The Influence of Marital Instability on the Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students

A Case Study of the Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State


Master's Thesis, 2014
48 Pages, Grade: 4

Excerpt

Table of Contents

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION
1.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 EFFECTS OF STABLE HOME ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY LEVEL.
2.3 EFFECTS OF UNSTABLE HOME ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY LEVEL.
2.4 STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
2.5 IMPACT OF FAMILY ON THE STUDENTS TAKE HOME ASSIGNMENT
2.6 EFFECTS OF UNSTABLE HOME ON THE STUDENT BEHAVIOR BOTH ACADEMICALLY AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONAL HYGIENE.

CHAPTER THREE
3.1 THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.2 SAMPLE AND SAMPLINGS TECHNIQUE
3.3 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.5 ANALYSIS OF DATA

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 DISCUSSION OF THE FINDING/RESULT
5.1.1 TYPE OF HOME AFFECTS CHILDREN PERFORMANCE
5.1.2 CHILDREN FROM BROKEN HOME DO NOT DO THEIR ASSIGNMENT.
5.1.3 MARITAL INSTABILITY BRINGS ABOUT CHILDREN UNTIDINESS
5.2 SUMMARY
5.3 CONCLUSION
5.4 RECOMMENDATION
5.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
5.6 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY
5.7 DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE COLLECTED

REFERENCE

DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to God Almighty and to my dearest husband Mr. Michael Nwachukwu and loving children

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my thanks to all who in various ways contributed to the completion of this project.

Most especially, my profound gratitude goes to my project supervisor Prof Obikeze for his sustained effort in directing, guiding and reading through my manuscripts at every stage of it production and marking correction when necessary.

I also express my appreciation to my husband Mr. Michael Nwachukwu whose contribution saw me through my studies in the school.

I am equally grateful to my loving children, Chinedu, Chukwuebuka, Somto and Uchechukwu who truly understood and gave me encouragement and always wished me well Moreso my appreciation cannot be concluded without thanking, holy ghost adoration ministry Uke for their wonderful prayer I also thank the almighty God for his abundant mercies and guidance throughout the course of my studies.

Nwachukwu Jane K.

ABSTRACT

This study deal on the Influence of Marital Instability on the Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Idemili North L.G.A Of Anambra State.

The research aims at finding out the effect of stable and unstable home on the academic performance of student, their neatness and their take home assignment with a view of making valuable suggestive solutions. This will help to provide a guide to educational administrations of various institutions running through the same problems and society at large to check and control it effect on children and also control instability in the home to enable the children get the control parental up bringing to turnout useful citizen in future to achieve this, the researcher formulated the following null hypothesis and research questions respectively as a guild for the study.

HYPOTHESIS

There is no significant difference between the performance of children from broken homes and the performance of children from stable home in junior secondary school level.

RESEARCH QUESTION

1. Does marital instability bring about the student untidiness in school?
2. Does the type of home a student comes from affect his/her academic performance in school?
3. Does student from broken homes do their assignment?

The population of the study consist of the junior secondary school student at all the forty secondary in idemili north local government area. The sample consisted of 188 pupils chosen randomly from the eight school selected by stratified random sampling. Data was collected by the research based on the documented record collected from sample eight schools to elicit the need information from the junior secondary teachers in the eight schools. Student were randomly selected and their records collected. The data was analyzed by the means of t-score for testing hypothesis and mean (x) and standard deviation for answering research questions.

The result showed that effect of marital instability on the academic performance of junior secondary school student in Idemili north local government area is great because the schools records or collected analyzed data emphatically justified it. Implication of the study was stated. Also recommendation and suggestion were made on how best to reduce the effect of marital instability.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The role of the family in the child’s education is very important since the family is where the child spends its early life.

The family cycle is where many human needs and happiness can be satisfied.

