Speaking English Made Easy

A Student's Guide


Textbook, 2015

251 Pages


Excerpt

CONTENTS

THE SENTENCE

KINDS OF SENTENCES

PHRASE AND CLAUSE

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

PARTS OF SPEECH

THE VERB

USING IRREGULAR VERBS

TENSE
Present Tense (Affirmative)
Past Tense (Affirmative)
Future Tense (Affirmative)

THE USES OF TENSE

THE USES OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

THE USES OF PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

PRESENT CONTINUOUS vs. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

THE USES OF SIMPLE PAST

THE USES OF PAST CONTINUOUS

THE USES OF PRESENT PERFECT

THE USES OF SIMPLE FUTURE

The uses of “going to” form
THE USES OF PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
THE USES OF PAST PERFECT TENSE
THE USES PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
THE USES OF FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
THE USES OF FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
THE USES OF FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Common Structures in English For spoken communication
1st Structure: “Want to/ wants to” is used to express your desires or aspirations.
2nd Structure: “Don’t want to/ doesn’t want to” is used to express our dislikes.
3rd Structure: “Do + Subject + want to” is used to ask questions related to your wishes or desires.
4th Structure:
5th Structure
6th Structure: “Wanted to” is used to express our past desires or aspirations.
7th Structure: “have to” In general, have to expresses impersonal obligation. The subject of have to is obliged or forced to act by a separate, external power.
8th Structure: “Will have to” and “have got to or has got to”
9th Structure: “don’t have to/ does have to”
10th Structure: “Do + Subject + have to” is used to ask questions related to your wishes or desires.
11th Structure: Why/When/What/How + do + Subject + have to
12th Structure: “Have/Has” used to say that someone owns something or talk about possession, relationships and other states:
13th Structure: “Must” used to say that something is necessary or very important (Sometimes involving a rule or a law).
14th Structure: “Must not” used to say that something is not permitted or allowed.
15th Structure: Interrogative sentences with “Must”.
16th Structure: Usage of “Should”.
17th Structure: Usage of “Need”.
17th Structure: Usage of “Can”
17th Structure: Usage of “Could”
18th Structure: Usage of “Used to”

VOICE

THE USE OF PASSIVE VOICE:

Rules for changing a sentence from active voice to passive voice

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

VOICE – KEY TABLE

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

TENSES - CONDITIONALS

ZERO CONDITIONAL

OPEN OR PROBABLE CONDITION

UNREAL OR IMPROBABLE OR IMPOSSIBLE CONDITION

UNFULFILLED CONDITION

SIMPLE COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCES

SYNTHESIS OF SENTENCES

COMMON EXPRESSIONS EXPRESSED IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS GRATITUDE

PHRASAL VERBS

QUESTION TAG

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PREFACE

In an era where communication has become synonymous to speaking English, it has become mandatory not only to learn the language but put it into terms to sustain in the competing world. Considering the technicality of the language, it is surely difficult to convey the words spoken, because it is not just about speaking English but it is to make it understandable and lucid. Just as written English is constrained by barricades of Grammar, so does spoken English is restrained by both Grammar as well as phonetics of speech. Dealing with such great tides of difficulty inherent in speaking English, there is a need to simplify the vocalization of this global language.

This book is written especially for University Students, but all stages of learners may also find it useful. The explanations are made as simple as possible. Special care had been taken to cover all the items which are very useful for all non English medium academic background students. Explanations are mostly in ordinary everyday English. This book describes standard modern British English, and gives realistic examples of spoken and written language (both formal and informal).

The book, ‘Speaking English Made Easy’ is an attempt to put forth an easy and effortless way for learning the language. The work presents a unique understanding to bring the language to one’s finger tips. Assembling the various descendants of Grammar, the book interleaves into the technicality of speaking English. The book is also a useful guide for students taking on competitive exams on English. This work can definitely stand on as the sound whose echo vibrates around the world.

Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Mr. Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa is currently the CEO of Tao Educare. He is a student of English Department, Adikavi Nannaya University, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh and is also pursuing Masters in Journalism and Mass Communications through Distance Education. He scored CGPA of ‘9’ points (Distinction) in P.G. Diploma in English Language and Linguistics. He did P.G. Diplomas in Functional English and English Language Teaching. He is a Diploma holder in Yoga, Environmental Studies, Functional Arabic, and French. He conducted workshops on ‘Personality Development’, ‘Honing Soft Skills’, ‘Soft Skills for Marginalised Youth’, at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. He was a Resource Person for a workshop at SOS Children’s Village and was the Director of Bay School of Journalism. He taught Journalism at Gayatri Vidya Parishad Degree College and worked as Trainer at TIME institute. His research articles and book reviews were published in various reputed National and International Journals. His article was published in Kurukshetra. He completed Certificate course on Gandhi and Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy. He visited Blekinge Tekniska Hogskola (BTH), a well renowned University in Sweden as a student for a period of one year and completed various courses on Sustainable Engineering, Mobile Communications, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Mathematics etc. He bagged first prize in the Debate Competition on Green Manufacturing technology at the National Level. He also delivered lecture on ‘Indian Culture’ to the students of Brigham Young University (USA). He published 4 books till date.

What is Grammar?

"Grammar" which comes from Latin, means the scientific study of the form and arrangement of words, phrases, and sentences.

People sometimes describe grammar as the "rules" of a language;

If we use the word "rules", we suggest that somebody created the rules first and then spoke the language, like a new game. But languages did not start like that. All languages change over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time.

Grammar

Gram + Ar

Generally we use the term “Gram” to measure something. Sometimes the sound “Ar” represents the doer of the action in a noun. Let’s see how.

Definition of a Grammar: “Grammar is the measurement of language”.

Do we need to study grammar to learn a language?

The short answer is "no".

Very many people in the world speak their own, native language without having studied its grammar. Children start to speak before they even know the word "grammar".

But if you are serious about learning a foreign language,

The long answer is "yes”.

Grammar can help you to learn a language more quickly and more efficiently." It also tells us if the language is correctly spoken and written or not.

THE SENTENCE

A group of words which makes complete sense is called a Sentence.

Examples:

Kumar threw a stone.

My uncle lives in the next house.

He is very impatient and always interrupts me mid-sentence.

Your conclusion is good, but the final sentence is too long and complicated.

KINDS OF SENTENCES

A sentence that states or declares something is called a Declarative or Assertive sentence.

Examples:

She is your English Professor.

The boys are reading books in the library.

I have two brothers and one sister.

Canada and the United States are neighbors.

A sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative sentence.

Examples:

What is your father?

Why did you come late?

How long have you been working here?

Where will you go tomorrow?

Can I see her?

A sentence that expresses a command or request is called an Imperative sentence.

Examples:

Please fetch me a piece of chalk.

Have mercy upon us.

Don’t be lazy!

Mind your business!

Come and have a cup of tea.

A sentence that expresses some strong or sudden feeling is called an Exclamatory sentence.

Examples:

How cold the night is!

What a lovely day it is!

How marvelous!

How pretty she is!

PHRASE AND CLAUSE

Phrase: A group of words which makes sense but not complete sense is called a phrase.

Examples:

The sun rises in the east.

Karuna and Srujana sat on the wall.

It was sun set of great beauty.

Show me how to do it.

Note: Examine the group of words in italics. They make sense but not complete.

Clause: A group of words which contains a subject and predicate is called a Clause.

Examples:

We cannot start while it is raining.

I think that you have made a mistake.

It was late when he arrived.

People who pay their debts are trusted.

Note: The group of words in italics is Clauses.

SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

Every sentence must have two parts:

The person or thing we speak about is called the Subject of the sentence.

What is said about the subject is called the predicate of the sentence.

