Implementation and Operation of a Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO)

Case study: General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL)

Master's Thesis, 2014

99 Pages

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Table of Contents





Key Findings

Table of Content


List of Figures

List of Photos

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1. Summary introduction
1.2. An over view of GECOL and why chose EPMO
1.3. Defining Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO)
1.4. An over view of GECOL
1.4.1. GECOL Master Plan
1.4.2. Crose-Border Power Exchange
1.4.3. GECOL Future Vision
1.4.4. Challenges facing GECOL
1.5. Goals
1.6. Objectives
1.7. Mission
1.8. Vision

Chapter 2 Setting the stage for EPMO Implementation
2.1. Current practices in GECOL
2.2. Current paradigm in GECOL
2.3. Why GECOL is in need of a EPMO
2.4. Benefits that will result from the EPMO Implementation

Chapter 3 Change Management Aspect
3.1. Present position of GECOL management office
3.2. Description of the change and its implementation

Chapter 4 Implementating a EPMO for GECOL
4.1. Overview
4.1.1. Background annd Understanding.
4.1.2. Approach and Methodology
4.2. Creation of a PM Enterprise (EPMO)
4.2.1. Reasons for creating a EPMO
4.2.2. The Right People, Tools and Data
4.2.3. Inition Phase
4.3. Planning Phase
4.4. Execution Phase
4.4.1. Authorisation
4.4.2. Standards.
4.4.3. Education.
4.4.4. Readiness
4.5. Communication Plan

Chapter 5. Deliverables of GECOL EPMO
5.1. Work Breakdown Structure
5.2. Description of Deliverables
5.2.1. Maturity Assessment
5.2.2. EPMO Objective
5. 2.3. EPMO Charter
5.2.4. Executive Buy-In
5.2.5. Implementation Approach
5.2.6. Formal Creation of the EPMO
5.2.7. PM Methodology Phase
5.2.8. Methodology Support and Compliance
5.2.9. Training Phase 1
5.2.10. Project Portfolio Management - Phase
5.3. Financial Cost
5.4. Function/Roles of GECOL EPMO
5.5. Governance Structure and Role

Chapter 6. Embedding Six-Sigma to EFQM Model Application for GECOL EPMO
6.1. An overview of Six-Sigma and EFQM Model
6.2. Embedding of Six-Sigma Approach with EFQM Model
6.2.1. Leadership.
6.2.2. Policy and Strategy
6.2.3. People
6.2.4. Partnership and Resoutces
6.2.5. Processes
6.3. Benefits of Embedding Six-Sigma to EPMO Approach to GECOL

Chapter 7 Environmental Factors That may affact GECOL EPMO Operation
7.1. Legal/Political/Security
7.1.1. Political Stability
7.1.2. National and local laws and Regulation
7.1.3. Government Iterference or Support
7.1.4. Government Corruption
7.1.5 Security.
7.2. Infrastructure
7.2.1. Telecommunication Network..
7.2.2. Power Grids
7.3. Social Environment
7.3.1. Satisfaction.
7.3.2. Team Work
7.3.3. Politics
7.3.4. Conflicts.



Appendix 2a

Appendix 2b

Appendix 2c

Appendix 2d

Appendix 3a

Appendix 4a

Appendix 4b

Appendix 6a


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In today´s world of business and management environment, projects are design and implementation follow up and strategic planning are the corner stone. The General Electricity Corporation of Libya (GECOL), a government owned company responsible for providing electricity and water has since the revolution been facing quality management problems and how to develop the organization in meeting the global demand and expansion of its services. The lack of a proper project office was identified to be the main issue. A type of project office that will strategy´s the processes and methodologies is in need by GECOL.

This paper examines the current system of quality management used at General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL) and the type of project management office in place. After the examination of some traditional project management offices in relation to the current situation in Libya, I tend to proposed the enterprise project management office, the will be the central coordinating body of the sub project management office and directing the portfolio of GECOL.

