of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being and total well-being as measured by WHO Well-being Index. And, there was no significant difference found across the phases of adolescents on anxiety. A pair wise comparison has done by using Tukey’s HSD. The negative correlation was found between all the dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being and Anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale). Also, a negative correlation was found between well-being (WHO Well-being Index) and anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale). And, negative correlation was found between age and well-being.

Key words: anxiety, well-being, adolescence

Acknowledgements

Apart from the efforts of me, the success of completing the dissertation depends largely on the encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to the people who have been involved in the successful completion of this dissertation. I owe my deepest gratitude to the faculty members Prof. Meena Hariharan, Dr Padmaja, Dr Meera Padhy, Dr N. D. S. Naga Seema, and Dr Suvashisa Rana, for their tremendous support and help with which I feel motivated and encouraged throughout the process of data collection and dissertation. I would like to express my special thanks to the PhD students for their cooperation in completion of dissertation. I would like to express my special thanks to the institutions and participants for their cooperation in completion of data collection. Lastly, I am heartily thankful to my friends and parents who helped me during the process of data collection and dissertation. I offer my regards to all of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of my dissertation.

(Anju James)

List of tables

1 Mean and Standard Deviation of Scores of Indian Scale of Ado-lescence Well being and Dimensions, Manifest Anxiety Scale, and WHO Well-being Index
2 Summary of One Way ANOVA
3 Tukey's HSD for Total Well-Being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well- Being) and its Dimensions, Total Anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale), and Total Well-Being (WHO Well-Being Index)
4 Summary of Pearson correlation

List of Figures

1 Bar graph representing the total well-being (WHO Well-being Index) scores in the three groups
2 Bar graph represents the dimensions (interpersonal trust, personal competence, and achievement) of Indian Scale of Adolescents Well-being scores in the three groups

Abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

In today’s fast, energetic, and stressful world, adolescent’s struggle to manage life is very clear. We are often hear the stories of adolescents who fail to achieve their goals and cause serious harm to themselves or others. Adolescence is an important developmental period and it is considered as a tough period in the process of life span development. The developmental period adolescence includes changes in brain development, development of emotion, development of cognition, development of behavior, family, and social relationships. It is important for an adolescent to keep a level of relative well being to pass the stage of adolescence successfully without experiencing any particular stressful incidents or traumas. Now, well being in adolescence is getting more attention among researchers.

Adolescence is characterized by significant biological, psychological, social, emotional, and cognitive changes. Nurmi (2001) defined adolescence as a period of journey towards adulthood. Santrock (2004) reported that adolescents change mentally, physically, and psychologically. The World Health Organization defined adolescence as a phase of transition of growth and development from childhood to adulthood, between the ages 10 and 19. Adolescence is divided into three stages (Arnett, J.J., 2007): early adolescence (from 10 year to 13 years of age), middle adolescence (from 14 years to 16 years of age), and late adolescence (from 17 years to 19 years of age). Early adolescence includes physical changes and changes in the relationship with parents and peer groups or friends. The middle adolescence includes the need for independence and late adolescence prepares for higher education and work as adulthood.

Statistics of adolescent population

Global

Today, 1.2 billion children stand at the age of 10 to 19 years and forming 18 per cent of the world population (UNICEF, 2011). They stand at the crossroads between childhood and adulthood. The majority of world’s adolescent population (88 per cent) lives in developing countries and 16 per cent of world’s adolescent population lives in undeveloped countries. According to the UN (2014) report India has the largest youth (10 to 24 years) population in the world (356 million). China has second largest youth population and it was found to be 269 million. Indonesia has third largest youth population and it was found to be 67 million. The United States (US) has the fourth largest youth population (65 million), followed by Pakistan (59 million), Nigeria (57 million), Brazil (51 million), and Bangladesh (48 million).

The world population prospectus (the 2012 revision, UN 2013) explained the adolescent population in the following countries. The adolescent population in India was found to be 253 million (20.9 per cent of the total population of the country). The adolescent population in China was found to be 191.2 million (14.1 per cent of the total population of the country). The adolescent population in the United States of America was found to be 43 million (13.8 per cent of the total population of the country). The adolescent population in Indonesia was found to be 43.4 million (16.8 per cent of the total population of the country). The adolescent population in Nigeria was found to be 35 million (22.3 per cent of the total population of the country). The adolescent population in Brazil was found to be 33.8 million (17.3 per cent of the total population of the country). And, the adolescent population in Pakistan was found to be 30.9 million (17.8 per cent of the total population of the country).

India

According to the census of India (2011), the adolescent population was found to be 253 million. The data shows that every fifth individual in the country is an adolescent (10 to 19 years of age). Census of India (2011) revealed that 83.3 (total population was found to be 121 crore) crore Indian live in rural areas. And, out of the total population 37.7 crore Indians live in urban areas. While coming to the adolescent population of India, 181 million adolescents (71.5 per cent of the adolescent population) live in rural areas and 72 million adolescents (28.5 per cent of the total adolescent population) live in urban areas.

Development of adolescence

Adolescence is not only a biological phenomenon. Also, it is a cultural construction. Adolescence is characterized by puberty. Puberty is a set of biological changes in order to achieve physical and sexual maturity. These biological changes occur in adolescents everywhere with differences in timing. The developmental period adolescence begins when puberty starts and the status of an adult individual is approached. Adolescents try to accept the roles and responsibilities of adults.

Adolescent physical development

When an adolescent enters puberty, he or she experiences physical changes. Entering puberty presents physical changes such as growth spurt and sexual maturation. The age of onset of puberty is influenced by several factors such as genetic factors, stressful life events, social and financial status, diet with nutritional food, and diseases. Usually, growth spurt begins at the age of 10 to 12 years in girls and ends at the age of 17 to 19 years. And, growth spurt begins at the age of 12 to 14 years in boys and ends at the age of 20 years (Hofmann and Greydanus, 1997). Sexual maturation includes physical changes and support fertility.

Children who are not prepared for the physical and emotional of puberty may face difficulties during adolescence. The early maturing adolescents may face the risks such as depression, risky behaviors, and eating disorders. Early maturing boys may face the risks such as smoking, use of alcohol, and sexual relationships. Also, late maturation creates problems such as depression, conflicts with parents, and school related problems (Pollack and Shuster, 2000). Parents, teachers, and professionals can address the physical and emotional changes of puberty and the risks of those changes. It will help the adolescents to increase their knowledge about pubertal changes and related risks.

During adolescence, both boys and girls spend hours to think about their physical appearance and body image. It occurs because of their desire to fit in with the group with whom they identify. Also, they develop a desire to have a unique style. They think more about their body weight. Adolescents who are overweight may suffer from the diseases such as diabetes (especially type II diabetes), high blood lipids, and hypertension. It may lead to social discrimination, depression, and low self esteem. Lack of exercise is an important factor. The level of physical exercises decreases as an adolescent gets older. Parents, teachers, and professionals can address the importance of physical exercises and healthy diet.

Adolescent cognitive development

Adolescents think abstractly. They analyse situations in terms of cause and effect relationship. They set personal goals. Cognitive abilities include problem solving, reasoning, abstract thinking, decision making, and planning. We can find difference in the cognitive development of boys and girls. During adolescence, girls have more confidence in their reading skills and social skills. Boys have more confidence in their attitude skills and mathematical skills (Eccles, Barber, and Jozefowicz, 1999).

During the period of adolescence, an individual may ask the questions such as, “Who am I?” These questions represent adolescents thought about their identity. It can happen at any stage during the life span. But, they occur most commonly in adolescence. Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, the stage adolescence is characterized by identity versus role confusion (13 to 19 years of age). Role confusion is the problem of adolescents. They are not sure about their roles and identities. Ochse and Plug (1986) studied that psychosocial development of an adolescent influences his or her well being. They found that well being is strongest in people those who are achieving this during the critical stage of development as explained by Erikson.

Marcia (1966) identified two types of identity in adolescents: the identity diffused and foreclosed. The identity diffused adolescents have no strong commitments and they are satisfied with their daily life. Adolescents with foreclosed identity have strong commitments. These commitments are internalized from their parents, teachers, and other people in their society.

The period adolescence includes the development of abstract thinking. Piaget (1972) found adolescence as a phase of cognitive development. Adolescents move from the stage of concrete operations to the stage of formal operation. Piaget (1972) mentioned that the formal operation (from 11 to 20 years of age) allows adolescents to reason about complex tasks. The stage of formal operation includes hypothetical deductive reasoning.

Adolescent moral development

Moral development is also occurring during adolescence. Adolescents make moral judgments based on their experiences. Morality is defined as the way an adolescent or an individual chooses to live with a set of principles or rules. When an individual comes to the stage, adolescence, their understanding of morality expands. Lawrence Kohlberg (1958) developed a theory of morality. He believed that moral development is based on cognitive development. He argued that moral thinking of an individual change as cognitive abilities develop.

Kohlberg (1976) classified moral development into three stages such as pre conventional reasoning, conventional reasoning, and post conventional reasoning. The first stage of moral development is known as pre conventional reasoning. Here, moral reasoning is based on the external rewards or punishments. Moral reasoning is less egocentric in conventional reasoning. The individual tries to understand about the value of following the moral expectations of people in their society. The third stage is known as post conventional reasoning and moral reasoning is based on an individual’s own judgment. Like moral development, the religious beliefs become complex in adolescence because of the presence of abstract ideas in religious beliefs.

Adolescent emotional development

Arnett (1999) defined adolescence as a time of heightened emotions. The Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote that adolescents “are heated by nature as drunken men by wine.”About 250 years ago Jean- Jacques Rousseau has written adolescent’s stage as “storm and stress.” An adolescent experiences extreme emotions such as, anger, sadness, etc. Larson and Richards (1994) reported that adolescents experience and report extreme negative emotions than younger children and adults. Verma and Larson (1999) reported that adolescents in India also report extreme and negative emotions than their parents.

The concept of self becomes more complex in adolescents. Self refers to the totality of a Person’s feelings and thoughts having reference to him or herself as an object. Oysterman and Fryberg (2006) reported that adolescents can distinguish between an actual self and possible selves. Actual self is an individual’s perception of the self as it is. Possible selves are an individual’s creation of the self as it is potentially may be. Possible self is divided into two types such as, ideal self and feared self. The ideal self is the person the adolescent would like to be. The feared self is the person the adolescent imagines that it is possible to become but is scared of becoming.

If the discrepancy between ideal self and actual self are large enough, it leads to the feelings such as, failure, inadequacy, anxiety, and depression. Also, the concept of self becomes complex, when they aware about their false self. False self is a type of self adolescents present to others while understanding that it does not represent what they actually are. Adolescents show their false self to their romantic partners, friends, and parents (Harter, 2006).

Harter (2006) mentioned that self esteem declines in early adolescents and rises in late adolescents. One of the reasons may be imaginary audience. Adolescents think that other people watch and judge them. Self esteem increases in the late adolescents may be because of the less importance they are giving towards the peer groups or others evaluations. Susan Harter (1990) identified eight domains of adolescent’s self image: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, job competence, romantic appeal, behavioral conduct, and close friendship. This scale also contains a subscale known as global or overall self esteem. The research shows that an adolescent does not need to have a positive self image in all domains to achieve global or overall self esteem. Each domain of this scale influences global or overall self esteem only to the extent that an adolescent thinks a domain as important.

Development of identity occurs when they relate themselves to others. They receive emotional skills. Emotional intelligence involves recognize emotions, manage emotions, self awareness, empathy, relationship skills, resolve conflicts, and develop a cooperative attitude. Adolescents without relationship skills are at higher risks (Olweus, 1996).

Adolescent social development

Adolescent’s social development is based on the context in which they live, such as peer groups, family, school, and community. During adolescence, their attention shift from family members to peer groups. Adolescents try to establish independence, especially from their parents. Adolescents develop an increased contact with their peer groups. But it does not mean that parents become less important during adolescence. Social development is necessary. Adults can educate adolescents about the importance of having positive peer group relationships. Negative peer group relationship can lead to problem behaviors such as smoking, use of alcohol, sexual relationship, and suicide attempts. Positive peer group relationships will help an adolescent to develop moral judgment and values, increase awareness about the world and themselves.

Adolescence includes change and rapid development. It includes both protective factors and risk factors. During adolescence children may feel anxiety and unpleasant because they want to adjust with their school, social, and family life. Havighurst (1962) identified the developmental tasks. He defined it as “a task which arises at a certain period in the life of an individual and successful achievement of these tasks will lead a person to the state of happiness and failure leads to unhappiness.”

