Challenges of Urban Development in India


Term Paper, 2016
13 Pages

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Table of Content

Abstracts

Introduction

General overview of India

The concept of Urban Development

Urban development in India

Challenges of Indian urban development

Conclusion

References

Abstracts

Like other cities around the world, cities in India are rapidly growing. Changes in population density and rural-urban migration require cities to focus attention on social needs and to expand service providers.

As a result, the number of cities in India has increased over a few years. The infrastructures are also thriving. It is also possible to accommodate comparable social services with the population. However, this growth has not been easy.

This article, will discover what the short-term trend of urbanization will look like in India. Changes in the growth and its challenges are addressed. Moreover, the way they dealt with challenges is also discussed.

Key words; development, urban development, cities, challenges

Introduction

Development is the act of developing or the state of being developed, as the application of techniques or technology to the production of new goods or services, the business of constructing buildings or otherwise altering land for new uses. It is a significant event, occurrence, or change: a news story covering the latest developments in the scandal.

Large cities, towns and even small neighborhoods do not spring up overnight.[1] They are the result of careful planning by civil and design engineers, project managers, architects, environmental planners, and surveyors.[2] The integration of these disciplines is known as urban development.[3] Urban development is a system of residential expansion that creates cities.[4] Residential areas are the primary focus of urban development. Urban development occurs by expansion into unpopulated areas and/or the renovation of decaying regions.[5]

The process of creating this residential environment is integrity formulated with the basic public need and infrastructure that human being needs for their daily life. This includes the safe and clean water and electric power supply as well as the other mandatory institutions of health, education and telecommunication service.

Considering the above population in the class I cities the infrastructure and the public service is also enhanced accordingly but with some challenges and difficulties.

The provision of these complex facility is not an easy task to be accomplished within the short period of time, yet it requires a calm state of affairs and community participation.

Having this in mind, in next few pages we try to explore in what way and intention the urban development in India carry on ,with its possible challenges and how it's controlled.

General overview of India

With 1.2 billion people and the world’s fourth-largest economy, India’s recent growth and development has been one of the most significant achievements of the times.[6] Over the six and half decades since independence, the country has brought about a landmark pro rural agricultural revolution that has transformed the nation from chronic dependence on grain imports into a global agricultural powerhouse that is now a net exporter of food.[7] Life expectancy has more than doubled,[8] literacy rates have quadrupled, health conditions have improved, and a sizeable middle class has emerged.[9] India is now home to globally recognized companies in pharmaceuticals and steel and information and space technologies, and a growing voice on the international stage that is more in keeping with its enormous size and potential.[10]

India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.[11] It is a republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the federal government and the states.[12] The government abides by constitutional checks and balances.[13] The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950, states in its preamble that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.[14] India’s form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong Centre and weak states, has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.[15]

The country is in the midst of a massive wave of urbanization as some 10 million people move to towns and cities each year in search of jobs and opportunity.[16] It is the largest rural-urban migration of this century.[17]

How India develops its significant human potential and lays down new models for the growth of its burgeoning towns and cities will largely determine the shape of the future for the country and its people in the years to come.

Inequity in all dimensions, including region, caste, and gender, will need to be addressed.[18] Poverty rates in India's poorest states are three to four times higher than those in the more advanced states. While India's average annual per capita income was $1,410 in 2011–placing it among the poorest of the world's middle-income countries.[19]

The country's infrastructure needs are massive. One in three rural people lack access to an all-weather road, and only one in five national highways is four-lane. Ports and airports have the inadequate capacity, and trains move very slowly. An estimated 300 million people are not connected to the national electrical grid and those who are face frequent disruptions. And, the manufacturing sector–vital for job creation–remains small and underdeveloped.[20]

Nonetheless, a number of India's states are pioneering bold new initiatives to tackle many of India's long-standing challenges and are making great strides towards inclusive growth. Their successes are leading the way forward for the rest of the country, indicating what can be achieved if the poorer states were to learn from their more prosperous counterparts.