With the flow in of European and other international companies to Libya and doing business with GECOL, I try to use the SIX SIGMA approach and then, try to embed or aligned it with the use of the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model for possible adaptation for delivering quality management in the General Electricity Company of Libya Management. The paper examines the five "Enablers" criteria of the Excellence Model and places leadership at the heart of quality improvement in the management of GECOL Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO). It will be concluded that there is need for an institutional EPMO in GECOL to help effectively advance the strategic management practices, if their company is expected to compete in the global economy (MEDELEC)1 as it looks forward expending by distributing energy to some European countries (Greece and Italy) in the near future.


This research and write up Master thesis is been dedicated to my beloved late elder brother IP Ekomenzoge who slept in the lord in October 2003, my father, Pa Metumenzoh Joseph Nzoge and my mother, Mama Ahone Hellen Nzoge. May their souls rest in perfect peace


“ Learning is an ornament in prosperity, a refuge in adversity, and a provision in old age. ” (Aristotle)

I therefore, wish to express my gratitude to the staffs of EuroMPM Programme of the University of Applied Science and Arts in Dortmund, Germany for services rendered to me during my study period.

I will also like to say thank you to my supervisor Prof. Dr Peter Reusch, who carefully and patiently went through all my write ups, making constructive and helpful criticisms as well as comments, which enabled me to take a keen look at my scripts, arrange and restructure it in order to come up with this final work.

My gratitude also goes to the staffs of Great Standard Consulting in Bonn, especially to the director, Mr Abdurazag El Khadrawe for support and practical knowledge given to me during my internship period.

I want to thank the staffs of GECOL Libya, for materials which I used in my research.

My family has always being my source of support and encouragement; I therefore, wish to use this medium to extend my gratitude to members of my family. Thank you for your relentless efforts, advice, prayers and financial assistance, am truly humble! You acted as a source of energy which revitalised and kept me forging on even through difficult times. Your contribution to my success cannot be gainsaid, once more thank you for everything and may God in his infinite mercy richly reward you all.

I will like to thank my better half, Mrs Ekomenzoge Theresia Nahsang and my children for their love and support; I am blessed having you as my own. Thank you for your tireless efforts and for always being there for me when I needed a shoulder to cry on or someone to lean on. I love you.

My appreciation also goes to my friends who are like brothers to me, Mr. Esapa Richard and Dr. Ngwa Valentine for their continues encouragement

Finally I wish to thank God almighty for bringing me this far, without him nothing would have being possible.

Declaration of authorship

I, Ekomenzoge Metuge, declare under oath that I have prepared the paper at hand independently and without the help of others and that I have not used any other sources and recourses than the ones stated. Parts that have been taken literally or correspondingly from published or unpublished texts or other sources have been labeled as such. This paper has not been presented to any examination board in the same or similar form before.

Date, signature

Key Findings

Since the revolution that lead the NATO assassination of Muammar al-Gaddafi, companies and establishments in Libya operating head offices are not functioning well enough. Vast majority that were about operating a project office failed during the revolution and till date 2014, just a few companies are operating a project management office (PMO). At the moment, Great Standard Consulting Ltd; a global Project Management Consulting Firm with head office in Bonn Germany, found out that just a few companies in Libya have a well-established functioning project management office.

I therefore with the assistance from Great Standard Consulting Ltd, had to find out why and the how of implementing an operational functional EPMO for the Genaral Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL), Tarabulus, Libya because of its expansions in business and with a no correct functional organisation.