The developmental tasks of adolescents: make a mature relationship with the people of the same age of both sexes, achieve a social role based on their gender, accept the physical changes and use the changes effectively, achieve emotional independence, especially from their parents, prepare for a family life and marriage, prepare for a career, accept a set of values to guide the behavior, and achieve socially accepted behavior.

The stages of adolescence

There are three stages.

Early adolescence

Early adolescence includes physical changes and sexual maturation which includes secondary sexual characteristics. The external changes occur during early adolescence may lead to anxiety or excitement. During early adolescence the brain undergoes various changes such as the number of brain cells becomes double, reorganization of the neural networks which affect the physical, mental, and emotional abilities. The frontal lobe which controls the abilities such as reasoning and decision making begins to develop during early adolescence. Early adolescents become more aware about their gender. They follow norms by making adjustment in their behavior and appearance. They experience confusion about their identity. During early adolescence, they develop concrete thinking and begin to find new ways of behavior.

Middle adolescence

In middle adolescence, the physical changes continue. They begin to think abstractly. They develop reasoning ability, formation of identity and begin to influence and are influenced by their peer groups. They follow risk taking behaviors.

Late adolescence

Usually, the physical changes are coming to an end during late adolescence. They develop abstract thinking, reasoning abilities and sense of identity. They think more about their body image. Late adolescence is a period of opportunities. They begin to face new areas such as higher studies and work. They face risk taking behaviors but assess the risk of those behaviors.

Factors

Adolescents’ life is influenced by the context in which they live such as family, school, and peer groups. It can act as both protective and risk factors. There are four major categories. The categories are family, school, peer group, and community. These factors can influence adolescents either positively or negatively.

The first category is family and it includes relation with parents, family size, parenting style, domestic violence, physical and mental illness, and single parenting families. The second category is school and it includes connection with school, relation with teachers and friends, expectations of teachers, support from teachers, and being treated equally. The third category is peer group and it includes isolation, perceived versus actual peer group or member’s behavior, prejudice, positive and negative peer model, and conformity. The final category is community and it includes rules and norms, expectations by the community, presence of media, migration and positive and negative role models.

Researcher explained adolescence as a complex period in lifespan development. They face new challenges. Perkins (2003) identified four risk behaviors in adolescents: alcohol and substance use, teenage sexual activity, delinquency and antisocial behavior, and school failure.

Presence of these risk factors can negatively influence several areas: physical health, achievement of developmental tasks, achievement of social roles and social skills, a sense of competence, and the preparation for the next stage of the lifespan development. Adolescents risk behaviors affect well being.

Well being

Well being is relatively a complex concept. Adolescents face a variety of questions in their life which influence their well being. What is a good life? How do they find the rules which guide their life? How do they choose a career? These questions, along with many other questions, can define the state of well being for each adolescent as they move towards adulthood.

Ryan, R.M. (2001) defined well being as “an optimal psychological functioning and experience.” People are interested in finding the answers to the questions: What is a good life? The term good life is connected to well being and a happy life. Reber (1995) defined well being as “a condition of a system in which the essential qualities are relatively stable.”

Shin and Johnson (1978) defined well being as “a global assessment of an individual’s quality of life according to his or her own chosen criteria.” The World Health Organization (1997) defined quality of life as “an individual’s perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns.” This concept is influenced by several factors such as an individual’s health, psychological state of an individual, personal beliefs, social relationship, etc. Martin Seligman (2002), developed a well being theory. It is known as the PERMA model. It explains the factors of well being: positive emotion, relationships, engagement, meaning, accomplishment. It helps the individuals to lead a great life.

Well being in the Indian context

The Sanskrit term sukham means happiness. According to the Indian belief, the source of all suffering is within the person. Dalal and Misra (2010) tell that the main aim of human life to bring harmony of spirit, mind, and body for everlasting happiness and transformation of an individual to achieve well being. In Indian context, higher level of well being is influenced by healthy interpersonal relationships, satisfaction of basic or primary needs, strong and good friendship with others, and religious practices and its performances (Singh, et al. 2014).

Taittiriya Upanishad has explained that well being is the moment when there is an unobstructed manifestation of ananda. It is an individual’s true nature or original nature. In India, the desire for well being of all individuals is an important consideration. India, especially early tradition gives more importance to the concept well being.

In looking at well being, it is important first to explain the history of the concept well being. There are two approaches emerged in the area of well being. The two approaches are: the hedonic tradition and the eudaimonic tradition. The hedonic tradition tells about the constructs such as happiness, positive affect, negative affect, and satisfaction (Dodge, R, 2012). The eudaimonic tradition tells about the constructs such as positive psychological function and human development (Dodge, R, 2012).

Bradburn (1969) explained well being. He studied how individuals coped with the difficulties in their daily life. He tried to define well being based on the concepts such as, positive affect and negative affect. He said that an individual who has an excess of positive affect over negative affect will be high in psychological well being and will be low in psychological well being if he or she has an excess of negative affect over positive affect. He did not give a proper definition on well being.

Diener and Suh (1997) identified three components related to subjective well being. The three components are life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect. According to Diener and Suh (1997), the pleasant and unpleasant moods and emotions are known as affect and a cognitive sense of satisfaction with life is known as life satisfaction. Ryff (1989) identified the factors which constitute well being. The factors that constitute well being are autonomy, environmental mastery, positive relationships with others, purpose in life, realization of potential and self-acceptance.

Diener (2000) believed that well being is the result of subjective evaluation of an individual’s current status in the world. Well being is influenced by an individual’s experience of pleasure and appreciation of rewards in life. Diener (2000) defined subjective well being as a result of the combination of positive affect and life satisfaction.

Researchers who provided the support to hedonic tradition believed that subjective well being and happiness are same. But, the researchers who supported the eudaimonic tradition believed that subjective well being and happiness are not same. The developed a formula. Well being = happiness + meaning.

The dynamic equilibrium theory of well being supported the definition of well being given by Reber in 1995. This theory is also known as set point theory. The dynamic equilibrium theory of well being is developed by Headey and Wearing in 1989. According to this theory, for most of the people, subjective well being is relatively stable for most of the time because the stock levels, individual’s income flows, and subjective well being are in dynamic equilibrium. They tried to understand two things: an individual’s ability to cope with change, and how an individual’s level of well being is affected. They told that the level of well being changes when an individual moves from the state of equilibrium due to external factors.

In 2010, Cummins explained well being. In his theory of well being, the term equilibrium is replaced by the term homeostasis. This theory focuses on the strength of a challenge and how it influences the subjective well being. When an individual does not experience any challenge, the level of subjective well being is not changing. When an individual experiences mild challenge, the levels of subjective wellbeing change. Well being is stable when an individual has the psychological, social, and physical resources to meet the challenges.

A life span perspective on well being

The level of well being varies between different stages of human life. Ryff (1989) studied psychological well being at different stages of human life. He found that as an individual gets older, different factors of well being increase or decrease and some factors become constant. He analyzed psychological well being between young (18 to 29 years of age), midlife (30 to 64 years of age) and old age (65 years of age and above). He found that factors such as environmental mastery and autonomy increased with age and purpose in life and personal growth are decreased as an individual gets older. He did not report any change in the factors such as positive relationships and self acceptance. Also, Ryff (2002) found that the level of psychological well being and social well being increases when a person have higher level of education, extraversion, and conscientiousness and lower level of neuroticism. The pleasant affect may decline with age. But, the satisfaction towards life does not decline with age (Diener and Lucan, 2000).

Types of well being

Well being can be divided into three main categories (Snyder, C.R. 2007). The three categories: psychological well being, social well being, and emotional well being. The two factors which influence psychological health are psychological distress and psychological well being. Wilkinson and walford (1998) reported that psychological distress is measured by anxiety and negative affect. They also reported that psychological well being is measured by life satisfaction, positive affect, and happiness. Wilkinson and walford (1998) mentioned that psychological well being is influenced by the factors such as happiness, self-esteem, social involvement, and mental balance. Psychological distress can be measured by the factors such as anxiety, depression, and lack of social involvement.

Psychological well being

The psychological well being of an adolescent is important. It influences their social relations and performances. Depressive mood can lead to serious psychological disorders in the future. So, psychological well being in adolescence is important because it predicts their adult well being. Ryff (1989) identified six components of psychological well being. The six components are self-acceptance, personal growth, and purpose in life, environmental mastery, autonomy, and positive relations with others.

Self-acceptance is defined as an individual’s positive attitude towards his or her self. They accept multiple aspects of their self and maintain a positive feeling about their past life. For example, a person might think that he likes most part of his life. Personal growth is defined as a feeling to continue the potential and development. They are open to new experiences in their life. For example, a person might think that life is a continuous process of learning and experience. Purpose in life is defined as a person’s ability to have goals in his or her life and a sense of direction. They think that past life is meaningful. For example, a person might think, “some people are not maintaining any goal in their life, but I am not like them.” Environmental mastery is defined as a feeling of competence. They are able to manage a complex environment. Generally they think that they are in charge of the situation in which they live. Autonomy is defined as a person’s ability to be independent and try to control or regulate his or her behavior within himself or herself. A person may think that he has confidence in his opinions. Positive relation is defined as a feeling of warm and trusting relationships with others. They considers others welfare. They show empathy, affection, and intimacy. For example, they may think that others should consider them as a lovable and a giving person.

There are several factors which influence an adolescent’s psychological well being. The factors which influence the psychological well being are family conflicts, parental relationships, stress of adolescents within family and school, and peer group relations. The family structure influences an adolescent’s psychological well being. The concept family structure can be divided into three categories such as, family composition, economic deprivation, and family conflict (Demo, D.H. 1996).

Research studies show that families with two biological parents are the positive indicators of adolescence well being. An adolescent who is not raised by his or her biological parents shows lower levels of well being (Falci, C.D. 1997). Falci, C.D. (1997) reported that adolescents show low level of well being when they lack emotional, economic, and educational support from their parents. Bowlby (1982) developed attachment theory. According to this theory, adolescents seek help from their parents during times of stress. This theory tells about the balance between emerging independence and closeness with parents. Adolescents try to become independent. But, they continue to use parents in order to get help in times of stress or any other problems. Insecure attachment with parents leads to psychological problems. Children from single-parent families never married families, and step-families shows low level of psychological well being.

Psychological well being is influenced by economic deprivation. Single- parent families, especially mother-only families, suffer from economic deprivation. Economic deprivation leads to lower level of parental nurturance, adolescent distress, and lack of discipline among adolescents. Parental conflict shows lower level of psychological well being among adolescents. It leads to adjustment problems and academic difficulties.

Relationship with peers is another indicator of an adolescent’s psychological well being. It is determined by the quality of relationship between an adolescent and his or her peer group and the type of peer group. Adolescents make friendship with their peer group to get support in their life, share experiences, standards for social comparison, opportunity to try the adult roles, and leisure time recreation. Siddique and D’Arcy (1984) reported that stress in families and school have negative impact on adolescents well being.

Social well being

Social well being is defined as a sense of involvement with other people in their society and active engagement with their life. Keyes (1998) developed the theory of social well being and this theory includes five elements. The elements of social well being are social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution, social coherence, and social integration. Social acceptance includes positive attitude towards other people and accept others. These people do not care about other people’s problems. In social actualization, people think that society has a potential to grow positively. They think that the world is becoming a better place for everyone. Social contribution is defined as a feeling that they have something valuable to give to the present and to the society. In social coherence, people see a social world as intelligible and logical. Social integration is a feeling where people think that they belong to a community.

Emotional well being

The lower level of emotional well being leads to anxiety, depression, and stress. The elements of emotional well being are positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction, and happiness. Positive affect is the experience of symptoms that suggest enthusiasm, joy, and happiness for life. Negative affect is the absence of symptoms that suggest that life is unpleasant. Life satisfaction is a sense of satisfaction from the small discrepancies between needs and wants. Happiness is a feeling of pleasure and joy.

Factors affect adolescents well being

Andrews et al. (2002) defined well being as “a healthy and successful individual functioning which includes physiological, psychological, and behavioral level, positive social relationships with parents, family members, peer group, and other people in the society, and a social ecology that provides safety.” This definition talks how different dimensions of an adolescent life influence the well being.