PARTS OF SPEECH

“Partition of a sentence according to its uses is called parts of speech.”

We can categorize English words into 8 basic types or classes.

These classes are called "parts of speech".

Noun: A Noun is a “naming word”.

Examples:

The car makes a lot of noise.

Madhu took the dog to the park.

As in the examples above, a noun is the name of Person (Madhu), Animal (dog), Place (park), Thing (car) or Idea (noise).

Pronoun: A word which is used instead of a Noun.

Examples:

Karuna is absent because she is ill. (She is placed of “Karuna”)

Read the book. It is very useful. (It is placed of “Book”)

Verb: It tells about the action or state of the subject or object.

Examples:

Sirisha writes a letter to her father. (Action)

Anil has lost his mobile phone. (Action)

Parvathi is a teacher in a school. (State)

I am a student of Andhra University. (State)

Adjective: To add something to the meaning of a noun.

Examples:

Examples:

The deer runs quickly.

America is a very rich country.

He writes neatly.

(In the last sentence, the adverb neatly adds to the meaning of the verb “writes” by telling us how the action is done.)

Preposition: It placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to another word.

Examples:

The book is on the table.

(The preposition on shows the relation of “table” and “book”)

The place was full of visitors.

(The preposition of shows the relation of “full” to “visitors”)

They were kind to me.

(The preposition to relate “kind” to “me”)

Conjunction: It is used to join words or sentences.

Examples:

Rama and Hari are cousins.

(The conjunction and joins the word “Rama” and “Hari”)

Have you come by bus or by train?

(The conjunction or joins the words groups “by bus” and “by train”)

I would like to talk to you but I am busy.

(The conjunction but joins the word groups “I would like to go” and “I am busy”)

Interjection: Sudden Expression or feeling.

Examples:

Hurray! We have won the match.

(The interjection hurry is shout of joy or welcome.)

Bravo! Well hit.

(The interjection bravo is used to express joy where somebody has done well)

Ah! I have hurt my foot.

(Ah! Is a cry of pain, pity, surprise, joy etc.)

THE VERB

A verb is a word that tells about the action or state of subject or object.

Examples:

The boy kicks the boll. (Action)

The girl laughs loudly. (Action)

She is an infant. (State)

Rajesh is a clerk in the state bank. (State)

USING IRREGULAR VERBS

All verbs, whether regular or irregular, have five forms [often called principal parts].

These forms are the infinitive, simple present, simple past, past participle, and present participle. The difference between a regular and an irregular verb is the formation of the simple past and past participle. Regular verbs are dependably consistent—the simple past ends in - ed as does the past participle.

Check out this chart:

In contrast, the simple past and past participle of irregular verbs can end in a variety of ways, with absolutely no consistent pattern. Here are some examples:

Writers make two frequent errors with irregular verbs. They either add an incorrect ed to the end of an irregular verb or accidentally interchange the simple past and past participle.

To avoid making mistakes with irregular verbs, learn the very long chart below.

(Time + sense = Tense)

“Tense” tells us about the sense of time in a sentence.

The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action and the degree of its completeness. Tenses can generally be divided into three categories for convenience of communication. There are four sub categories of tenses in each one as given below.

To say the 12 tenses, we have only three verb forms (present, past, past participle). We use these verb forms with different helping verbs to express 12 tenses.

Present Tense (Affirmative)

Present Tense (Negative)

Present Tense (Interrogative)

Past Tense (Affirmative)

Past Tense (Negative)

Past Tense (Interrogative)

Future Tense (Affirmative)

Future Tense (Negative)

Future Tense (Interrogative)

THE USES OF TENSE

THE USES OF SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

1st Usage: The main use of Simple Present Tense is to express habitual or repeated actions:

Examples:

The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.

She always forgets her purse.

Does the Sun circle the Earth?

She keeps her home neat and tidy.

Mary comes to college by car.

My watch keeps correct time.

My son does not like tea.

He prefers coffee.

