Automatic Industrial Waste Recycling System. Design, Implementation, Analysis


Bachelor Thesis, 2019

38 Pages, Grade: S


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Table of Contents

Abstract

Chapter 1
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background
1.3 Overview of the Proposed System
1.4 Thesis Outline 1

Chapter 2 Waste management system design
2.1 Construction process
2.2 System circuit diagram
2.3 System architecture and algorithm
2.4 Components for the waste management system

Chapter 3 Implementation

Chapter 4
4.1 Performance Analysis
4.2 Economic analysis

Chapter 5 Conclusion
5.1 Summary
5.2 Future development

References

List of Figures

Figure 2.1: Simplified circuit diagram of waste management system

Figure 2.2: 12V AC to 12V DC rectifier circuit diagram

Figure 2.3: Voltage regulator circuit diagram

Figure 2.4: Metal and size defection circuit diagram

Figure 2.5: Processing unit circuit diagram

Figure 2.6: ATmega328P pinout and connections. 9

Figure 2.7: Push-pull mechanism circuit diagram

Figure 2.8: Relay circuit diagram

Figure 2.9: Programming flowchart of waste management system

Figure 2.10: DC gear motor. 11

Figure 2.11: Metal sensing device with 555 timer IC. 12

Figure 2.12: Circuitry for metal sensor by TDA0161 IC. 13

Figure 2.13: Metal sensor module. 14

Figure 2.14: LDR structure. 8

Figure 2.15: LASER Diode. 7

Figure 2.16: Servo motor. 15

Figure 2.18: Pneumatic cylinder. 17

Figure 2.19: Pusher & Puller (left one is puller and right one is pusher)

Figure 2.20: Solenoid. 18

Figure 2.21: Solenoid we used

Figure 2.22: 12V-20A SMPS (Switching Mode Power Supply). 19

Figure 3.1: Waste management system prototype

Figure 3.2: Internal view of the prototype.

Figure 3.3: DC gear motor

Figure 3.4: 12V-3A and 12V-6A transformers

Figure 3.5: Rectifier circuit board.

Figure 3.6: Voltage regulator circuit board.

Figure 3.7: Size detection sensor and conveyor belt

Figure 3.8: Processing circuit board.

Figure 3.9: Relay circuit board.

Figure 3.10: 12V-20A SMPS (Switch Mode Power Supply) 19

Figure 3.11: Metal detection module

Figure 3.12: Push-pull mechanism.

Figure 4.1: Sampling of audio signals

List of Tables

Table 1.1: Different kinds of waste generated in six major cities in Bangladesh1

Table 2.1: Size detection logic

Table 2.2:Metal sensor module specifications.14

Table 2.3:LASER diode specifications.7

Table 2.4:Specifications of 12V-20A SMPS.13

Table 4.1: RPM of conveyor belt

Table 4.2: Price list of components used in proposed system.

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank our supervisor & Department Chairperson, Assistant Professor Dr. Khalid Imtiaz Saad, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, East West University, EWU, Dhaka, Bangladesh for his suggestions and support to work on this topic.

We would also like to thank our academic advisors, Dr. Mohammad Mojammel Al Hakim, Dr. Khairul Alam and Dr. Halima Begum for their encouragement and help.

We appreciate our parents for their support and concern in this thesis.

Abstract

The objective of this project work was to develop an automatic recycling system. Differentiating metal and non-metal and sorting them was the main requirement of this project. Metal sensor module had been used for detecting metal and LASER diode and LDR had been used for detecting the metal size. By using electromagnetic pushing mechanism, we had stored different size of metals on different bins. A microcontroller had been used to control the whole system and to perform all the necessary calculations and data collections. A set of relays had been used for controlling pushing mechanism. The detection error of the system depends on the metal sensor and LDR sensor. We had developed a prototype model for this project. Required power had been supplied to the prototype using a self-developed power supply unit.