The developmental phase adolescence is characterized by significant physical and psychological changes and it influences the mental and physical health of an adolescent. During adolescence, they become stronger and faster. Also, they achieve abstract thinking, reasoning and problem solving abilities, and good immune function. According to Dahl (2004), adolescence is a period of strength and resilience. It represents the positive side of an adolescent development. We can find high rate of accidents, suicide, alcohol and substance use or abuse, depression, homicide, and wrong sexual behaviors among adolescents as they move from childhood to adulthood (Dahl, 2004).

The factors which affect adolescents well being can be divided into two categories such as environmental factors and personal factors. The environmental factors include family, school, and community. The personal factors include cognition, social, and emotional factors.

Family has a strong influence on adolescents well being. The factors which contribute to an adolescent well being are positive relationship with parents, safety, healthy family, provide opportunities to participate in decision making process in the family, respect towards the interest or opinions of adolescents, provide higher level of education, learn positive values, and achievement of social and emotional capabilities. The majority of adolescents perceive their family as important. They wish to spend their time with their family members. They consider one of the family members as their hero and develop a trustworthy relationship with that family member. However, some adolescents develop problems with their families. They wish to stay away from their families. It may lead to problematic behavior. Adolescents may feel that parents provide too many restrictions on them.

School plays an important role in adolescent’s well being. The factors which contribute to adolescent’s well being are positive relationship between teachers and adolescents, consider adolescents’ interests and opinions as important, provide opportunities in decision making, treatment towards adolescents without considering the gender, social and family background, motivate adolescents to learn values which are accepted in the society, and encourage them to learn social and emotional capabilities. Lack of guidance may lead adolescent’s problematic behavior and it may negatively affect their well being.

Community affects the well being of adolescents. Positive adult and adolescence relationship is important. Community can provide an opportunity for positive peer group relationships and provide an opportunity for adolescents to interact with the members in the community.

We observe that the changes in the family and community can negatively affect the well being of adolescents. In India, the urbanization has changed the traditional way of upbringing the children. Earlier times, the family and community played an important role in socializing the youth. Generally, rural community offers consistent messages about roles, rules, norms, and appropriate behavior than an urban community. The rural community stands as homogenous and shows responsibility towards the proper development of youth. The communities which are high in social resources and emotional resources face fewer risk behaviours and provide a place for the better development of adolescents.

The urbanization and industrialization have played an important role in the development of nuclear families in India. It reduced the support from adult which are available to the adolescents. It reduces the development of safe and healthy families. Absence of rules, norms, and positive relationship with parents lead adolescents to unhealthy behaviors. Mothers find less time to monitor their children because of employment. It increases the risk behaviors of adolescents.

Personal factors which affect well being include cognition, social, and emotional factors. The cognitive factors which contribute to adolescents well being are general intellectual abilities, thinking and problem solving skills, verbal and non-verbal abilities, academic skills and increasing knowledge about the world and self, and language skills. Social and emotional factors include coping skills, positive social skills and values, and work related skills.

Personality of an adolescent influences his or her well being. Healthy personality development leads to higher level of well being. Costa and McCrae (1980) reported that extraversion leads to positive affect and neuroticism leads to negative affect. They also mentioned that extraversion and neuroticism represent enduring cognitive dispositions and it can affect well being. Agreeableness and conscientiousness are other personality variables. These variables can help an individual to encounter a particular situation. It can affect the well being of an individual.

The socioeconomic status is another determinant of adolescent well being. The low socioeconomic status of the family leads to developmental problems among adolescents. Adolescents from poor socio economic status lack necessary services and experiences such as, opportunity for education, and social connections. It leads to adjustment and developmental problems. Adolescents from single-parent family show lower level of well being than children from two-parent families (Buchanan et al. 2000).

Identity development takes place during adolescence. The concept of self becomes more complex during adolescence. They try to become independent. Individuation is related to higher well being in adolescence. Adolescents may develop a negative self-concept and it leads to poor social functioning and risky problem behaviors.

An adolescent’s body image determines the psychological well being. Cash (1999) defined body image as a person’s thought, feelings, and perceptions about their body overall, including appearance, age, race, functions, and sexuality. Adolescents face bodily changes during puberty and adaptation to these changes influences their psychological well being. Gender also plays an important role. During early adolescence, girls’ dissatisfaction of boy image increase. While, boys’ body image and psychological well being become positive during the developmental period adolescence.

We have identified the types and factors related to well being during adolescence. The concept well being becomes an important topic for research studies and discussion. Generally, the term well being represents optimal psychological functioning and experience. Well being explained by two traditions such as hedonic tradition and eudaimonic tradition. The hedonic tradition considers well being and happiness are synonymous. They assess the balance between positive affect and negative affect. The eudaimonic tradition finds how well an individual is living in relation to his or her true selves. There no standard scale of either hedonic well being or eudaimonic well being. But, the commonly used instruments are Bradburn’s affect balance (1969), Neugarten’s life satisfaction index (1961), and Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale (1965).

Measurements

Carol Ryff (1989) developed a scale of psychological well being. This scale includes six components of psychological functions. The psychological functions are self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, environmental mastery, and personal growth. The scale was used and validated on a sample of 321 men and women and they were well educated, financially comfortable, and physically healthy. The responses are based on a scale of 1 to 6 where 1 indicates strong disagreement and 6 indicates strong agreement. For each dimensions, internal consistency values varied between 0.86 and 0.91. It represents high reliability. And, it shows higher level of validity (correlation coefficients varied between 0.83 and 0.99).

Friedman (1994) has developed a well being scale. It is known as the Friedman well being scale. It is a short scale. The scale is used to measure the psychological well being. It has five scales and they are emotional stability, self-esteem or self-confidence, sociability, joviality, and happiness.

The psychological well being scale (PWB) includes eight items. It explains the important aspects of human functioning. It includes positive relationships with others, feelings of competence, and purpose in life. The respondents rate their responses on a 1 to 7 scale and 1 represents strong disagreement and 7 represents strong agreement. The range of the scores varies from 8 to 56 and the score 8 represents strong disagreement with all items and the score 56 represents strong agreement with all items.

Bradburn (1969) developed a scale on psychological well being and it is known as Bradburn scale of psychological well being. It is also known as the affect balance scale. The scale includes two components, the positive affect and the negative affect and each component include five items. The respondents rate their responses as yes or no.

Verma (1989) developed a well being scale. The scale is known as PGI general well being. It is a scale developed to measure the positive mental health of Indian participants. The scale includes the statements represents well being, life satisfaction, feeling of belongingness, and emotional stability.

Eryilmaz (2009) developed an adolescent well being scale. The scale is known as adolescent subjective well being scale. It includes 15 items. The scale measure adolescent’s satisfaction and positive affection in different areas of their life. The scale includes four dimensions. The dimensions are satisfaction in family relationships, satisfaction from life, positive affection, and satisfaction from the relationships with other people. Birleson (1980) developed the adolescent well being scale. This scale was developed to find the possible depression in adolescents. The scale has 18 questions.

Diener (1984), Seligman (2002), Ryff (1989), and Keyes (1998) developed psychosocial well being inventory based on their works on the models of subjective, psychological, and social well being. In this scale, participants were asked to rate how frequently they experienced three symptoms of subjective well being related to their everyday life events, three symptoms of subjective well being related to the faculty life, six symptoms from the Ryff’s work on psychological well being, and five symptoms of social well being based on the theory of well being by Keyes. The three symptoms of subjective well being related to everyday life events are satisfaction, happiness, and interest. The three symptoms of subjective well being related to the faculty life are satisfaction, happiness, and interest related to faculty. Six symptoms of psychological well being are self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, environmental mastery, and personal growth. Five symptoms of social well being are social integration, social contribution, social coherence, social actualization, and social acceptance.

Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being is a scale using to measure the well-being of adolescence. The scale is developed to measure the well-being of adolescents from the age of 13 years to 20 years. Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being is formed to understand the well-being of adolescents to enhance the knowledge of parents about their children and their issues. This scale can be used as screening, diagnostic, and research tool. The Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being has twelve dimensions. The dimensions are autonomy, achievement, freedom from anxiety, control, freedom from depression, lifestyle, personal competence, personal morale, spiritual quality, social contacts, social support, and interpersonal trust.

Autonomy is defined as a freedom or ability of an individual to make choices by themselves. Achievement is defined as the personal sense of an individual about his or her achievement. Freedom from anxiety is defined as the level of anxiety an individual experiences when he or she meets stressors in his or her everyday life. The dimension control tells the degree of control one individual has on his or her life. The freedom from depression refers to the level of depression one individual has in his or her life when he or she meets stressors in everyday life. Lifestyle addresses the life of an individual based on what he or she does on a regular basis in their lives. It explains the lifestyle of an individual. Personal competence is refers to the confidence on individual has about his or her capabilities. Personal morale addresses the state of an individual based upon a sense of confidence and purpose. Spiritual quality is defined as the belief on individual has on a power operating in the universe and the knowledge of an individual about the purpose and meaning of his or her life. Social support is defined as a feeling of belonging to a group in the society such as friends, family or communities. Interpersonal trust is defined as a trust where an individual develops with other people.

Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale was revised by Richard Suinn (1968). This scale includes 38 items and items measure behavior and emotions of adolescents. The scale measures trait anxiety. The original scale of Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale includes 50 items. Richard Suinn removed 12 items from the original scale.

The WHO Well-being Index (World Health Organization, 1998) is developed to assess the well-being. It is a self-administered questionnaire and includes five questions. The total score ranges from 0 to 25. According to the criteria, the score below 13 represents poor well-being and score above 13 represents better well-being.

Well being represents optimal psychological functioning and experience. Well being integrates biological, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions of an individual’s life. Well being results from an individual’s evaluation of several dimensions of his or her life. Adolescents well being is highly linked with the factors such as family structure and relationship with parents, relationship with peer group, academic achievement, self-esteem, personality, etc. adolescents with high level of well being show resilience, less problem behaviors, lower depressive symptoms, high self-esteem, and adaptation. It is important for the adolescence to keep a level of relative well being to pass the developmental period adolescence successfully without experiencing any particular stressful incidents or traumas.

Anxiety

Anxiety is an excessive fear about something. Anxiety can be defined as a feeling of worry about something which provides a negative outcome. Anxiety is anticipation about the future threat. It may take the form of worry, rumination, and negative thoughts. Adolescence is considered as a period stress in development process (Spear, 2000). It may be because of the changes such as physical maturation, desire for independence, changes in relationship, etc (Blakemore, 2008).

There are two types of anxiety such as state anxiety and trait anxiety. State anxiety is defined as a measure of acute anxiety, while trait anxiety is defined as a measure of long term anxiety and its responses. Adolescents experience normal anxiety or anxiety disorders. The normal level of anxiety may create issues such as lower academic performances, health problems and diseases, behavioral issues, difficulty in concentrating, etc. Normal level of anxiety is a part of an individual’s life. It becomes a serious issue when it becomes a disease condition. It becomes an anxiety disorder when the symptoms last for more than six months.

High level of anxiety may develop a negative influence on adolescent’s life. Adolescents with high level of anxiety may experience academic underachievement, poor social relationships, depression, and conflicts in families. Anxiety is a common mental disorder among adolescents. Anxiety occurs in the presence of an unpleasant outcome and it is accompanied by the symptoms such as headache, sweating, increased heart beat, increased breathing, stomach discomfort, chest pain, etc. Also, anxiety influences the thoughts (negative thoughts) and behaviors (such as avoidance) of adolescents.

Adolescents experience anxiety than other stages in the process of life span development because adolescents experience the process of developing as more complicated and challenging. Because, the adolescents meet many problems related to lack of experiences, expectations, increasing responsibilities, physiological and psychological changes, etc. (Healy, 2009). Anxiety of adolescents can be influenced by the factors such as age and gender. Healy (2009) reported that children between the ages of 11 to 18 years are more prone to anxiety. Adolescents consider their life as more challenging because of lack of experience, influence from peer groups, family pressures and increasing responsibilities. Anxiety is more in women than men.

There are several other causes also. The past experiences can cause anxiety. Past experiences such as loss of friend or parents or sibling, peer group rejection, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, disabilities can create and increase anxiety in adolescents. Anxiety can lead to various negative consequences. Anxiety can lead to psychological problems such as lack of concentration, hopelessness and feeling of worthlessness. Anxiety includes anticipation of future threat. Fear of future (rejection from peer groups, continuous pressure from parents and relatives) can lead to panic attack. Also, anxiety can lead to lack of interest, crying (intermittent), aggression, fear, and phobia (social phobia).