I get up at 4 o’clock every morning.

Nancy goes to the beach on Saturdays.

Bill watches TV in the evening.

We usually have a quiz on Fridays.

I never go out on weeknights.

Maria rarely listens to the radio.

Do you smoke?

We often go to the cinema.

At the weekend, we usually go to the market.

How often do you study English?

I don't travel very often.

She plays football but she doesn't play tennis.

For breakfast he eats rice and drinks cold milk.

My friend hates fish.

I never drink coffee with milk

Jane works hard. Jim builds houses for a living.

At what time do you usually eat dinner?

Parimila bites nails. Raju always fights with his brother.

He usually reads till midnight.

She suffers from fever frequently.

I do exercises regularly.

Kamal sometimes works till 10 pm in the evening.

The banks in Turkey open at 9:00 am. And close at 5:00 pm.

The bus 29 arrives at the station at 8 o’clock in the morning.

They go on vacation to Tirupati every summer.

The following time adverbials are used with the simple present.

The term “adverbial” is used to cover both adverbs and adverb phrases.

Before starting the verb in the sentence these below adverbials often come in the simple present.

At the end of the sentence these below adverbials often come in the Simple present tense.

NOTE 1: Usually, “Sometimes” and “often” can also be used in the beginning or at the end of a sentence for emphasis.

Sometimes I go out with my friends in the evening.

Often she calls me at 10:00.

I get up late sometimes.

NOTE 2: When the frequency adverbs “seldom, rarely, hardly, never” are used in the beginning, the sentence becomes inverted; in other words, it is written in question form.

Rarely does she get up early on Sundays.

Hardly do I see her at the cafeteria.

Never does she smoke in public places

2nd Usage: The General or universal truths:

Examples:

Honey is sweet.

The sun rises in the east.

The sun sets in the West.

Fortune favours the brave.

Water boils at 100°C.

London is the Capital city of United kingdom.

Plants die without water.

The sky isn’t green.

Oil floats on water.

Two and two make four.

Can you live without water?

I don’t speak Hindi.

The rainbow has seven colours.

Rain falls from the clouds.

Fish swim by birth.

The earth is round.

The earth goes around the sun.

Water freezes at 0 degrees.

Kangaroos live in Australia.

Most babies learn to speak when they are about two years old.

Water boils at 100° Celsius.

Trees lose their leaves in the fall.

Few people live to be 100 years old.

Wood floats on water.

Does it snow in the Sahara desert?

Do elephants live longer than humans?

Money doesn't guarantee happiness.

Flowers don't grow in winter.

3rd Usage: Scheduled Events in the Near Future or Future events that are part of a time table:

Examples:

When do we board the plane?

The party starts at 8 o'clock.

When does class begin tomorrow?

The next flight is at 7.00am tomorrow.

The match starts at 9 o’clock in the morning.

The train leaves at 5.35 pm.

When does the hotel reopen?

What time does the film start?

The examination starts from next Monday.

The plane doesn't arrive at seven, it arrives at seven thirty.

When does the class finish?

The school reopens on 15th June.

Abdul khalam arrives here on 12th June.

Hurry up! The train departs in 5 minutes.

I leave Frankfurt at 5 in the morning and arrive in New York at midnight the next day.

She has a piano lesson after school today.

There's no need to hurry. The train doesn't leave for another 10 minutes.

When does the meeting begin?

We leave London at 10.00 next Tuesday and arrive in Paris at 13.00. We spend two hours in Paris and leave again at 15.00. We arrive in Rome at 5.00; spend four hours in Rome etc.

4th Usage: Feeling of mind:

Examples:

I love my country.

The teacher likes to teach English only.

I hate smoking.

I believe in god.

I like to watch English programs in my T.V.

The doctor wants money.

The fruit tastes bitter. I am cold.

I remember his address.

We think that is correct.

We hope that you will get a good rank. I feel so tired.

This soup tastes great.