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

The main purpose of this project was to build a prototype of industrial recycling system. The device was capable of differentiating metal and non-metal and sorting them. Using metal sensor, the device detected metal and the LASER & LDR sensor set detected the metal size. Relay set controlled the push-pull mechanism and sorted the metals according to size. For the project compatibility and future development purpose, ATmega328p microcontroller had been used to take inputs from sensors and other modules. We had implemented this system using 220V AC connection.

1.2 Background

Due to rapid industrialization the amount of waste disposed in any developing country is increasing day by day. To sort the waste metal according to various category is a part of the waste management solution. According to research reports, every year, 62 million tons of waste is generating out of which only 28% of waste is recycled and 72% is left on the roads and the landfill areas for several years, which is fraught with hazardous consequences. [1][2]

In recent time almost similar situation is seen in most of the developing countries. Therefore, differentiating various kinds of wastes like plastic, paper and metal is very necessary. Besides, efficient waste collection system, proper disposal and sustainable recovery are very much required for a modern and clean world. [2]

Nothing is waste until it can't be used anymore in any way. Today there are many innovations available in waste management like recycling wastes into usable products and manufacturing new products for home and commercial usage. Therefore, the importance of managing waste like sorting, recycling and recovery in effective way has enhanced many folds now-a-days.

Industries can play a very significant role by implementing waste management system for the entire organization through the one central system. They can very well attain “zero waste to landfill” targets as part of sustainable initiatives. Keeping the nature of waste generated by the households and industries in view, the three R's mantra of Reuse, Reduce and Recycle appears be more suitable to meet this challenge. This involves techniques such as repair of broken things instead of buying new, purchasing and re-using second-hand items, and designing reusable and recyclable products. It will help us to save natural resources, produce energy, reduce pollution. [3][2][4]

Table 1.1: Different kinds of waste generated in six major cities in Bangladesh. [1]

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

DCC=Dhaka City Corporation, CCC=Chittagong City Corporation, KCC=Khulna City Corporation, RCC=Rajshahi City Corporation, BCC=Barisal City Corporation, SCC=Sylhet City Corporation.

1.3 Overview of the Proposed System

Waste management is a systematic process consisting of collection, transportation, and proper disposal of waste products. This also offers various solutions for recycling the items and putting them to productive use. [5]

An automatic metal sorting device is a much-needed thing nowadays. In recent times, lots of metal sorting systems have been developed. It is a necessary tool in the production line of industry. An automatic sorting machine has the main task of sorting components according to the sizes. [2]

This device usually consists of a conveyor belt, which reduces the efforts of material handling. Also, both processes take place simultaneously with material handling and inspection. A sorting machine is a more practical and economical method of automation, which transfers material from one point to another. The design is quite simple and of flexible use, which means only a conveyor belt can be used for material handling. The objects can be sorted in a conveyor belt according to their height and length.

This project therefore designed and developed an automated sorting object on a conveyor belt. This automated sorting machine is able to sense and separate species of ferrous and non-ferrous objects and at the same time move objects automatically to the basket by the pushers. The result obtained shows that plastic, wood, and metals were sorted into their respective and correct position. The proposed developed model of this project could be adopted at any institution or industries, whose practices are based on mechatronics engineering systems.

To perform this mechanism, an object will have to be placed on a conveyor belt which is operated by a motor. Then after checking metal and non-metal objects also with the height and length of the product, the small, medium and large shapes of the products will be thrown to the product box according to their sizes and the non-metals products will be rejected to the box by automatic rejection process and the accepted products will also be counted automatically which is performed by user-defined rules.

In the core of the project, we have used metal sensor, ATmega328p microcontroller 6, LASER 7, LDR 8, magnetic pushers and relays. The ATmega328p microcontroller controls the relay and drives relay according to output of photo interrupter. LASER rays and LDR's are used for detection. The objects of different sizes are passed through the sensors and the object having specified size is sorted. The belt is driven by a DC 12V motor. By developing such sorting system, the production rate of the manufacturing industry can be increased.