India now has that rare window of opportunity to improve the quality of life for its 1.2 billion citizens and lay the foundations for a truly prosperous future–a future that will impact the country and its people for generations to come.

The concept of Urban Development

The term "urban development" applied to one subdivision of a city or to an entire municipal area. "Development" itself is a term that means different things to different people as clearly set in the introductory part. Ideally, different perspectives – that of health and safety, inclusion and equity, accessible services – are part of how we approach urban development, and what we think "successful" urban development looks like on the ground.[21]

Urban development is the social, cultural, economic and physical development of cities, as well as the underlying causes of these processes.[22]

Cities and their development is a central topic in human geography, and the study of cities makes up the sub-discipline of city geography or urbanism.[23] However, it is not completely clear which social processes can be defined as urban. Urban lifestyles, practices, and structures, "urban culture" and infrastructure, for example, spread to other groups that do not live in what traditionally call cities. However, it is necessary to define cities and processes of change in cities so that they can be investigated.

The term urban development is used differently depending upon which researcher uses it. Many researchers focus on the physical spatial development, such as architecture and city planning and the social and cultural processes underlying them. Other researchers start with social change, such as inequality or gentrification, in order to explain changes and discuss the social consequences. There exist a wide range of research topics.

Urbanization offers a tremendous opportunity to support a growing global population efficiently and humanely.[24] Developing countries alone are expected to build more new city-area during the two decades leading up to 2030 than all of the humanity has built throughout history. China and India alone are expected to add at least 600 million new urban residents by 2030.[25] The type of urban form these new cities, and new areas in existing cities, will take will strongly influence how and how long people will travel in the future. Moreover, the urban forms that are developed will be closely linked to the future of urban mobility.[26]

There are possible factors for urbanization in any dimension. Population growth in major cities requires expansion.[27] Urban developers look to neighboring natural territories to build needed housing and recreational areas. Natural expansion is the creation of residential areas in undeveloped or underdeveloped regions. Natural expansion requires the destruction of the wilderness.[28] However, urban planners must work closely with environmental protection agencies to ensure that protected wildlife and plant life are not destroyed. But this is not always, In extremely populated areas natural expansion is not always possible. If a large city is surrounded by other cities, there is no place for the larger city to expand into. In this case, urban planners look to renovate decaying neighborhoods, obsolete industrial districts, and other unused spaces.[29] On a much larger scale than natural expansion, urban renovation requires the compliance of city-dwellers. City planners and urban developers carefully consider the needs of the population in renovating urban areas.

Urban development in India

Urban population in India has come to increasingly concentrate in the class I cities defined as those with 100,000 or more people.[30] The number of these cities rose from just 77 in 1951 to 468 in 2011, with their share in urban population rising from 45% to 70% over the same period. India has three megacities defined as those having populations of 10 million or more: Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata, which were home to 18.4, 16.3, and 14.1 million people in 2011. Presently, 32 percent of India's population is living in urban areas, which rose by 3.35 % between 2001 and 2014 and 2.10 % between 1991 and 2001. By next 20 years, this population is projected to rise by over 200 million[31] bringing up challenges related to land-use and expanding infrastructure development to new cities and metropolises.[32] Given the crucial role of cities and towns as centers of economic activity and agents of economic transformation, the importance of well-functioning life in them and their orderly growth can be scarcely underestimated.[33] India’s urban growth is largely concentrated in Class I cities with a population of 100,000 or more.[34] As a result, the number of metropolitan cities[35] has increased from 35 in 2001 to 53 in 2011, currently accounting for 43% of India's urban population and is expected to be 87 by 2031. In turn, population growth in smaller cities has tended to stagnate or slow down, with the share of the population in Class II–IV+ cities decreasing from 31% in 2001 to 28% in 2015. India’s burgeoning population, the issue of increasing urban poor and providing basic amenities like sanitation, water supply, affordable housing and public transport remains a huge challenge in urban areas.[36]

This happened with series commitments that undergo to define the shanty town for Rehabilitation and Development. This shanty town had been into three categories called notified, registered, and identified. The identification of these categories helps a lot in building a better improvements in a proper manner.