It is there that we may find the thing that all of us normally yearn for to feel needed to be appreciated and to be loved. It is important to stress here that the child in the womb cannot be aided to be socialized. This is because there is no agent of socialization within the uterine atmosphere or as such the education of the child takes place in his interaction with the internal and external environment.

A family into which a child is born may be a major determinant of his/her success in school. The value of an arrow is determined by how well it is aimed with care and skill. So that it will hit the target. in like manner it is actual that as parents we wisely and prayerfully ponder on the kind of training we will give our children.

The family over the years has been on transition or put directly experiencing social changes and one of these changes include the threat to the survived of this basic social institution which is the family.

Thus, the family has become unstable as it can no longer effectively perform the role it plays to the child and society as large.

The family as a social institution which this project work is anchored is assumed to be saddled with a lot of problem which result in its instability parent nowadays no longer believe. It is a duty they own their children in making sure they guide them though their lives, the idea now is once you are born into the world, that person takes care of himself, one begins to wonder how the family as a social institution which is supposed to guide them through has resorted to shying away from its responsibilities due to problem inherent in the family.

The inability of the spouses to assume their right and obligations properly will result to instability in the family and some time it may lead to separation which does not augur well for their children.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Marriage is the union of man and woman in the society in a socially approved way. The husband and wife must be or see themselves as one before they would be able to carryout functions required of them by the society based on full understanding of each member for a better result. Members of the extended family must fulfill their own goals and an objective identified with members of both the nuclear and extended family interference sets in and leads to breakdown in the family network.

In Nigeria generally, it is not of place to notice instability in many families because two individual with different families come to live together as husband and wife with their individual differences, value, interest, desires, goals and objective. If these goals are not properly combined, it could lead to situations like divorce or breakdown of the relationship between nuclear and extended family members and family existence.

Instability has no bounds; it exists in literate and illitrates families. It is an ill wind that does no good to the children’s performance in education.

Since education is a major attribute which distinguishes man from other lower animals and that accounts for why man struggles to acquire skill and knowledge. A basic philosophy of the national policy on education is the provision of equal educational opportunities for all its citizens in different educational levels. This basic philosophy is not applicable to a child who is always absent from school because one of the parent is not around to motivate him/her. This is the more reason why there is inequality in education in Idemili north. The philosophy is such that the child is not only given the access to education.

Some characteristics that will be applied in this study are: home convenience as it effect his/her take home assignment and performance on health, level of interactions as it affects his/her communication, without absenteeism as it affects his/her record of attendance during school hours, neatness as if affect his/her nails cloths, her etc. these variables play a great role in student academic performance in the school.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The family is the first place of contact of any child and that is from where his personality begins to form.

Therefore, a child who has impaired socialization will carry it to adulthood and through his life time.

Marital instability as defined in this study involves a situation where the couple lives in disharmony for reasons of marital problems on the spouses and their children. Most significant of such problem is the emotional disturbances associated with marital instability. Most of the time the spouses develop character traits arising out of conflict which the person undergoes.

On the side of the man his problem might lead him into some anti-social activities which will eventually affect his offspring’s educationally. This is because he might be so disorganized as to be able to make provision for his children’s education.

Furthermore, the atmosphere in which a child develops determines his success in his school work and his relations with others in the school environment.

Children develop delinquent potentialities easily in homes that knew no peace. The family environment is most important in making the personality of an adult what it is. This is because at an early age the parents reflect the culture pattern and value of the society.

The growing child has a lot to learn from the parents whether good or bad. Therefore, a good family environment teaches norms and conducts. Those are good for the children’s better educational development should such children go to school. When this is lacking the children suffer deficiency in personality and educational development and may have difficulties in interacting socially.

Marital separation or instable homes result in most of these problems. Some children have difficulties in learning as a result of unsuitable home environment created by parents. Such parents are often unable to provide for their children educational advancement such as books school uniform and other useful materials. Even when they are able to provide for all these basic needs the child might show signs of being emotionally depressed due to quarrels exhibited by parent at home.