Also adolescents face some day to day events which create anxiety. These day to day events include changes in body structure, body image, fear of exam, issues with peer groups, entrance exams, conflicts with neighbors, issues with parents or siblings, chronic diseases, higher expectations from parents, higher expectations from community and teachers, etc.

The presence of automatic thoughts which are negative in nature can lead to anxiety. These automatic thoughts can be formed by several factors. The schema adolescents develop during their early life may act as a cause. Once the schema becomes maladaptive, it can negatively influence the well-being of adolescents by developing or increasing anxiety among them (Young, 2003).

Social anxiety is another concept. Social anxiety is defined as the over estimation of interactions in the society. According to cognitive theory, an individual with social anxiety overestimate the actions and thoughts of others, under estimate their own abilities, and except only negative outcomes for their actions. It stresses them to avoid social situations.

The level of anxiety can vary across the stages of adolescence. The process of development varies in the stages of adolescence. Early adolescence (10 to 13 years) is characterized by the presence of school age and pubertal changes. They face problems such as physical maturity, teacher’s expectation, problems with friends, expectation from parents, etc. Middle adolescence (14 to 16 years) is characterized by the presence of factors such as desire for independence, relationship with opposite sex, etc. They face problems relate to their relationship. Late adolescence (17 to 19 years) is characterized by the presence of identity development. They face problems relate to their identity, opinions, interests, etc. In India, 12 or 13 years of age is considered as normal. The development stage adolescence begins at the age of 12 or 13 years (Rasquinha, 2012).

Researchers conducted studies to understand the link between psychological well-being and psychological distress such as anxiety. The presence of psychological distress can affect the psychological well-being of adolescents. Psychological distress or dysfunction leads to physical morbidity, lower quality of life, reduce the duration of life, and increase the use of medical service and anti social behaviors.

CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The literature on adolescents well being is extensive and diverse. This chapter examined and summarized existing studies on adolescents well being. The review of literature includes the research studies on well-being and anxiety on early adolescents, middle adolescents, late adolescents and the factors which influence well being and anxiety of adolescents.

What is adolescence?

Psychologists study adolescence. But, the scientific study of adolescence was started by G. Stanley Hall. In 1904, he published a book known as adolescence. The term storm and stress was coined by Stanley hall. He used this term to explain adolescence. He viewed adolescence as a period of emotional and behavioral disturbances.

Researchers explained the characteristics of three categories of adolescence. In early adolescence, they face bodily changes. It leads them to face developmental challenges. Also they develop an emotional separation from their parents. In middle adolescence, they develop relationship with their peers and continue the relationship with parents. Middle adolescence is characterized by the presence of abstract thinking and moral thinking. In late adolescence, they construct values and follow the norms and rules of society.

Adolescence is an important period. Also, it is a complex period in lifespan development. Adolescents’ sensitivity towards external and internal stressors may increase the level of distress in adolescents. Family members, teachers, peer groups, and society can influence the behavior and emotion of adolescents. The focus of this research study is early, middle, and late adolescence.

Biological, cognitive, social, and emotional processes in the development of adolescents

The development of an adolescent is determined by the four processes including biological, cognitive, social, and emotional (Santrok, 2001). The biological process includes the biological make up of an individual which unique to him or her. It genetically influences the adolescent’s development and behavior. The researchers reported that the development of an adolescent is mainly influenced by biological factors and less influenced by the environmental factors (Hall, 1904). Now, researchers give equal importance to both biological and environmental factors. They try to find the interaction between biological factors and environmental factors in adolescent development.

Cognitive processes address the changes in thinking. There are changes in an adolescent thinking during the period of development. Also, the period adolescence is characterized by the presence of cognitive abilities such as problem solving, decision making, etc. social and emotional processes address the development of emotions in adolescents based on the social contexts in which they live.

Well being of adolescents

Adolescence is an important developmental period. Psychologists considered adolescence as a difficult and complex stage in the process of life span development. The stage adolescence is characterized by the changes such as development of brain, changes in emotion, cognitive abilities, and behavior. While majority of adolescents pass this stage without facing particular problems others suffer from different kinds of behavior and emotional problems. Adolescents, who pass this stage successfully, report a level of relative well being. Well being of adolescence is a field which gives opportunities for research studies. It is a growing field of study. Different researchers explained the concept of adolescent’s well being in different way.

Steuer and Marks (2008) defined wellbeing as a “positive physical, social and mental state; it is not just the absence of pain, discomfort and incapacity. It arises not only from the action of individuals, but from a host of collective goods and relationships with other people. It requires that basic needs are met, that individuals have a sense of purpose, and that they feel able to achieve important personal goals and participate in society. It is enhanced by conditions that include supportive personal relationships, involvement in empowered communities, good health, financial security, rewarding employment, and a healthy and attractive environment.”

Well being is also defined as “a healthy and successful individual functioning which includes physiological, psychological, and behavioral level, positive social relationships with parents, family members, peer groups, and other people in the society, and a social ecology that provides safety (Andrews et al, 2002).” Adolescents well being is related to several factors of adolescents well being such as school, peer group, family and parents, personality, self-esteem, etc. (Pyhalto et al., 2010). Cloninger (2004) reported that well being integrates biological, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions of an individual’s life.

In this review, we focus on the psychological, emotional, social, behavioral, and subjective well being of adolescents. Psychological well being of adolescents includes self-acceptance, personal growth, and purpose in life, environmental mastery, autonomy, and positive relations with others. The social well being includes social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution, social coherence, and social integration. The emotional well being includes positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction, and happiness. Gutman and Feinstein (2008) explained four dimensions of emotional well being and social well being. The four dimensions are mental health, anti social behavior, pro social behavior, and achievement. Mental health includes the factors such as locus of control, scholastic competence, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Anti social behavior includes bullying, peer victimization, smoking, drinking alcohol, and stealing. Pro social behavior includes satisfaction in friendship. Final factor is achievement such as getting good marks in school subjects.

Emotion is an important aspect. It affects the well being of adolescents. Emotion of an adolescent is influenced by the factors such as family, school, and community. For example, students are evaluated by their parents, teachers, and other people in society in terms of their marks and performances in school. One aspect of adolescence which is not usually evaluated is emotional intelligence. Researchers study emotional intelligence of adolescents.

In 1995, Meyer and Salovey defined emotional intelligence as a type of social intelligence. It includes the ability of an individual to monitor one’s own emotions and other people’s emotions, the ability to find the discrimination between one’s own and others emotions and the ability to use this information for the right thinking, behavior, and actions. Researchers reported that emotional intelligence is necessary for a successful living of an individual (Goleman, 1995). A good understanding of emotions of one’s own and others will help adolescents in their problems. And, it is important in determining the psychological well being of adolescents.

As Erikson (1968) reported, adolescents search for meaning in their lives. Lack of meaning may lead adolescents to behavioral and emotional disturbances. Meaning in life is important. Adolescents can face identity crisis in their lives by having a sense of meaning (Hacker, 1994).

The stage of adolescence is characterized by the presence of two aspects such as imaginary audience and personal fable. The imaginary audience presents the limited ability of an adolescent to differentiate between his or her thoughts about himself or herself and his or her thoughts about others thought and imagine that others observe him or her. Personal fable is defined as a belief of an individual that difficulties that he or she is experiencing are unique to him or her. He or she thinks that other can’t understand him or her because no one is facing the difficulties what he or she is experiencing (Arnett, 2001). These challenges and difficulties during adolescence create more problems when they face high levels of expectations and pressures from family, school, and community. It may lead disorders such as anxiety, depression, and other behavioral and emotional disturbances (Kessler, Avenevoli, & Merikangar, 2001).

Body satisfaction is another aspect. According to Havighurst (1972), accept the physique and use the body effectively is one of the developmental tasks of adolescence. Body concerns become more important during adolescence. They experience dissatisfaction with body when they are not able to balance between their actual size of the body and the ideal one (Dunkley et al. 2001). Studies showed that female adolescents were not satisfied with their body size and image and engaged in the activities to reduce weight and male adolescents were also not satisfied with their body image and engaged in the activities to increase body weight and muscle tone (McCabe & Ricciardelli, 2001).

Personality is a predictor of well being (Cloninger et al., 1997). Healthy development of personality is related to several aspects of well being (Seligman, 2008). Positive affect and negative affect mediate the positive relationship between personality traits and subjective well being of adolescents (DeNeve & Cooper, 1998).

Asthana, H.S. (2011) studied the relation between big five personality factors and subjective well being of adolescents. The sample consisted of 150 male and 150 female and they were selected from middle and secondary schools. The participants were asked to complete the measures of big five personality factors and subjective well being. Correlation was used to analyse the data. The result of the study showed a significant difference between the extraversion from the big five personality factors and general health on subjective well being. They did not find any significant difference between male and female participants on the big five personality factors and subjective well being. It was found that the big five personality factors negatively and significantly related to anxiety and symptoms of depression and positively related to well being of the adolescents.

The six dimensions of psychological well being are positive relations, environmental mastery, self acceptance, autonomy, personal growth, and purpose in life (Ryff, 1989). Garcia (2011) reported that two dimensions of psychological well being (self acceptance and environmental mastery) are strongly related to positive emotions and satisfaction in life. Researchers found that adolescents with self fulfilling (high positive emotions and low negative emotions) show higher level on different dimensions of the psychological well being. Researchers revealed that self fulfilling adolescents report higher level on environmental mastery (Garcia and Siddiqui, 2009).

The development of autonomy is important during adolescence. Researchers considered autonomy as a characteristic of an adolescent’s relation with other people. The development of autonomy during adolescence includes three dimensions. The first dimension addresses an adolescent’s ability to behave independently. The second dimension talks about the knowledge of an adolescent that how to make control on his or her life. The third dimension addresses self confidence and individuality of an adolescent. Adolescence includes physical and psychological changes. And, they go through the process of identity formation and autonomy development.

Manuela Fleming (2005) conducted a study on early and late adolescence to study autonomy development during adolescence. The sample consisted of 994 participants (12 to 19 years of age). The researcher divided participants into two groups based on their age such as early adolescence (12 to 13 years old) and late adolescence (18 to 19 years old). The result shows that male adolescents achieved more autonomy than female adolescents as they engaged in the behaviors such as not obeying parents. An adolescent’s perception of autonomy is related to the factors such as separation from parents, and narcissism. A desire for autonomy develops as the child move to the adolescence.

The purpose of a study was to find out the role of emotional autonomy and the formation of identity in adolescent’s well being. Suninder Tung and Damanjit Sandhu (2005) conducted the study on Indian adolescents. The sample consisted of 400 adolescents (200 boys and 200 girls). The age of participants ranges from 16 to 21 years. The result showed that the factors such as individuality, identity formation, and independency were positively linked to well being. But, identity diffusion was negatively linked to well being. Autonomy development and identity formation are found to be strongly related with psychological well being.

Identity formation of adolescents is a complex process and it can influence the well being. The objective of the study was to find out the link between adolescent’s identity formation and psychological well being and considering the attitudes of parents (Sandhu, D., et al, 2012). The sample was selected from late adolescence and it consisted of 210 late adolescents (99 boy adolescents and 111 girls). The results showed that psychological well being was positively correlated with identity formation and negatively correlated with identity diffusion. Positive identity formation was associated with parent’s acceptance and concentration. The lower identity status was associated with parental avoidance and parental concentration.

Researchers found that identity achievement during adolescence is a predictor of positive psychological well being (Waterman, 2007). Sandhu, D et al., (2011) conducted a study to find the relationship of identity formation of adolescent boys and girls with attitudes of parents and psychological well being in the Indian culture. The sample consisted of 210 late adolescents and it includes 99 boys and 111 girls. The chronological age ranged from 17 years to 20 years. It was found that psychological well being and parental attitudes significantly correlated with identity formation of adolescents.

During adolescence, they desire to achieve autonomy and personal competence. They face new challenges in their lives. In order to overcome these challenges, adolescents try to develop a sense of self and identity. Early adolescents make friendship with people whom they like. Their self-concepts are organized. They evaluate themselves based on their beliefs and values. From middle adolescence they start to compare themselves with others. They involve in false behavior to make others happy and to achieve a position in society. Here, they become less confident about their capabilities (Harter, 1996).

Studies found that the interpersonal relationship during adolescence influences their psychological well being. The satisfactory relationship with parents, friends, and other people provide a positive outcome in adolescence as a process of development into the stage adulthood (Bina, Cattelino, & Bonino, 2004).

