Scientific Essay, 2008, 10 Pages
Special features of tourism marketing
The following special features of tourism marketing are closely related to the characteristics of the tourism product. According to FREYER (1999, page 59 etc.), tourism marketing has, within general marketing and even within service marketing, specific special features arising from the following characteristics:
- The service character and phase model of tourism services
- Special features both in production and of the product, in particular collective production and service chains and their significance for tourism marketing
- Special features of private businesses and organisation advertising in tourism marketing (micro- and macro marketing)
- The holistic approach of tourism marketing
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Illustration 1: Holistic marketing in tourism
Source: altered from FREYER (1999, page 104)
Based on these specific special features, the theories of an independent tourism marketing have been developed which are presented here:
Tourism marketing as a special form of service sector marketing
In principle, we can differentiate between two models as regards the structure of the product in general marketing: the goods-oriented and the service-oriented model. The goods-oriented model compiled by business can traditionally be divided into three basic phases: purchasing, production and sales (WÖHE, 1986, pages 530 etc.). In contrast to this we have the service-oriented model. Here three different basic phases are used: the potential phase, the process phase and the result phase (HILKE, 1989, page 15).
- The potential phase (also known as the preparation phase) is the period in which services are seen as skills and the readiness to carry out a service.
- The process phase (also known as implementation phase) is the period during which the services are carried out as activities.
- In the result phase services are perceived as the results of an activity.
From the tourism point of view the phases can be described as follows: The potential phase, for example, can be said to include the services of travel preparation (e.g. advisory services, bookings, reservations, etc.). As a rule, these services will be provided where the consumer lives. In the process phase, we find the services relating to the travel itself (e.g. transport, accommodation and restaurant services). In the result phase, we then see the results and effects of the travel. In particular, these will include impressions and physical reactions (e.g. improvements in health, emotional state, etc.).
For the field of tourism services marketing, this time-related point of view means that, in this period, marketable services – i.e. those which are paid for – take the foreground. As for the public advertisers (e.g. communal and regional tourism organisations) or those serving the general interests in tourism marketing, these marketable services present only a part of total services, tourist service marketing has to be extended. The services and goods produced within the framework of non-commercial marketing cannot be included in a market-related exchange or in market price formation, as the infrastructure (e.g. traffic routes, educational services etc.) is produced and tourist information services (e.g. advising and visitor services in tourist information offices) are supplied free of direct charge for the consumer.
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