Also in homes where children miss either their mother or their father they are usually not happy especially when it is as a case of separation or that he or she is dead. The children will always feel that they are being deprived of love and affection which they are supposed to get from that missing one.

Thus they will always lag behind in whatever they are doing with other children.

This is because most of the time they do not see themselves as equal with those that are living with their mother and father. In peace. Some of them will grow up to feel that they are being cheated and this goes a long way to affect their performance on education.

The concern of the study is to find out the effects of marital instability on the academic performance of junior secondary school students in Idemili north L.G.A of Anambra state.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study is to:

a. Find out how marital instability affects the academic performance of junior secondary school students.
b. Find out causes of poor academic performance.
c. To ascertain the relationship between marital instability and education/academic performance of secondary school student.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Research data from this study will provide a more constructive frame work to the formulation of social policies in our nation Nigeria in the areas of marital problem.

The serves to intimate the educational administration with the cause, effects and solution to marital instability.

Secondly social workers, marriage guidance and family therapist would find this study useful for effective discharge of their work or duties.

Different level of policy makers may as well draw inspiration from this research work on effects of marital instability.

Also this study tries to give suggestions which could be utilized by those in authority as well as the public at large in minimizing marital conflict and attend to problems of child abuse and neglect.

The last but not the least of this study is the suggestion, solution and maintenance of mental equilibrium for better families for a better tomorrow.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is concentrated on Idemili north local government area of Anambra state.

It dewells on inspectors of education in Idemili north local government area and state education board, principal classroom teachers, few parents and pupils.

1.7 RESEARCH QUESTION

This study will be guided by the following question:

1. Does marital instability bring about the student untidiness in school?
2. Does the type of home a student comes from affect his/her academic performance in school?
3. Do students from broken homes do their assignment and behave alike with other from stable home?

1.8 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the purpose of this study, the following hypothesis were formulated to guide the study.

There is no significant difference between the academic performance of student from stable homes and the academic performance of students from broken home in junior secondary school level.

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

In reviewing the literature on marital instability, it was found that many social scientists have carried out different research studies and revealed numerous causes and effects of marital instability:

Studies carried out in the area of marital instability will be reviewed under the following subheadings:-

2.1 Effects of stable home on the academic performance of the students in junior secondary level in secondary school.
2.2 Effects of unstable home on the academic performance of the students in junior secondary level in secondary school.
2.3 Students’ academic performance
2.4 Impact of family on the students take home assignment
2.5 Effects of unstable home on the student behavior both academically and social behavior and personal hygiene.

2.2 EFFECTS OF STABLE HOME ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY LEVEL.

There are two forms of education the formal and the informal type, Ugwoegbu (1992) saw informal education at home as The basic tool which provides the individual with necessary guidelines for formal education. This indicate therefore that whatever type of family into which a child is born will one way or the other affects his education.

A life style begins to take shape virtually at birth and education begins first as early as soon as infant beings to react to the environment both human and physical within the limits of their experience and understanding even pre-school children have already accumulated a set off attitudes and habits that will be the basis of their life styles.

Blooms (1986) showed that the home environment is one of the most important sets of influences in the emotional and intellectual development of children especially during the school years. He wrote “The ways in which parents spend time with their children at meals, in play and at the time during the day have been found to be crucial factors in developing skills which prepare children for school.

He explained that the objects in the home, the amount of parental interest in learning and the amount of practices and encouragement the children is given in conversation and general learning have been found to have significant influences on languages and cognitive development, attention span and motivation of the child”.

Harwood (1982) agreed with above sentence that family being the first institution, for child’s education, as an institution, the family has shown a remarkable capacity for survival and the various ways in which families have organized themselves and these actually influence the child’s performance in primary schools.

Nwoye (1988) observed that “if most households and families could discharge their families responsibilities, dutifully caring for the dependent to socializing the child, building the foundation of love, giving social support, giving identity supervising basic learning, teaching respect for authority to mention but a few the child could perform very well and the society and school would have a different outlook than what is found today, this is so because ones early family education is reflected later in one’s attitude and performance.