Interpersonal trust is important during the period adolescence and it plays a key role in developing a positive relationship with others. The level of interpersonal trust varies across the phases of adolescence. Researchers are interested to find out the level of trust among adolescents. Demir, Kındap,& Sayıl, (2007) reported that interpersonal trust will be more in late adolescents while comparing with early and middle adolescents. The sample consisted of 366 participants. They found that as the age increases adolescents develop strong interpersonal trust towards parents and peer groups. As Aristotle reported, late adolescents develop a strong social relationship through developing a mature interpersonal trust with others for a common good. In early adolescents, they develop trust with people who are like them. But, in late adolescents, they develop a trust with people with whom they are more familiar. Middle adolescents develop relation with peer groups than their parents. They face problems such identity formation and experience a desire to make relationship with friends. They more likely to talk their problems with their friends and they are not ready to share more information.

Good attachment with a secure figure leads to higher psychological well being. Adjustment is a relationship. It is established between an individual and his or her environment. Researchers believe that adjustment is a behavioral process and through the process of adjustment individuals maintain their equilibrium among their needs in the environment. Tyagi, V et al. (2015), tried to find out the inter relation between well being and adjustment among adolescents. The sample consisted of 60 participants (30 male and 30 female). The chronological age of the participants was 18 years. The participants were selected from Meerabai Institute of Technology, New Delhi. The participants completed the Ryff’s psychological well being scale and Bell’s adjustment inventory. The result shows a positive correlation between well being and adjustment. They found that the effect one factor will lead to the impact on other factor.

Psychological well being of an adolescent is influenced by their mental health. OConnell et al. (2009) provided the environmental risks factors which negatively influence the mental health of adolescents. The environmental risks factors are: disrupted family life, divorce between parents, parents with mental illness or problems, abuse, and problems in the academic life.

Researchers were interested to analyze how home environment affects different aspects of psychological well being of adolescents. Rapheal, J et al. (2014) studied how home environment affects the psychological well being of adolescents and its various aspects. The sample consisted of 153 participants. The participants were higher secondary school students. They were randomly selected from five schools of Kerala state, India. he results show that a positive home environment had a significant predictive power in the five aspects (life satisfaction, efficiency, interpersonal relations, sociability, and mental health) of psychological well being of adolescents. Also they did not find any significant effect between demographic variables of the participants and psychological well being.

Hasumi, Absan, and Couper (2012) conducted a study on Indian adolescents (early adolescent) to know the relation between parental involvement and mental well being. The sample consisted of 6721 adolescents (13 to 14 years old). The researchers tested parental involvement in the areas such as checking of home works, knowledge of parents about their children’s difficulties, problems, challenges, and activities of children during their free time. It found that the parental involvement decreased with age. The researchers found that mental health disorders increased with age when adolescents experience lack of parental involvement. The poor mental health reported the disorders such as loneliness, anxiety, and haplessness among adolescents.

Psychological well being is the combination of good feeling and effective well being. Schwartz (1995) defined values as desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance that serves as guiding principles in an individual’s life. Adolescence faces many challenges during their development. Erikson (1959) defined the adolescence development period as identity versus role confusion. For a right development they have to identify who they are and what are their roles. Values are important in order to determine their psychological well being (Kumar, R. 2014). Values improve well being and quality of life of an individual or an adolescent ((Kumar, R. 2014).

Kumar, R. (2014) conducted a study to examine the relationship between psychological well being and values among adolescents. The sample consisted of 200 participants. The chronological age of the participants ranged from 14 years to 16 years. The participants completed Ryff’s psychological well being scale and Value test (Ojha, 1992). It was found that psychological well being significantly positive correlated with theoretical, social, and religious values. The psychological well being significantly negative correlated with economic, aesthetic, and political values.

Salovey and Mayer (1990) defined emotional intelligence as a subset of social intelligence, and as an ability of an individual to understand his or her own and other’s emotions. Positive emotional intelligence acts as a strong predictor of better psychological adjustment and high self esteem and negative emotional intelligence leads to depression and risk behaviors (Petrides & Furnham, 2000).

Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of psychological well being. Researchers were interested to know the relation between emotional intelligence and psychological well being. Mehmood, T., & Gulzar, S. (2014) conducted a study to understand the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological well being (depression and self esteem) among adolescents. This study tried to analyze how much emotional intelligence related with psychological well being. The sample consisted of 182 participants. The chronological age of the participants ranged from 12 years to 18 years. The participants completed trait emotional intelligence questionnaire, revised children’s anxiety and depression scale, and Rosenberg self esteem scale. It was found that emotional intelligence is positively related to self esteem and negatively related to depression.

Effective emotional and social functioning will lead an individual to a better psychological well being. An individual needs to be emotionally and socially intelligent in order to enjoy the psychological well being. Lower emotional intelligence is associated with violent and risk behaviors among college students (Myers, D.G. 2000). Lower emotional intelligence among adolescents leads the problems like involvement in criminal activities, despair, violence, and continues absenteeism from the school. An individual cannot achieve a higher state of emotional intelligence if he or she is not able to do his or her day to day functions, effectively. An individual may achieve a higher state of psychological well being through a proper application of emotional intelligence.

It was an interesting area for the researchers to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and personality. Bracket and Mayer (2003) found that the big five personality factors and emotional intelligence are related. According to them, emotional intelligence was highly significantly correlated with neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and moderately correlated to openness to experience. Athota et al. (2009) identified emotional intelligence as a predictor of big five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. They conducted a study in Australia. The sample consisted of 131 participants (university students). They found emotional intelligence as a predictor of personality factors. It was found that emotional intelligence significantly predicts four factors of the big five personality factors such as, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and neuroticism.

Emotional intelligence helps adolescence to function better in all aspects ranging from career to personal life (Patel, H.A. 2015). Richardson (2000) reported that young people with low social and emotional competence become self centered and unable to show empathy towards others. Psychological well being includes happiness, satisfaction, sense of belongings, sense of achievement, absence of distress, absence of dissatisfaction, absence of dissatisfaction, etc.

Self efficacy plays an important role in the well being of adolescents. Self efficacy is defined as the belief of an individual in his or her abilities (Bandura, 1997). Self efficacy is associated with higher academic performances (Salami and Ogundokun, 2009). Caroli, M.E.D., and Sagone, E. (2014) conducted a study to understand the relation between self efficacy and psychological well being in adolescents. The sample consisted of 136 adolescents and the age ranges from 14 years to 18years old. It was found that there is positive relation between self efficacy and psychological well being (positive relation with the components of psychological well being such as environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self acceptance). The researchers considered the age of participants. They found that the components of psychological well being such as personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and self acceptance obtained highest scores among the adolescents with 16 years old (except autonomy). Adolescents with 14 years and 18 years of age obtained lowest scores. The relation between self efficacy and psychological well being was more in boys than girls (self acceptance and environmental mastery).

Kitamura (2004) found that earlier life experiences of an adolescent are linked with the psychological well being. Chang (2006) conducted a study to understand the association between perfectionism, stress and psychological well being. They found that stress is negatively associated with the psychological well being. Winter and Yaffe (2000) found that there is a direct influence (negative relation) between psychological well being and an adolescent’s depression, values, and perfectionism.

Park, N (2004) reported that a comprehensive view on well being includes positive aspects of an individual’s life such as subjective well being. Subjective well being includes life satisfaction. Low life satisfaction leads to psychological, social, and behavioral problems. High life satisfaction leads to good adaptation and optimal mental health among adolescents. Life satisfaction is influenced by the factors such as supportive parents, involve and engage in the activities which are challenging, positive life events, and good relationship with others.

An individual experiences or enjoys subjective well being when he or she has satisfaction with his or her life, presence of positive emotions and absence of negative emotions. There are several factors which influences adolescent are well being both positively and negatively. Researchers conducted studies to understand the relation between gender and subjective well being of adolescents. Some researchers found no relationship between gender and subjective well being (Ali Eryilmaz, 2010). But, others found a link between gender and subjective well being of adolescents. Hasida Ben-Zur (2003) found that gender influences subjective well being of adolescence.

Park and Peterson (2006) identified gratitude as a trait which is most frequently identified in young people aged 10 to 17 years. Gratitude is related to student’s life satisfaction. Gratitude is defined as a sense of thankfulness. Experiencing gratitude or thankfulness leads to a positive feeling. This, again, contributes to well being. Emmons and McCullough (2003) conducted a study on gratitude and well being. They divided the participants into three groups. The first group was asked to journal about negative events or hassles. The second group was asked to note the things for which they were grateful. The third group asked to note the neutral life events. The gratitude subsample showed higher well being than the other two groups.

Froh et al. (2008) conducted a study on 221 adolescents. The participants were assigned to a gratitude exercise, a hassles condition, or a control condition. It was found that the gratitude condition was associated with greater life satisfaction.

Froh et al. (2009) conducted a study on the topic gratitude and subjective well being in early adolescents with respect to their gender. The sample consisted of 154 participants. They completed the measures and scales of subjective well being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Adolescents with grateful moods showed greater subjective well being, optimism, prosocial behavior, gratitude in response to aid, and social support. They also found that gratitude is related to positive emotions such as pride, hope, inspire, forgiveness, and excitement. The results suggested that gratitude in early adolescents was related with social, emotional, and physical benefits. It was also found that boys get more social benefits from gratitude while compare with girls.

Hasemeyer, M.D. (2013) conducted a study to find the relationship between gratitude and psychological, social, and academic well being of adolescents. The sample consisted of 499 high school students. It was found that social support from parents mediated the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction. The support from teachers mediated the relationship between gratitude and academic well being. Gratitude will create positive emotions in an individual. It will strengthen an individuals or student’s psychological, social, and academic well being. Frederickson (2001) reported that gratitude and its positive feelings strengthen a student’s supportive social net work. This, in turn, leads to a better academic and psychological functioning.

Kirmani, M.N et al., (2015), studied the hope, resilience, and subjective well being in adolescent girls who were going to college. The sample consisted of 98 participants and they were selected from one of the Government universities at Aligarh city. The researchers used convenience sampling method. The participants completed socio demographic date sheet, adult trait hope scale, subjective well being scale, and resilience scale. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and correlation analysis were used to analyse the data. The result showed positive significant relationship between hole and resilience, hope and subjective well being, and resilience and subjective well being. The study shows the importance of providing positive mental health programs and interventions among the adolescent girls to enhance hope, resilience, and well being.

During adolescence children maintain a secure attachment with their parents. Supportive parents influence the well being of an adolescent. Kocayoruk, E. (2012) conducted a study to find out the influence of parents on adolescents’ subjective well being. They studied that whether parents directly influence the subjective well being of adolescents (positive affect and negative affect) or mediated through the satisfaction of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). The sample consisted of 227 participants. The participants include 129 female and 98 male. The chronological age ranged from 14 years to 18 years. It was found that satisfaction of basic psychological needs mediated the relationship between relationships of parents on adolescents’ well being.

The five elements of social well being are social acceptance, social actualization, social contribution, social coherence, and social integration (Keyes (1998). Peer group’s acceptance is an important factor of adolescent’s social well being (Parker, 2006). An adolescent develops positive social well being when he or she is accepted by the peer group. When an adolescent is not accepted by his or her peer group, he or she may experiences social and emotional disturbance.

Adolescents need a sense of belongings. Sense of belonging is a basic psychological need (Jose, P.E et al., 2012). They argued that the need for belonging is essential for well being. Negative peer group relationship is associated with risk behaviors and positive peer group relationship is associated with protective behaviors (Tome, G et al., 2012).

The relationship with peer groups becomes important during early and middle adolescence (Ronka, 2002). The secure relationship with peer groups helps the adolescents to stay away from risky behaviors. Laible (2000) reported that secure relationship with parents and peer groups helps the adolescents to decrease anxiety and depression and increase adjustment behaviors such as sympathy.

Jose, P.E et al., (2012) studied the relation between social connectedness and well being of adolescents. It was a longitudinal study. The sample consisted of 1,774 and the chronological age ranged from 10 to 15 years. It was found that adolescents who reported higher level of connectedness experience higher well being which includes life satisfaction, positive affect, aspiration, and confidence.

Albanesi, C et al., (2007), studied the relation between a sense of community, civic engagement, and social well being. The study was conducted on a sample of Italian adolescents. The sample consisted of 566 participants and the chronological age ranged from 14 to 19 years. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaires which assess sense of community, social well being, and civic engagement. It was found that involvement in formal group is related to increased civic engagement and increased sense of community. And, increased sense of community influenced social well being. It also explained the relation between civic engagement and social well being. This study addresses the importance to provide adolescents with more opportunities to experience a sense of belonging to the peer groups.