Table 1. Overview of Urban Agglomerations in India

illustration not visible in this excerpt

These improvements require the comprehensive development of physical, institutional, social and economic infrastructure.[37] All are important in improving the quality of life and attracting people and investments to the City, setting in motion a virtuous cycle of growth and development.[38] The high coping cost of deficient infrastructure especially to the urban poor has been reported in several studies. For example, due to the intermittent and inadequate supply of water, it has been estimated that the urban poor pays significantly more than the average price for water, often tenfold higher.[39] Together with the massive flow of citizens to urban cities the development of infrastructure also ensure the developments of the socio-economic status of the people as well.

The urbanization system successfulness can be measured in terms different provision of service like land use, Transportation, Education, Health, Electric, and Telecommunication. The fulfillment of public basic need cannot be address only through skyscraper. But the basic need of the public are as stated above need to meet minimum requirements.

In order to meet this requirement, every city/town should mandatorily draw a Development Plan by taking at least a perspective. The plan should take into account a city’s natural endowment, and its economic potential and should promote clean and green city it should specifically provide for the following: Strategic densification especially along mass transit corridors with mixed land use, City mobility plan with special emphasis on making cities safe for vulnerable groups including women and children, City sewerage and sanitation plan, City water plan, Economic and commercial activity plan, Environment conservation plan and Urban poverty reduction strategy and inclusionary zoning Plan for pre-urban area.[40]

Importance of an efficient urban transport system which is cheap, safe and reliable, the supply of clean water and electric power can hardly be overemphasized due to a high number of inhabitant in urban areas.

Challenges of Indian urban development

The development of India for urbanizing the cities is not an easy task. But it undergoes a serious challenged from time to time. Some of this challenges are Planning for land use and zoning, Functioning of the property market and property governance, Access to serviced land and affordable housing, Access to mass transit systems and road networks, Division of power and financial autonomy between urban local bureaus and other levels of government, Creating a favorable environment for starting, operating and growing a business challenges.[41]

Lack of sufficient capacity across all levels of Government is a root cause of India’s urban development challenges. Traditionally, capacity building, though critical, has been given low priority, which is evident in the absence of dedicated municipal cadres and robust urban management structures. Substantial skill gaps exist across almost all areas of urban management.[42] This is driven as much by the lack of credible and specialized supply-side institutions as it is by poor demand from those responsible for urban management in cities.

Managing India’s ongoing urbanization will place huge requirements on financial as well as human resources in the country. Despite progress in improving indicators of household amenities such as electricity, tap water, and toilet, the level of achievements as well as future prospects in this area remain gloomy. The problem arises from the delivery of services by the state and local authorities.

Urban water supply in India remains in a deep crisis that threatens to get deeper. Because intermittent supply leads to contamination of water, tap water in India is unsafe to drink without treatment. This has led households to seek costly private solutions including the installation of filtering equipment and purchase of bottled water. Those unable to incur these expenditures risk becoming sick more frequently and must later pay in terms of medical costs of treatment and lost workdays due to sickness. Sanitation in Indian cities likewise remains poor. Two major components of sanitation are sewage and waste management. 19.6% of urban households lack toilets within premises and must use public facilities. And none of the 423 cities found to be healthy and clean.[43]

Conclusion

India is at an inflection point where the urban population is set to increase at an accelerated plan.[44] However, already the infrastructure in cities are under stress and adding more population may also raise the question about the environmental sustainability of cities unless environment-friendly policies are adopted. For this proposes, the States need to provide assistance for taking up urban renewal based on city Development Plans which are to be situated within the appropriate regional plan.