1.4 Thesis Outline

This thesis report contains five chapters. In Chapter 1, the objective of our work on waste recycling system is covered along with the purpose and motivation of this thesis topic. Chapter 2 discusses the design specifications including the requirements of the proposed system. Chapter 3 presents design and implementation of proposed automated waste management system. Chapter 4 discusses the economic analysis of the system. Chapter 5 concludes the thesis and mentions further developments.

Chapter 2

Waste management system design

2.1 Construction process

1. The unit consisted of the conveyor belt which was driven by a DC electric motor.
2. The conveyor belt was mounted on the wooden frame.
3. At the two ends of the frame, using PVC roller, two round shape rods were bolted to the frame over which the belt runs.
4. A pulley was connected with one of the rollers rods to drive the belt along with the motor.
5. For the purpose of idling, the sheet metal was used which also acts as a scrubber to reduce the dust on the belt.
6. The metal sensor was located on the inside of the conveyor belt for sensing metals.
7. Beside the metal sensor, three Laser and LDR's were located to perform the measurement of length and height.
8. For the pushing and sorting purpose, the pushing mechanisms (Magnetic push-pull system) were mounted on another frame beside the conveyor belt frame.
9. For the wiring and electronic assembly, various power electronics components situated on the main base.

2.2 System circuit diagram

Waste management system was designed as an integrated set of hardware and software. The hardware included a set of subsystems to manage power, data storage, timekeeping and sensor interfacing. The full system was programmable ATmega328p microcontroller. 6

To meet the project's requirements, we needed to design the waste management system according to the sensors and other modules specifications. Below we have all our designed circuit diagrams for the system.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.1: Simplified circuit diagram of waste management system.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.2: 12V AC to 12V DC rectifier circuit diagram.

This circuit converted 12V AC voltage to 12V DC voltage. Using 12V DC output we gave power to the other section of the system.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.3: Voltage regulator circuit diagram.

We needed several different value of voltage outputs to run our system perfectly. This circuit we had used to take input of 12V DC and gave output of several 5V, 9V and 12V DC.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.4: Metal and size defection circuit diagram.

This was our metal and size detection part circuit diagram. LASER and metal sensor module require 5V. We will give 5V input from our voltage regulation board. LDR sensor passed the signal to the processing unit A1, A2, A3 pin.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.5: Processing unit circuit diagram.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.6: ATmega328P pinout and connections. 9

This unit collected data from metal sensor module and LDR sensor. According to the input data it gave required output to the push-pull mechanism section.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.7: Push-pull mechanism circuit diagram.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.8: Relay circuit diagram.

Instructions from the processing unit controlled the relay section. Specific relays pushed & pulled specific solenoid. This push-pull mechanism sorted the metal objects according to small, medium and large.

2.3 System architecture and algorithm

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Conveyer belt rotates

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2.9: Programming flowchart of automatic waste recycling system.

From the programming flowchart (Figure 2.8), we can see that first it switched ON the whole system and then motor starts. Then we gave object on the conveyor belt. Metal sensor module detected the object if it is metal or non-metal. If it was non-metal, next section doesn't get activated and it went directly to the specified bin. If it was metal then LDR sensor set get activated and it measured object size. After detecting the object successfully, it activated relevant relay portion and corresponding push-pull mechanism and pushed the object to the specific bin.

[...]

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Details

Title
Automatic Industrial Waste Recycling System. Design, Implementation, Analysis
College
East West University
Grade
S
Authors
Year
2019
Pages
38
Catalog Number
V1037036
ISBN (Book)
9783346483683
Language
English
Tags
automatic, industrial, waste, recycling, system, design, implementation, analysis
Quote paper
Eshteak Ahmed (Author)Faiaz Mahmud (Author)Joynul Arefin (Author), 2019, Automatic Industrial Waste Recycling System. Design, Implementation, Analysis, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1037036

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