You look fabulous.

I think she is very pretty.

I promise I will help you

You are brilliant!

Tom thinks it's a good idea.

I don't like mushrooms.

5th Usage: To Introduce Quotations:

Examples:

Shakespeare, “One may smile, and smile, and be villain”

Alexander Pope, “To err is human, to forgive is divine.”

Rousseau, “Man is born free, but alas, he is everywhere in chains.”

Tennyson, “Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers.”

Alexander Pope, “Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.”

Francis Bacon, “Reading makes full man: Confidence makes a ready man and writing makes an exact man.”

6th Usage: It can be used in news paper headlines:

Examples:

AND FENERBAHÇE BECOMES THE CHAMP!

THE KILLER STRIKES AGAIN

MASS MURDERER ESCAPES.

PRESIDENT RESIGNS. (THE PRESIDENT RESIGNED.)

FIRE DESTROYS CLUB. (A FIRE DESTROYED THE CLUB.)

7th Usage: To tell about past events in a dramatic way:

Examples:

Rama comes to the battle field and stands sending powerful arrows against Ravana.

When a curtain rises, Amala is writing at her desk. Suddenly the window opens and masked man enters.

8th Usage: To tell about broad cast commentaries on sporting events:

Examples:

Arafath kicks the ball to the middle of the field. Rajasekar takes it with his left foot, runs forward with it and shoots, but the ball hits the post.

Sarath maintains his lead over the other racers.

9th Usage: In exclamatory sentences beginning with here and there:

Examples:

There goes your husband!

Here comes the bus!

There she goes!

There the procession goes a long time!

10th Usage: To talk about what happens in books, plays, or films:

Examples:

The hero dies at the end of the film.

A young woman travels through Europe, where she meets different people, and finally falls in love.

In this book, an army invades Britain. The main character is very pretty and works in a bookshop.

10th Usage: For instructions and directions

Examples:

Open the packet and pour the contents into hot water.

First you take a bowel and break two eggs in it. Next …..

To start the machine, press the yellow button and turn the arrow to the right.

How do I get railway station? – Go straight on to the traffic lights, then take left turn..

THE USES OF PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

1st Usage: It is usually used for an action that is happening now and is not yet completed:

Examples:

The boy is sleeping on the bed. (Now)

I am reading. (Now)

Look, they are crossing the road.

I can’t hear what is he saying?

What is the baby doing? She is tearing up a Rs. 100 note.

Please, stop! You are driving so fast!

Look, he is listening to us. The boys are playing hockey.

Take an umbrella; it’s raining.

Why are you standing here?

We are staying at a hotel this week.

My mother is at the shop. She is buying a new dress

Rames is digging the garden at the moment.

You are using the Internet and you are studying grammar at the moment.

My father is in the garage now. He is fixing the car.

You are not swimming now.

What are you doing right now? Are you talking to someone?

Look! It’s snowing again.

Shhhh! Your father is sleeping. Don’t disturb him.

2nd Usage: To express near future action:

Examples:

We are going to cinema tonight.

My uncle is arriving today.

She is coming from Bombay tomorrow.

What are you doing next Saturday?

I am meeting him tonight.

We are meeting our friends next week.

We are leaving for America soon.

I am flying to England tomorrow morning.

Are you visiting your grandparents next week?

3rd Usage: To express a temporary action this may not be actually happening at the time of speaking:

Examples:

I am writing a novel. (But I am not writing at this moment)

He is teaching English and psychology. (But he is not teaching at this moment)

Santoshkumar is preparing a grammar book. (But he is not preparing at this moment)

Don’t take the book my sister is reading it. (But she is not reading at this moment)

The following verbs, on account of their meaning are not normally used in the continuous form:

Verbs of senses or perception:

See, hear, smell, feel, recognize, taste, and notice.

Verbs of emotions:

Want, wish, love, hate, like, fear, prefer, refuse, desire and hope.