In order for urbanization to proceed smoothly and for urban residents to have healthy lives, economic policy and reforms must be aimed to make progress in each of these the basic fulfillment. The importanlyce of governance issues surrounds each of services. In particular, the problems are often local while all the decision-making authority rests at the level of the state. What is required is the creation of entities at the local level that is entrusted with the responsibility to oversee the services, given greater authority and financial autonomy. This structure will also allow the local entities to oven partnerships with private providers as necessary within the framework of regulation administered at the level of the state.

Addressing the capacity deficit must be a key endeavor through institutionalization and Professionalization of Municipal Cadre, creating a Comprehensive Capacity Building Strategy, leverage Private Sector Expertise, establishing a reforms and performance cell at the central level. Prearranged the scarcity of resources in the medium term, innovation will have a significant role to play.

References

- Ashley Brooks; Updated September 26, 2017, what is Urban Development? https://bizfluent.com/about b-what-urban-development.html

- Panagariya, P. Chakraborty & M. Govinda Rao(2014 ) Urban Development In India at http://www.worldfinancialreview.com ,last seen at Januwary 2, 2016

- Panagariya, P. (et al) at http://www.worldfinacialreview.com/ last visits at July 28, 2014

- http://planningcommission.gov.in/Urban_Development last seen May 14, 2017

- Constitution of India, Ministry of Law and Justice, last visits 29 July 2008,

- http://www.slideshare.net/PlanComIndia/urbanisation-in-india-12th-plan-2012-2017

- https://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/smart-cities-mission-step-towards-smart-india last seen June 2, 2016

- http://planningcommission.nic.in/Urban_Development last seen June 2,2016

- http://www.thruputconsulting.com/urbanDevelopment.aspx

- http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/india/overview, last visits at June 22, 2016

- K. Choe, A. Laquian, and H. Kim.(2008)Urban development experience and visions: India and the People’s Republic ofChina.Mandaluyong City, Phil.: Asian Development Bank, 2008.

- K.k Pandey(2012)Administration of Urban Development and Urban Service Delivery, Theme Paper for the 56th Members’ Annual Conference, Indian Institute of Public Administration , New Delhi

- Rakesh Mohan and Shubhagato Dasgupta(2004) Urban Development in India in the Twenty First Century: Policies for Accelerating Urban Growth, Working Paper No. 231 , Stanford University center for international development

- Robin King, February 19, 2013, http://thecityfix.com/blog/what-does-good-urban-development- mean-to-you-robin-king/

- Ministry of Urban Development (2010) Strategic Plan of Urban Development for 2011-2016

- Ministry of Urban Development Government of India June (2015) Smart Cities Mission Statement & Guidelines

- World Economic Forum (2015) The Future of Urban Development & Services: Urban Development Recommendations for the Government of India

[1] Ashley Brooks; Updated September26,2017, What is Urban Development? https://www.bizfluent.com/abouthtml

[2] Ibid, Rakesh Mohan and Shubhagato Dasgupta(2004) Urban Development in India in the Twenty First Century: Policies for Accelerating Urban Growth, Working Paper No. 231 , Stanford University center for international developement

[3] Ashley Brooks; Updated September26,2017, What is Urban Development? https://www.bizfluent.com/abouthtml

[4] https://environmentalpsychology.jimdo.com/urban-development/

[5] K. Choe, A. Laquian, and H. Kim.(2008)Urban development experience and visions: India and the People’s Republic ofChina.Mandaluyong City, Phil.: Asian Development Bank, 2008., Ashley Brooks; Updated September26,2017, What is Urban Development? https://www.bizfluent.com/abouthtml

[6] http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/india/overview, June 22, 2016

[7] K. Choe, A. Laquian, and H. Kim.(2008)Urban development experience and visions: India and the People’s Republic of China. Mandaluyong City, Phil.: Asian Development Bank, 2008.