Okolo (1989) believe that responsible children have always come from responsible homes since olive tree cannot but produce olive fruit.

Pallock and Middleton (1989) indicated that emotional climate of home, the quality of family relationship and many other social factors have tremendous influences on the health behavior of children.

Soyombo (1986) feels that the home provides the child with his most fundamental needs which the child need for his performance.

2.3 EFFECTS OF UNSTABLE HOME ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY LEVEL.

Both, Johnson and Edward (1983) noted that the term family instability has been in appropriate equated with marital dissolution. “Divorce” or marital disruption, separation etc. it was frequently asserted that marital instability has a deteriorating effect on the children’s development. Both agreed that separation from any of the parents be it the father or the mother, is bad psychological, physical and social effect upon the children.

Anagbogu and Chikendu (1989) had it that “The importance of the role of the father in the child’s development is a vital one. The child depends to a very large extent on the father’s occupation and social status and the child in the fatherless family can be considered as severally deprived both in the sense of often lacking a masculine model with which to identify and in the series of often living in condition of serve long term material hardship insecurity and emotional train”

Many of our genius and gifted children have died without ever discovering their talents due to lack of opportunity to develop oneself. Because of unstable home” Umunna (1988).

“Honestly some gifted children are not allowed by their parent guardian to maximize the potentials due to unstable home environment”

Nwoye (1988) further stated that “in most unstable homes parent do not perform their functions effectively due to existing problems between them. They would become incentive to family issues and tend to neglect a child’s complain of no shoes, no school feed, no school uniform, no books and other aid for educational and moral development.

According to Anagbogu and Chikendu (1989) separation from the mother during childhood could lead to emotional maladjustment, delinquency educational problem and even psychopathic behavior of the child.

Rejection by the mother which can be shown in a variety of ways is a form of severe deprivation for the child who is likely to react by showing emotional or behavioral disturbance.

Nwachili (1991) stated that for the child of broken home, lack of attention may lead to a feeling of insecurity that could continue throughout his childhood which then eventually manifest in adulthood when the child becomes old enough to begin his own family this type of behavior may repeat itself in his relation. It is best that parents especially mother stay near their children, care for them teach them good moral behavior because human being needs attention all through his life for an effective all round development.

Marital instability affects children’s health and health affect intellectual ability. This is because Ajale (1987) had it that an emotional disturbance could affect a child’s general behavior both in and outside the classroom.

According to Ogbozor (1986) “if most households could discharge their family responsibility dutifully the school and society would have a different out look On the other hand, responsible children always come from responsible home and their behaviors in school are quite different from one from bad and irresponsible families. Since olive trees cannot but produce olive fruit. Supporting this, Nwachili (1991) stated that parents who inadequately prepare their pupils or student in sound moral behavior contribute more to children turning to be robbers in the school, instead of putting more interest in helping their children morally so they would understand what stealing means and its implication.

2.4 STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

According to Nwachili (1991) parental attention and assistance to children provides encouragement, motivation and greater incentive for success. It has been observed that children from instable home lack academic aspiration from such homes. It has also been found that children feel rejected and inferiors, for this reason they have low mentality and therefore do not perform very well academically.

Gallaghor emphasized that lack of attention has adverse effect on the life of the children it could lead to diligence in children” he further said that both mother and father help in the socialization of the child. The fathers discipline helps the child to drop undesirable attitude while the mother is known for her moral upbringing and love, where any of these is missing, it affects the child’s academic performance.

Both Johnson and Edward (1983) said that when children lack concentration they tend to withdraw within themselves, eat less and show over activity of a restless kind or loose interest in everything around them and develop a rebellious nature such children have problem that parent must recognize. When either parents or a single one is not there to help the children solve their problem which in turn affect their academic work.