Well being of adolescents is influenced by the relationship with peer group. Sometimes, the relationship with peer group leads to problem behaviors. The habit of smoking increases during adolescence (Johnston et al., 2007). Social influence is the main factor. Adolescents start smoking because of social influence (Kobus, 2003). Adolescents smoking, alcohol, and other substance use are highly associated with the influence of peer group (Kobus, 2003).

Mohan, M et al., (2013), examined the peer group influence on adolescents’ well being. The sample consisted of 100 adolescents. Researchers collected 25 boys and 25 girls from Government schools and 25 boys and 25 girls from public schools. They selected the participants from 11th and 12th standards from various subjects and administered on the dimensions of friendship scale. This scale was developed by Sunanda Chandna and N.K. Chadha, in 1986. It was found that the students from both Government and public schools did not show any significant difference on the dimension of enjoyment, trust, mutual assistance, understanding, and spontaneity. But, they showed significant difference on the dimension of acceptance and confiding. Researchers found that public school students are more influenced by their peers than the students from government schools. It may be because students from public schools are getting more exposure and spend more time with their peer group. Thus, they develop positive well being due to their healthy relationship with their peers.

Adolescents well being is influenced negatively by their risk behaviors. Tome, G et al., (2012) studied the peer group influences on adolescents behavior. The sample consisted of 4,877 participants. The average age of the participants was 14 years. An explanatory model based on the structural equations modeling was used. It was found that the negative influence of peer group leads to problem behaviors and positive influence of peer group leads to protective behaviors.

Skinner, et al (2000) studied whether peer support and illness representation mediate the link between family support, self-management, and well being. The sample consisted of 52 participants. The chronological age of the participants ranged from 12 years to 18 years. Type 1 diabetes recruited and followed over six months. The participants completed the measurements of self management, well being, and social support. It was found that the support from both the parents and friends are important during the time of management of Diabetes. It is also found that the personal models of Diabetes are important determinants of both dietary self care and well being among adolescents.

The socio economic status influences the well being of an individual. Studies proved that higher socio economic status is linked with better well being among children and adult (Marmot, 2005) and adolescence (Goodman et al, 2007). Huurre, T et al, (2003) conducted a study to examine the impact of parent’s socio economic status on adolescents well being and health. The result showed that parent’s socio economic status influences adolescents well being and health.

Social and emotional well being are the two goals of education. It is also associated with academic achievement. Berger, C. (2011) considered socio-emotional well being, self-esteem, social integration, class room social climate, and characteristics of social net work in the class. The sample consisted of 674 participants and the 51.5% of the participants were females. Participants completed socio-emotional well being scale, self-esteem scale, school climate scale, and social cognitive mapping. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis was used. It was found that socio-emotional well being influences academic achievement.

Mander, D.J. et al., (2015) studied the social and emotional well being and mental health of Western Australian adolescents during their transition to a secondary. It was found that emotional and mental health factors (anxiety, depression, and stress) than social factors affected boarding students’ well being when they stay away from their home.

Sharma and Sidhu (2011) reported that adolescents with an age range of 16 to 19 years experience more academic stress. It reduces the level of well-being of middle and late adolescents. They conducted their study on 300 participants and reported that 90.6 per cent of adolescents suffer from academic anxiety.

Effective emotional and social functioning will lead an individual to a better psychological well being. An individual needs to be emotionally and socially intelligent in order to enjoy the psychological well being. Lower emotional intelligence is associated with violent and risk behaviors among college students (Myers, D.G. 2000). Lower emotional intelligence among adolescents leads the problems like involvement in criminal activities, despair, violence, and continues absenteeism from the school. An individual cannot achieve a higher state of emotional intelligence if he or she is not able to do his or her day to day functions, effectively. An individual may achieve a higher state of well being through a proper application of emotional intelligence.

Stressful life events and irrational beliefs are negatively correlated with psychological well being. It leads to anxiety and depression. Kulkarni, P.N., & Patwardhan, V. (2015) conducted a study on early adolescent girls in Pune, India. Topic of the study: stressful life events and irrational beliefs as positive predictors of psychological well being among early adolescent girls. The sample consisted of 142 participants. They found a significant negative correlation between family events and psychological well being, and uncontrollable events and psychological well being. They did not find any significant correlation between total stressful life events and psychological well being.

Adolescent’s well-being is also influenced by the factors such as leisure time physical activities, use of media, etc. Adolescence is a period of transitions. It is also characterized by a decline in the physical activities. Generally, we found a decrease in physical activities across the teenage years (Caspersen et al, 2000). Both physical activity and well being decline in adolescence. Valois et al (2004) conducted a study on adolescents and reported that adolescents who are not physically active have lower levels of satisfaction with their life than the adolescents who are physically active.

Increasing physical activities in the developmental period adolescence will reduce social inequalities in health. Adolescent leisure time physical activities can provide a better health in their adulthood. Sacker, A., & Cable, N (2006) conducted a study to understand the relation between adolescence leisure time physical activity and adult health. It was found that participation in leisure time physical activities in adolescents improve the health during their adulthood.

Adolescent leisure time physical activity is associated with a life outcome and academic performance and psychological well being. Trainor, S et al (2010) conducted a study to understand the relation between leisure time physical activity and psychological well being among adolescents. The sample consisted of 947 participants (10th class students). The participants completed the questionnaires regarding their participation in social activities, non-social activities, and unstructured leisure activities. It was found that adolescents who are more physically active (structured leisure physical activities) had better psychological well being.

Molina-Garcia et al (2011) examined leisure time physical activity and psychological well being in university students. The variables of psychological well being analyzed are self esteem and subjective vitality. The sample consisted of 639 students. The participants completed Rosenberg self esteem scale and subjective vitality scale. The participants were divided into four groups: low, moderate, high, and very high (based on the estimation of energy expenditure in leisure time physical activities). Male and female with higher physical activity rated higher subjective vitality and differences in self esteem observed only in male (especially very high and other physical activity groups).

Indian society is facing rapid changes in environmental, social, and economic areas. It also affects adolescent leisure time activities. Adolescents involve in sedentary activities instead of healthy leisure time activities. Singh, A.P., & Misra, G. (2015) conducted studies on school going adolescents from rural, urban, and metro regions of North India to understand the pattern of their leisure practices. The sample consisted of 1,500 participants. It was found that adolescents from urban and metro regions involve in sedentary activities and adolescents from the rural area involved in watching television, listening fast music, and involvement in the religious practices.

Use of internet among the youth becomes a common thing. According to the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) found that around 213 million people use internet in India and the number of adolescents increase every year. Adolescents use internet for various purposes such as school work, information gathering, and communication. Adolescents use various internet applications such as messaging, blogs to communicate with their peers (Gross, 2004). Researchers suggest that the greater use of internet leads lower psychological well being in adolescents (Sanders et al, 2000). Greater use of internet leads to lower level of attachment to close friends (Mesch, 2002) and poor family relationships (Mesch, 2003).

Subrahmanyam, K., & Lin, G. (2007) examined the relation between internet use and well being of adolescents. The sample consisted of 156 adolescents. The chronological age ranged from 15 years to 18 years. It was found that adolescent’s well being is not affected by the time they spend in online. The adolescents well being is negatively affected by the relationship they make with online friends.

Mathers, M et al (2009) examined the use of electronic media and adolescent health and well being. The sample consisted of 925 adolescents. They found that use of television increases the chance of getting obesity. Despite this, time spent in other forms of media use strongly related to adolescent health and well being. This study addresses the importance of reducing the over use of internet, video games, etc. Adolescent’s health and well being is influenced by the interaction with their environment, and with the people in their lives.

Skinner, et al (2000) studied whether peer support and illness representation mediate the link between family support, self-management, and well being. The sample consisted of 52 participants. The chronological age of the participants ranged from 12 years to 18 years. Type 1 diabetes recruited and followed over six months. The participants completed the measurements of self management, well being, and social support. It was found that the support from both the parents and friends are important during the time of management of Diabetes. It is also found that the personal models of Diabetes are important determinants of both dietary self care and well being among adolescents.

Anxiety

Today, adolescents live in a world where competition is more important and competition in every parts of their life. It creates anxiety. Academic achievement is an important concern for adolescents. Higher academic achievement provides a better place in their society and it is one of the main priorities for most of the adolescents. Lower academic performance leads to anxiety (Rasquinha, 2012).

Parvez and Shakir (2014) conducted a study to understand the link between anxiety and academic achievement. The sample consisted of 361 adolescents. Purposive sampling method was used to collect the sample for the study. The participants were given academic anxiety scale (Singh and Gupta, 2009). The result showed a negative relation between anxiety and academic achievement. Anxiety can lead to poor academic achievement.

Researchers reported that anxiety make adolescents to become less interest in learning. It may lead to poor academic performance. Vitasari and colleagues (2010) conducted a study to understand the link between anxiety and academic performance in students. The sample consisted of 205 participants (both male and female). The participants were given State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Participant’s grade point average was used to find out their academic performances. Correlation was used to analyse the data. Result showed a significant correlation between higher study anxiety and lower academic performance.

In India, adolescents experience anxiety mainly because of over expectation from their parents (Deb, 2001). Researchers were interested to find out the issues related to adjustment in schools. There was a study conducted to examine the adjustment issues of school going adolescents. Researchers identified the presence of anxiety in adolescents and reported the reason as the fear of future. Due to parents over expectation (to maintain the social status) children experience anxiety (Latha, 2005).

Rao (2014) examined adolescents anxiety based on their gender and life at school. The sample consisted of 200 adolescents (100 males and 100 females) and the range of age varied from 13 to 17 years. The researchers found that males suffer more from anxiety than female adolescents. Alexander, David, & Grills, (2013) reported that late adolescents experience higher level of anxiety than early and middle adolescents. Chaudhary and Jain (2014) reported that male experiences more anxiety than female in adolescents.

Researchers conducted a study to examine anxiety and psychosocial functioning of adolescents in India. The sample consisted of 1812 participants and age varied from 12 years to 19 years. The researchers considered gender and stages of adolescents. They found that early adolescents with high pro social behavior and late adolescents with higher level of anxiety. Also they found that female has less anxiety and high pro social behavior while comparing with late adolescents (Singh, Junnarkar, & Sharma, 2015).

The social relationship may create anxiety in adolescents. Anxiety due to social issues leads to disturbed social relationships, poor problem solving ability, loneliness, and hopelessness. It may make them to accept anti social behaviors, isolation, and avoidance behaviors. Social anxiety is defined as a fear of an individual which is caused by a wrong perception about others that they are evaluating negatively about him or her.

Vernberg and colleagues (2010) conducted a study to analyze the link between social anxiety and peer group relation in adolescents. The sample consisted of 68 early adolescents. They found that social anxiety significantly influences the peer group relationships. Adolescents who experience social anxiety try to withdraw from others and try to be alone.

Johnson (2001) analyzed the relation between family conflict, loneliness, and social anxiety. The sample consisted of 124 late adolescents. They found that family conflict creates problem in the social interactions of adolescents. It leads to loneliness. Loneliness is related to social anxiety and avoidance (social situations) behaviors. Deb, Sibnath, Chatterjee, Pooja, Walsh, & Kerryann, (2010) reported that adolescents with mothers who work experiences more anxiety than adolescents with mothers who are not going for jobs.

Researchers reported that negative schemas adolescents develop can lead to automatic thoughts which are negative. It can increase the level of anxiety in adolescents. Calvete and colleagues (2013) conducted a study to analyze the link between cognition and anxiety. The sample consisted of 1052 adolescents. They found that maladaptive schema can lead to automatic thoughts and it can develop anxiety.

Attachment is an important concept in adolescent’s well-being and anxiety. A better attachment can lead to higher well-being and can reduce the severity level of anxiety. Researchers were interested to conduct studies to understand the relationship between attachment and anxiety. Wu and Wang (2014) conducted studies to understand the link between attachment and anxiety. They selected two types of relationships such as attachment with parents and attachment with peer groups. The sample consisted of 907 participants and the age range varied from 13 to 19 years. They found a negative correlation between the attachment with parents and attachment with friends on anxiety.

Till now, we discussed different factors of anxiety. But, researchers were interested to know the relationship between anxiety and well-being. Rapheal and Paul (2014) conducted a study to understand the link between anxiety and well-being in adolescents. The sample consisted of 153 participants. ). The researchers found a significant negative correlation between anxiety and well-being.