[8] http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2013/04/12/new-world-bank-group-strategy-to-help-india-achieve-its-vision

[9] K.K. PANDEY(2012)Administration of Urban Development and Urban Service Delivery, Theme Paper for the 56th Members’ Annual Conference, India Institute of public Administration, New Delhi

[10] ibid

[11] https://www.coursehero.com/file/India-is-a-federation-with-a-parliamentary-system-governed-under-the

[12] http://www.indiaprays.com/government

[13] ibid

[14] Priyesh Shah, Is India a democratic country or a republic country? At https://www.quora.com/Is-India-a-democratic-country-or-a-republic-country

[15] Constitution of India Ministry of Law and Justice, 29 July 2008, retrieved 3 March

[16] World Economic Forum (2015) The Future of Urban Development & Services: Urban Development Recommendations for the Government of India

[17] Sunita Mishra (2017) Threats To India's Urban Dreams at https://www.proptiger.com/guide/post/5-threats-to-indias-urban-dreams

[18] Khurana/Markanday ( ) IBPS Regional Rural Banking at books.google.com.et

[19] Ibid, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/india/overview, June 22,, 2016

[20] ibid

[21] A. Panagariya , P. Chakraborty & M. Govinda Rao at http://www.worldfinacialreview.com/ July 28, 2014 Robin King February 19, 2013, http://thecityfix.com/blog/what-does-good-urban-development-mean-to-you-robin-king/

[22] M. B. Muneera , M. N. S. Matheeha,(2017) Urban development and its challenges with reference to Eravur area, Sri Lanka World Scientific News | 70 | 2 | 173-188

[23] https://earthweatherclimate.weebly.com/urban-development. Last seen May 11,2016

[24] http://www.thruputconsulting.com/urbanDevelopment.aspx last seen February 14 ,2016

[25] Ibid, World Economic Forum (2015) The Future of Urban Development & Services: Urban Development Recommendations for the Government of India

[26] Ibid.

[27] shley Brooks; Updated September 26, 2017, What is Urban Development? https://bizfluent.com/about b-what-urban-development.html

[28] ibid

[29] Ibid.

[30] A. Panagariya, P. Chakraborty & M. Govinda Rao (July 28, 2014 )Urban development in India

[31] World Economic Forum (2015) The Future of Urban Development & Services: Urban Development Recommendations for the Government of India

[32] http://planningcommission.gov.in/Urban_Development last seen May 14, 2017

[33] Panagariya , P. Chakraborty & M. Govinda Rao (2014 ) Urban Development In India at http://www.worldfinancialreview.com ,last seen at Januwary 2, 2016

[34] See table below adapted from world economic forum

[35] The urban cities in India has six grade division in which class I has its own subdivision of Class IA, IB, and class IC. In this category class, IA and IB are with a population exceeding 1 million

[36] http://www.slideshare.net/PlanComIndia/urbanisation-in-india-12th-plan-2012-2017

[37] https://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/smart-cities-mission-step-towards-smart-india last seen June 2, 2016

[38] Ministry of Urban Development Government of India June (2015) Smart Cities Mission Statement & Guidelines

[39] Rakesh Mohan and Shubhaga Dasgupta ( 2014 )Urban Development in India in the Twenty First Century: Policies for Accelerating Urban Growth, Working Paper No. 231 , Stanford University

[40] Ibid

[41] World bank cited from world economic forum India report (2015)

[42] Rakesh Mohan and Shubhaga Dasgupta ( 2014 )Urban Development in India in the Twenty First Century: Policies for Accelerating Urban Growth, Working Paper No. 231 , Stanford University

[43] Ministry of Urban Development (2010) Strategic Plan of Urban Development for 2011-2016

[44] http://planningcommission.nic.in/Urban_Development last seen June 2,2016

13 of 13 pages

Details

Title
Challenges of Urban Development in India
College
Addis Ababa University  (Center for Federal Studies)
Course
Federalisim and Developemenet
Authors
Year
2016
Pages
13
Catalog Number
V380529
ISBN (Book)
9783668576612
File size
556 KB
Language
English
Tags
urbanization, development, India, urban development, challenges, cities
Quote paper
Nardos Hawaz (Author)Ayalew Damtew (Author)Shibabaw Teferi (Author), 2016, Challenges of Urban Development in India, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/380529

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