Finally, Udoh (1987) stated that a child who is unhealthy cannot function effectively in his academic.

2.5 IMPACT OF FAMILY ON THE STUDENTS TAKE HOME ASSIGNMENT

Turner stated that the school is the most important agent outside the home in shaping the health of a child.

Furthermore. He said that the elementary school years as well as the home are very formative for the child.

This is why Gallaghor advises parent saying “create out time to be with your children, hug and play with them. Listen to their needs and grant some of them make them happy.

As succinctly stated by Folawiyo (1988) ….no child should suffer the burdens of illness or defect resulting from conditions that are preventable or correctable. Although the parents have the responsibility for the health care and supervision for their children’s work at home”

He further said that the school cannot and must not ignore the needs of children who are neglected or abused”.

According to Udoh, Fawole, Ajala, Okafor Nwana Obanya (1988) the impact of learning on children will come to nothing unless the school itself and home has a healthy environment. Since marital instability leads to a divided home and divided home deprive children of the essential health environment which eventually lead to poor performance.

This is supported when Umesiegbu (1988) said that “Any aspect of the school programmed should be enhanced by parental participation at home”

Both the home and the community could have positive or negative influence on the health attitudes and practices of the school child. The health behavior which a child considers desirable depends to a large extent on what his parents and adult within his immediate environment know and believe”. Udo et al (1988).

Speaking on school- home-community combined efforts to help the children at home; Clausmere and Blount (1968) suggested the involvement of student, parents and teachers and others in the immediate community for effective curriculum planning to ensure that the interest of all concerned is taken care of.

Parent should not neglect their children’s home work for promotion of good performance his education must be sound both at school and at home.

Udo et al (1988) state that education consists of given information as to what to do at home also includes putting information into practice until good habit are formed.

A child is known by the family and retreat exerts a heavy toll on the wellbeing of the child when vital indications of his survival and development are considered. States Ogbozor (1986)

Nwachili (1984) stated that lack of attention to the children at home kills motivation and the interest the child has for education simply because the mother was not there to help him or her go through his or her school work and what is given as home work.

2.6 EFFECTS OF UNSTABLE HOME ON THE STUDENT BEHAVIOR BOTH ACADEMICALLY AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND PERSONAL HYGIENE.

Werner (1987) sees personal hygiene as that great task in the prevention of many kinds of infections through adequate practice of personal cleanliness as well as public cleanliness.

According to William (1973) personal hygiene deals with our efforts to reduce the spread of germ, look after our bodies carefully and know that it is our primary responsibility to take care of our bodies rather than waiting for our parents to do so but nevertheless the parents has a great role to play.

Bucher, Charles and Reade (1974) make us to understand that the tender years of childhood are most important the starting point of social, physical and mental development. In his words at this stage the personality of the child moulded attitudes are formed. Symbols are learned and social values are being acquired and in a situation where the parent life is battered, the child might not be able to acquire all.

The direction of the child development will depend to a great extent upon his educational experiences and the leadership provided by the class teacher to guide these experiences.

Pallock (1989) states that adults can promote self-reliance by showing an awareness of their own identity and autonomy, by defining for themselves appropriate values and behavior standard by acting responsibly and providing children with experience that help them grow into self-reliant adults.

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The target population for the study consisted of pupils in secondary school in Idemili north which is divided into two educational zones composed of Obosi and Awada. Obosi zone consisted of 15 primary schools while awards consisted of 25 schools.

[...]

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Details

Title
The Influence of Marital Instability on the Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students
Subtitle
A Case Study of the Idemili North Local Government Area of Anambra State
Course
Research project
Grade
4
Author
Year
2014
Pages
48
Catalog Number
V507989
ISBN (eBook)
9783346080394
Language
English
Tags
influence, anambra, area, government, local, north, idemili, study, case, students, school, secondary, junior, performance, academic, instability, marital, state
Quote paper
Confidence Erhunse (Author), 2014, The Influence of Marital Instability on the Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/507989

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