At present, anxiety becomes a main issue, especially in adolescents. The review of literature explained the anxiety across stages of adolescents, concentrated more in Indian studies. It addresses the importance of the concept anxiety and helps the reader to understand the factors cause the anxiety and the level of anxiety in stages of adolescence.

Under the topic review of literature, I have reviewed the factors related to well being and anxiety during adolescence. It includes different dimensions of an adolescent life. It describes the importance of relationship and formal and informal support during adolescence. The analysis of the existing literature reveals that the well being and level of anxiety of an adolescent is associated with individual and contextual factors. The analysis of reviews also suggests that it is important to consider personal, familial, and social dimensions of adolescent life while talking about well being and anxiety.

Rationale for the study

The well-being and anxiety of adolescence is one of the main concerns in India. But, the researchers focused more on the early adolescence and explained the risk factors. As the World Health Organization reported, late adolescents become an important concern. Small number of research studies identified in late adolescents. Also, it was difficult to find out the level of well-being and anxiety across the phases in a single study. This study investigates the level of well-being across the stages of adolescence. It investigates the factors influencing adolescent’s well-being and anxiety. It will help us to understand the level of well-being and anxiety in each stage and can enhance their well-being by providing proper care and support.

Research Questions

The main research questions are:

- Is there a difference in the well-being across the phases of adolescents?
- Is there a difference in the anxiety across the phases of adolescents?

Objectives

The main objectives are:

- To find out the difference in the well-being across the phases of adolescents.
- To find out the difference in the anxiety across the phases of adolescents.

Hypotheses

It was hypothesized that:

- There would be a significance difference in the well-being across the phases of adolescents.
- There would be a significance difference in the anxiety across the phases of adolescents.

CHAPTER 3: METHOD

Design

A between subjects design involving three independent groups, such as early adolescence, middle adolescence, and late adolescence, between the age of 10 to 19 years was employed in the present study. The dependent variables measured were the level of well-being and anxiety among these participants.

Participants

The purposive sampling was used to collect the sample for the study. The sample consisted of 300 participants, 157 males and 143 females, who were grouped into three levels of independent variables based on the inclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria for this study were the individuals between the age group of 10 to 19 years. The participants were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of 100 participants (57 males and 43 females) and the age varied from 10 to 13 years. The first group is known as early adolescence. The second group consisted of 100 participants (46 males and 54 females) and the age varied from 14 to 16 years. The second group is known as middle adolescence. The third group consisted of 100 participants (54 males and 46 females) and the age varied from 17 to 19 years. The third group is known as late adolescence. The exclusion criteria for this study were the individuals below the age of 10 years and after the age of 19 years. Participants with any other disabilities like physical disabilities were also not included.

Research instruments

The following research instruments were used in this study.

Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being

The Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being is developed to help the adolescents (age varied from 13 to 20 years) to understand their well-being and to help the parents to understand about the development of their children. The Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being can be used as a screening, diagnostic, and research too. It can be used in variety of conditions to evaluate adolescents in different conditions like home, school, and community. The scale was developed the faculties of Centre for Health Psychology, University of Hyderabad and the scale had 15 items. The items were spread across twelve dimensions of well-being namely, autonomy, achievement, freedom from anxiety, control, freedom from depression, lifestyle, personal competence, personal morale, spiritual quality, social contacts, social support, and interpersonal trust. The items include both positive and negative items. Each item is scored on a six-point scale and the negative items reverse coded. The scores on all dimensions are added in order to provide the total score. The total score ranges from 1 to 6. According to the norm table of the scale, there are five levels of adolescence well-being including very high well-being (4.9 to 6), high well-being (4.43 to 4.89), average well-being (3.47 to 4.42), low well-being (2.99 to 3.46), and very low well-being (1 to 2.98). The Cronbach’s Alpha for the entire scale is 0.449.

WHO Well-being Index

The WHO Well-being Index (World Health Organization, 1998) is developed to assess the well-being. It is a self-administered questionnaire and includes five questions. The scores on all dimensions are added in order to provide the total score. Each item is scored on a six-point scale (0 = at no time, 1 = some of the time, 2 = less than half of the time, 3 = more than half of the time, 4 = most of the time, and 5 = all of the time). The total score ranges from 0 to 25. Higher score indicates better well-being. WHO Well-being Index concentrates more positive emotions than negative emotions. According to the criteria, score less than 13 represents poor well-being. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the entire scale is 0.636.

Manifest Anxiety Scale

The scale (Richard Suinn, 1968) was developed to assess the tendency of an individual to experience anxiety in different situations. The scale provides two responses such true or false. The scores of the responses are added to get the total score of anxiety. The score ranges from 0 to 38. According to the norm table of the scale, there are three levels of anxiety including high scores (16 to 38), intermediate scores (6 to 15), and low scores (0 to 5). The higher score means higher level of anxiety. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the entire scale is 0.707.

Procedure

Prior to the data collection, informed consent for the study was prepared. The questionnaires used in the study along with the informed consent form are presented in Appendix.

The purposive sampling method was used to collect the sample for the study. The data were collected from three schools (Kendriya Vidyalaya University of Hyderabad, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan's Public School Hyderabad, and Telangana Social Welfare Residential School Gowlidoddy Hyderabad) and two colleges (Telangana Integrated Civil Services Academy and Central University of Hyderabad). Permission to collect data was received from these schools and colleges.

The data were collected from sixth standard to tenth standard students and first and second years of degree students. Participants below the age of 18 were asked to fill the child consent form along with the sign of parents or guardians. Participants over the age of 18 did not asked to fill the child consent form. The researcher visited the schools and colleges prior to the data collection and has taken permission from the head of the college or schools. The purpose of the research has explained to the teachers or head of the school or colleges.

Rapport was established with the participants. Prior to the data collection, the purpose of the research was explained to the participants. The participants were informed about their confidentiality of responses. Also they were informed about the honesty of their responses and their right to withdraw from the study at any time. The researcher was remained in the classroom while the participants were completing the questionnaires of the study. Instructions were given about the questionnaires before the participants started. Further doubts (if any) were clarified by the researcher.

The participants were asked to sign the consent form (according to their age). The participants were given the Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being, Manifest Anxiety Scale, and WHO Well-being Index. The details of the participant such as name, gender, age, class, and name of school or college were collected. The questionnaires were collected once the participants completed it. At the end, participants were thanked for their participation.

CHAPTER 4: RESULT

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 20.0) was used to compute One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Tukey’s HSD (Honest significant difference), Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r), and Eta Squared test on obtained quantitative data on well being and anxiety. The results obtained are discussed below.

Well being

Indian Scale of Adolescence Well Being

The Mean (M) and Standard Deviation (SD) scores for Indian Scale of Adolescence Well being and its dimensions are illustrated in Table 1. The data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The summary of One Way ANOVA is illustrated in Table 2. It was found that there is a significant effect of the independent variable (stages of adolescents) on three dimensions of dependent variable (well being using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) namely interpersonal trust, personal competence, and achievement, F (2, 297) = 4.38, p < 0.05, F (2, 297) = 3.58, p < 0.05, and F (2, 297) = 3.08, p < 0.05 respectively. The results of post-hoc test, Tukey’s HSD for these dimensions are displayed in Table 3.

Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being (Total Well-being)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.62, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.16 (SD = 0.55), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.08 (SD = 0.51), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.09 (SD = 0.59) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Control (dimension 1)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.64, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.78 (SD = 0.99), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.78 (SD = 0.92), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.64 (SD = 1.00) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Freedom from anxiety (dimension 2)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 1.18, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.69 (SD = 1.42), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.68 (SD = 1.27), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.43 (SD = 1.37) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Spiritual quality (dimension 3)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 2.23, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.77 (SD = 1.77), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 3.35 (SD = 1.62), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.81 (SD = 1.71) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Freedom from depression (dimension 4)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.76, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.67 (SD = 1.65), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 3.37 (SD = 1.78), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.52 (SD = 1.73) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Social support (dimension 5)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.18, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.82 (SD = 1.65), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.90 (SD = 1.48), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.77 (SD = 1.50) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Interpersonal trust (dimension 6)

A significant difference in the dimension interpersonal trust (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 4.38, p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.45 indicating that interpersonal trust well being was higher in group III – late adolescents - (M = 3.87, SD = 1.07) as compared to group I (early adolescents) and group II (middle adolescents), suggesting large effect of stages of adolescents on interpersonal trust well being. Pair wise comparisons using Tukey’s HSD revealed that only middle adolescents and late adolescents differ significantly from each other (MD = -.48, p < 0.05).

Personal morale (dimension 7)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 2.43, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.29 (SD = 1.59), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.41 (SD = 1.25), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.97 (SD = 1.52) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Autonomy (dimension 8)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.65, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.53 (SD = 1.74), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.46 (SD = 1.70), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.27 (SD = 1.56) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Personal competence (dimension 9)

A significant difference in the dimension personal competence (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 3.58, p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.45 indicating that interpersonal trust well being was higher in group I – early adolescents - (M = 5.22, SD = 1.24) as compared to group II (middle adolescents) and group III (late adolescents), suggesting large effect of stages of adolescents on personal competence well being. Pair wise comparisons using Tukey’s HSD revealed that only early adolescents and late adolescents differ significantly from each other (MD = .45, p < 0.05).

Achievement (dimension 10)

A significant difference in the dimension achievement (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 3.08, p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.49 indicating that interpersonal trust well being was higher in group III – late adolescents - (M = 3.48, SD = 1.73) as compared to group I (early adolescents) and group II (middle adolescents), suggesting large effect of stages of adolescents on achievement well being. Pair wise comparisons using Tukey’s HSD revealed that only early adolescents and late adolescents differ significantly from each other (MD = -.55, p < 0.05).

Lifestyle (dimension 11)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 2.05, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.72 (SD = 1.18), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 3.62 (SD = 1.25), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 3.38 (SD = 1.25) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Social contact (dimension 12)

No significant difference in the level of well-being (using Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.25, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of well-being in this dimension (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being -total) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.20 (SD = 1.71), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 4.02 (SD = 1.87), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 4.10 (SD = 1.78) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Anxiety

Manifest Anxiety Scale

The mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) scores for total anxiety are illustrated in Table 1. No significant difference in the level of anxiety (using Manifest Anxiety Scale) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 0.96, ns. The Mean and Standard Deviation scores for the level of (using Manifest Anxiety Scale) are [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 16.86 (SD = 3.94), [illustration not visible in this excerpt] = 17.36 (SD = 4.55), and [illustration not visible in this excerpt]= 16.32 (SD = 6.93) respectively. It shows that there is no significant difference among the three groups (early, middle, and late adolescence).

Well-being

WHO Well-being Index

The mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) scores for total anxiety are illustrated in Table 1. It was found that the mean score for group II middle adolescence was higher. One Way ANOVA performed. The results of summary of One Way ANOVA for total well being (using WHO Well-being Index) are illustrated in Table 2. A significant difference in well-being (WHO Well-being Index) was found between the three groups, F (2, 297) = 7.14, p < 0.05, eta squared = 0.61 indicating that total well being was higher in group II – middle adolescents - (M = 16.74, SD = 4.57) as compared to group I (early adolescents) and group III (late adolescents), suggesting large effect of stages of adolescents on total well being. The results of post-hoc test, Tukey’s HSD for total well being (using WHO Well-being Index) are illustrated in Table 3. Pair wise comparisons using Tukey’s HSD revealed that early adolescents and middle adolescents differ significantly from each other (MD = 1.59, p < 0.05), and late adolescents and early adolescents differ significantly from each other (MD = -2.43, P < 0.05).

Table 1

Mean and Standard Deviation of Scores of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well being and Dimensions, Manifest Anxiety Scale, and WHO Well-being Index

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 2

Summary of One Way ANOVA

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Note: * p < 0.05

Table 3

Tukey's HSD for Total Well-Being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well- Being) and its Dimensions, Total Anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale), and Total Well-Being (WHO Well-Being Index)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Note: * p <0.05

Relationship among the measures

The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) between Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being (total well- being) and dimensions, total anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale), and total well-being (WHO Well-being Index) are presented in Table 4 (and continue in table 5 and 6).