Verbs of thinking:

Think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget, know, understand, imagine, mean and mind.

Verbs of appearing:

appear, look, seem.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS vs. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Simple present tense expresses the regularity of the activities. The activities are general and permanent ones in the simple present tense. On the other hand, Present Continuous tense is generally used to express temporary events occurring at the moment of speaking. The activities cannot be generalized.

(a) I usually watch TV in the evening.
(b) I am watching TV at the moment.

In the sentence (a) you can understand or infer that the person watches TV most evening’s regularly. You can generalize it. In (b), that the person is watching TV at the moment doesn’t mean that he will watch TV tomorrow and so on. It is just for today, for the time being.

THE USES OF SIMPLE PAST

1st Usage: To indicate an action in the past.

Examples:

The steamer sailed yesterday.

I received his letter a week ago.

She left the school last year.

She left Amadalavasa two years ago.

We saw a film last Sunday.

Mahesh went to Mumbai last month.

I saw a movie yesterday.

I didn’t go to work last Friday.

-Last year, I traveled to China.

The World War II ended in 1945.

She washed the dishes this morning.

Note: It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time.

2nd Usage: Sometimes this tense is used without an adverb of time.

In such cases the time may be indicated by the context.

Examples:

I learnt English in Bangalore.

Babar defeated Rana at Kanwaha.

I bought this mobile in Japan.

Indira Gandhi died in 1984.

I worked in Dr.Reddy’s Foundation.

3rd Usage: To express past habits:

Examples: He studied many hours every day.

She always carried an umbrella.

My father took me to the Vuda Park every Sunday.

He played the piano whenever he was at home.

He usually worked at a restaurant after school.

4th Usage: “When” in time clauses

Some time clauses start with WHEN, which gives the idea of at that time.

Examples:

When I was a child, I lived with my grandparents.

I lived with my grandparents when I was a child.

When I heard a strange sound, I turned on the lights.

I turned on the lights when I heard a strange noise

When the phone rang, I answered it.

The children went home when the rain started.

THE USES OF PAST CONTINUOUS

1st Usage: To express an action that was still going on at a certain time in the past:

Examples:

I was writing a letter at 8 o’ clock this morning.

We were watching T.V all evening.

At this time last week we were lying on the beach.

My father was working in the garage so he didn't hear the telephone when I called him yesterday.

I took my car to the mechanic yesterday because it wasn’t working properly.

Sorry, I wasn't listening. Can you say it again please?

What were you doing at 8 o'clock yesterday?

Why were you talking to John when I saw you in the cafeteria yesterday?

I went home early yesterday. Mon was still cooking the dinner.

2nd Usage: Past continuous is very often used with the past simple to say that something happened in the middle of another activity. In each of the following examples, the single event (past simple) happens in the middle of a longer action (past continuous).

Examples:

You phoned while I was having a bath.

When I got home yesterday, a cat was sitting on the roof.

It started to rain just as we were getting ready to have our picnic.

The boy was standing on the table when the principal came into the room.

Many people were shopping in the market when the bomb exploded.

When I went to bed last night the sun was already beginning to rise.

It was lucky we weren't sitting under that tree when the lightning hit.

What were you doing when the lights went off last night?

Were you watching me when I showed you how to do it?

How fast was she driving when she had the accident?

2nd Usage: It is very often used in combination with the simple past tense. It shows that an action was continuing at a time when a new, shorter action happened.

Note:

[...]

Excerpt out of 251 pages

Details

Title
Speaking English Made Easy
Subtitle
A Student's Guide
Authors
Year
2015
Pages
251
Catalog Number
V287046
ISBN (eBook)
9783656874683
ISBN (Book)
9783656874690
File size
1199 KB
Language
English
Notes
2nd Edition
Tags
Spoken English, English Grammar, Speaking Skills
Quote paper
Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa (Author)Santoshkumar Karimilli (Author), 2015, Speaking English Made Easy, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/287046

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