As we can see, total well being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have a significant negative correlation with total anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale), r = -.33, p < 0.01. This showed that as well-being increases, anxiety decreases. Total well being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have a significant positive correlation with well-being (WHO Well-being Index), r = 0.34, p < 0.01. Total well being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have a significant positive correlation with its all dimension control r = 0.66, p < 0.01, freedom from anxiety r = 0.48, p < 0.01, spiritual quality r = 0.32, p < 0.01, freedom from depression r = 0.37, p < 0.01, social support r = 0.31, p < 0.01, interpersonal trust r = 0.32, p < 0.01, personal morale r = 0.48, p < 0.01, autonomy r = 0.37, p < 0.01, personal competence r = 0.51, p < 0.01, achievement r = 0.23, p < 0.01, lifestyle r = 0.34, p < 0.01, and social contact r = 0.26, p < 0. 01. It indicated that as total well-being increases (as measured by Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being), there was an increase in its all dimensions.

Total anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale) was found to have a significant negative correlation with total well-being (as measured by WHO Well-being Index) r = -0.34, p < 0.01 and the dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being such as control r = -0.23, p < 0.01, freedom from anxiety r = - 0.19, p < 0.01, freedom from depression r = -0.26, p < 0.01, social support r = -0.15, p < 0.01, autonomy r = -0.12, p < 0.05, personal competence r = -0.13, p < 0.05, and achievement r = -0.23, p < 0.01. It indicated that as anxiety (as measured by Manifest Anxiety Scale) increases, well-being decreases.

As can be seen, total well-being (as measured by WHO Well-being Index) was found to have significant positive correlation with the dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being such as control r = 0.25, p < 0.01, freedom from anxiety r = 0.23, p < 0.01, social support r = 0.11, p < 0.05, personal morale r = 0.22, p < 0.01, autonomy r = 0.16, p < 0.01, and personal competence r = 0.29, p < 0.01. It indicated that as total well-being (as measured by WHO Well-being Index) increases, there was an increase in the dimensions (control, freedom from anxiety, social support, personal morale, autonomy, and personal competence) of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being.

Gender was found to have significant negative correlation with total well-being (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) r = -0.12, p < 0.05 and its two dimensions such as spiritual quality r = -0.12, p < 0.05, and interpersonal trust r = -0.12, p < 0.05. Gender was found to have a positive correlation with the dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being achievement r = 0.12, p < 0.05. Age was found to have significant negative correlation with total well-being (as measured by WHO Well-being Index) r = -0.20, p < 0.01 and two dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being such as personal competence r = -0.14, p < 0.05 and achievement r = -0.14, p < 0.05.

Control (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with other dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being including freedom from anxiety r = 0.36, p < 0.01, social support r = 0.26, p < 0.01, personal morale r = 0.30, p < 0.01, autonomy r = 0.22, p < 0.01, personal competence r = 0.31, p < 0.01, lifestyle r = 0.17, p < 0.01, and social contact r = 0.13, p < 0.05. It indicated that as well-being increase in control, there was an increase in other dimensions.

Freedom from anxiety (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with other dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being including personal morale r = 0.31, p < 0.01, autonomy r = 0.17, p < 0.01, personal competence r = 0.28, p < 0.01, and lifestyle r = 0.12, p < 0.05. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension freedom from anxiety, there was an increase in other dimensions.

Spiritual quality (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with other dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being including personal morale r = 0.14, p < 0.05, and autonomy r = 0.13, p < 0.05. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension spiritual quality, there was an increase in other two dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being.

Freedom from depression (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with two dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being including achievement r = 0.15, p < 0.05 and social contact r = 0.14, p < 0.05. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension freedom from depression, there was an increase in other two dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being.

Social support (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with two dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being including personal competence r = 0.17, p < 0.01 and social contact r = 0.12, p < 0.05. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension social support, there was an increase in other two dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being. Social support was found to have significant negative correlation with autonomy r = -0.17, p < 0.01. It indicated that as well-being increases in social support, it decreases in the dimension autonomy.

Personal morale (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with three dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being including autonomy r = 0.14, p < 0.05, personal competence r = 0.32, p < 0.01 and lifestyle r = 0.12, p < 0.05. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension personal morale, there was an increase in other three dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being.

Autonomy (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with the personal competence (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) r = 0.23, p < 0.01. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension autonomy, there was an increase in personal competence.

Personal competence (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) was found to have significant positive correlation with the lifestyle (dimension of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) r = 0.18, p < 0.01. It indicated that as well-being increase in the dimension personal competence, there was an increase in lifestyle.

Table 4

Summary of Pearson correlation

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 5

Summary of Pearson correlation (continue)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Note: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01

Table 6

Summary of Pearson correlation (continue)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Note: * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Graphs

The difference of means of the three groups for well-being (as measured by WHO Well-being Index) and three dimensions (Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being) is depicted by means of bar graphs. Figure 1 represents the means of the three groups for well-being (WHO Well-being Index).

Figure 1

Bar graph representing the total well-being (WHO Well-being Index) scores in the three groups

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 2

Bar graph represents the dimensions (interpersonal trust, personal competence, and achievement) of Indian Scale of Adolescents Well-being scores in the three groups

illustration not visible in this excerpt

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The chapter discussion includes the findings and outcomes of the study. The study was conducted to find out the level of well-being and anxiety across the phases of adolescence. Two objectives and two hypotheses were formed.

The first objective of the study was to find out the difference in the level of well-being across the phases of adolescence. It was hypothesized that there would be a significance difference in the level of well-being across the phases of adolescence. Two scales were administered to measure well-being. The scales which are used to measure well-being are India Scale of Adolescence Well-being and WHO Well-being Index.

As it was hypothesized, the results indicated a significant difference in well-being across the phases of adolescents as measured by WHO Well-being Index. The level of well-being was higher in early adolescence than middle and late adolescents. It may be because of the early adolescents’ secure attachment with the parents or caregivers (especially in Indian culture). The result of this study is supported by review of literature.

Hasumi, Absan, and Couper (2012) conducted a study on Indian adolescents to know the relation between parental involvement and mental well being. The sample consisted of 6721 adolescents (13 to 14 years old). The researchers tested parental involvement in the areas such as checking of home works, knowledge of parents about their children’s difficulties, problems, challenges, and activities of children during their free time. It was found that the parental involvement decreased with age. The researchers found that mental health disorders increased with age when adolescents experience lack of parental involvement. The poor mental health reported the disorders such as loneliness, anxiety, and helplessness among adolescents. Poor mental health leads to poor well-being.

Another study addresses about gratitude as a trait which is most frequently identified in young people aged 10 to 17 years (Park and Peterson, 2006). Froh et al. (2009) conducted a study on the topic gratitude and subjective well being in early adolescents. Adolescents with grateful moods showed greater subjective well being, optimism, prosocial behavior, gratitude in response to aid, and social support. They also found that gratitude is related to positive emotions such as pride, hope, inspire, forgiveness, and excitement. The results suggested that gratitude in early adolescents was related with social, emotional, and physical benefits.

Sharma and Sidhu (2011) reported that adolescents with an age range of 16 to 19 years experience (middle and late adolescents) more academic stress. It reduces the level of well-being in middle and late adolescents. They conducted their study on 300 participants and reported that 90.6 per cent of adolescents suffer from academic anxiety.

Earlier it was thought that early adolescents experience poor well-being than middle and late adolescents. Recently, researchers shift their attention to late adolescents and their problems. From late adolescence, an individual move to the adulthood. It makes late adolescents face many challenges in their lives. The number of suicide is increasing in India. World health organization reported that India received a rank of 43 in world for the increasing number of suicide rates (WHO published report on 2009). Especially, the rate of suicide is increasing among adolescence. In India, suicide is more among the youth with an age range of 15 to 29 years.

Eccles and Gootman identified challenges late adolescents face in their lives. During, late adolescence they shift from parents and begins an independent life. It demand maturity and increases the responsibility of a late adolescent. Once they start an independent life, they have to accept new roles in community. They have to make a proper plan for their future and have to adjust with their new life and partners. Finally, they have to receive skills and knowledge for their life to adulthood. If an adolescent fail to achieve these tasks, they suffer from poor well-being.

Well-being is also measured by Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being. This scale has twelve dimensions. Out of twelve dimensions, significant relationship was found in three dimensions (interpersonal trust, personal competence, and achievement). In interpersonal trust, late adolescents have higher well-being than early and middle adolescents.

The result is supported by review of literature. Demir, Kındap,& Sayıl, (2007) reported that interpersonal trust will be more in late adolescents while comparing with early and middle adolescents. The sample consisted of 366 participants. They found that as the age increases adolescents develop strong interpersonal trust towards parents and peer groups. As Aristotle reported, late adolescents develop a strong social relationship through developing a mature interpersonal trust with others for a common good. In early adolescents, they develop trust with people who are like them. But, in late adolescents, they develop a trust with people with whom they are more familiar. Middle adolescents develop relation with peer groups than their parents. They face problems such identity formation and experience a desire to make relationship with friends. They more likely to talk their problems with their friends and they are not ready to share more information.

In personal competence, early adolescents have more well-being than middle and late adolescents. During adolescence, they desire to achieve autonomy and personal competence. They face new challenges in their lives. In order to overcome these challenges, adolescents try to develop a sense of self and identity. Early adolescents make friendship with people whom they like. Their self-concepts are organized. They evaluate themselves based on their beliefs and values. From middle adolescence they start to compare themselves with others. They involve in false behavior to make others happy and to achieve a position in society. Here, they become less confident about their capabilities (Harter, 1996).

In achievement, late adolescent have more well-being than early and middle adolescence. This study has done on late adolescents who were continuing studies for a better future. They were in a phase of transition from school to college. Late adolescents scored more in achievement may be because of identity formation, identify the strengths and limitations, find meaning and purpose in lives. Adolescents can face identity crisis in their lives by having a sense of meaning (Hacker, 1994).

The second objective of the study was to find out the difference in the level of anxiety across the phases of adolescence. It was hypothesized that there would be a significance difference in the level of anxiety across the phases of adolescence. Manifest Anxiety Scale is used to measure anxiety. No significance difference was found in the level of anxiety across the phases of adolescence.

The negative correlation was found between all the dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being and Anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale). Also, a negative correlation was found between well-being (WHO Well-being Index) and anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale). It was supported by previous research findings. Rapheal and Paul (2014) conducted a study to understand the link between anxiety and well-being in adolescents. The sample consisted of 153 participants. Researchers found a significant negative correlation between anxiety and well-being.

The negative correlation was found between age and well-being. It is indicated that as age increases well-being decreases. The researchers found that mental health disorders increased with age when adolescents experience lack of parental involvement. The poor mental health reported the disorders such as loneliness, anxiety, and helplessness among adolescents. Poor mental health leads to poor well-being (Hasumi, Absan, and Couper, 2012).

CONCLUSION

The aim of the study was to find out the well-being and anxiety across the phases of adolescents. This study included three groups of adolescents. The three groups of adolescents are early, middle, and late adolescents. The three groups were evaluated to know the level of well-being and anxiety across the phases of adolescents.

There was a significant difference in well-being (as measured by WHO Well-being Index) across the phases of adolescents. There was a significant difference found in three dimensions (interpersonal trust, personal competence, and achievement) out of twelve dimensions in Indian Scale of Adolescence well-being. Also, there was no significant difference found in anxiety as measured by Manifest Anxiety Scale.

The independent variables of this study are stages of adolescents and the dependent variables are anxiety and well-being. The major findings of this study were that there was a significant effect of the independent variable on well-being (WHO Well-being Index) and three dimensions of Indian Scale of Adolescence Well-being. And, it was observed that there was no significant effect of the independent variable on anxiety (Manifest Anxiety Scale).

Implications

The information collected from this study can be used to design specific interventions to reduce anxiety and enhance well-being for adolescents. This study will help the researchers to understand the level of well-being and anxiety across the phases of adolescents. Researchers can identify the risk factors for well-being and anxiety. Also, the information from this study will help the parents, teachers, and society to find out the problems and development of their children.

Limitations

Besides all these implications, there are limitations also. The method of data collection is a limitation for the study. The data was collected only from Hyderabad and purposefully concentrated on few schools and colleges. Quantitative research method was used. A mixed approach, including interview with the students may have added to the study. The sample of the study included only normal children and children from urban areas. The study can include children with disabilities and children from rural areas. These limitations provide directions for future research in this area.

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Details

Title
Well being and Anxiety across the phases of Adolescence
College
University of Hyderabad  (Hyderabad Central University)
Course
Health Psychology
Grade
A
Author
Year
2016
Pages
89
Catalog Number
V373938
ISBN (Book)
9783668518469
File size
1375 KB
Language
English
Tags
adolescence, anxiety, well-being
Quote paper
Anju James (Author), 2016, Well being and Anxiety across the phases of Adolescence, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/373938

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