The main reasons for the implementation of an operational EPMO for GECOL are:

1. Projects and programmes efficiency need more projects on-time with budget and within the scope
2. Gathering data on project status, Reporting needs
3. Setting up and enforcing standards, methodology and templates
4. Lack of functional users involvement
5. No clear cut differences between electricity services portfolio and water services portfolio
6. Not meeting expectations of costumers and stakeholders
7. Conflict in resource allocation and usage within the company
8. Communication break down
9. Quality management application for expending business

Chapter One Introduction

1.1 Summary Introduction:

Companies, the world over that want to improve their project outcomes, provide critical project information for executives, or institute an analytical project decision process, are now increasingly turning to the creation of an Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO) as the change agent (white paper 2011). Regardless of the business function of the projects in question—from social, construction, services provider and marketing to IT projects, from client services to Research and Development, Engineering and Manufacturing, Finance and Distribution—a EPMO can be the best and only answer to better decisions, information, planning and execution. The responsibilities of the PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project (PMI, 2004, p.369).

The PMO concept that we know today had become well established by the late 1990s (Dai & Wells, 2004, p.526). In a two-year empirical study in 2004 that investigated the establishment and use of PMOs and the environmental conditions in which they operated, Dai & Wells found that 113 of 234 responses from a random sample indicated having a PMO or similar entity. Of these, ‘the overwhelming majority of PMOs were established in the mid-1990s to 2000’2.

The PMO was originally conceived as means of capturing and promulgating good project management practices throughout organisations. The role of the PMO has been expanded, however, to include analysis, communication, and decision support. The EPMO has become not only the centre of excellence for project execution, but management’s lens for viewing project performance, and the platform for initiating project portfolio management in the future.

Building a successful EPMO therefore requires structural components similar to any other construction project: A strong foundation and floor, solid structural supports, and a strong exterior are essential components of building an EPMO for GECOL.

Traditional Project Management Office in large organisations like GECOL with PMOs dispersed geographically in a global organisation often work in silos. This federated approach often leads to lack of communication, ineffective resource utilization and operational inefficiencies. There is a need of a group/function that can help prioritize projects across GECOL different departments (Electricity, Water, Solar Energy, and Renewable Energy)3, identify if there are any duplicated efforts and investments, mitigate risk and find opportunities for collaboration amongst departments across the enterprise. Therefore is why I seek to research and write on the application of Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO) with GECOL.

In an organisation that is looking forward for global operations (Libyan-Egyptian Interconnection, LibyanTunisian Interconnection, Libyan-Algerian Interconnection, Libyan-Italian Interconnection, Libyan-Greek Interconnection), the geographically dispersed PMOs will report to the centralized Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO) thereby providing much needed coordination between these multinational PMOs that will be operating in different regions in Libya and out of Libya.

In today’s uncertain business environment amidst the war and financial crisis where organisations putting more emphasis on cost cutting, better resource utilization and trying to do more with less, EPMO will be the most suitable for GECOL.

1.2 An Overview of PMOs and why chose EPMO

Over the past years, the relevance of PMO in the organization has grown tremendously because PMOs have increased the project success rates and made project delivery more standardized and predictable. The PMOs are evolving with time and the PMO maturity level has been increasing4. Having said that, organizations are now realizing some of the challenges in the way the PMO were traditionally setup. Before discussing these challenges, let’s see the basic difference between the type of PMOs and the level on which these PMOs operate. The word “PMO” is used differently in different contexts. PMO could mean Project Management Office, Program Management Office, and Portfolio Management Office depending on the level of PMO operation.

Dai and Wells (2004, p.524) describe the Project Management Office (PMO) as “an organisational entity established to assist project managers, teams and various management levels on strategic matters and functional entities throughout the organisation in implementing project management principles, practices, methodologies, tools and techniques”. They (Dai & Wells, 2004, p524) make a distinction between the PMO and the Project Office or Programme Office which is established to manage a specific project or a related series of projects. The PMO has a much broader mission.

We should be aware of the consensus on the name assigned to “Project Management Office” (Hobbs, 2007, p.11) to describe the entity that meets the PMI definition, but there are several descriptions or names given to the entity including Centre of Excellence (Hill, 2004, p.50) or Centre of Expertise (Dai & Wells, 2004, p.524), Project Support Office (Dennis Lock, 2007, p.161), Project Office (Kerzner, 2003; PMI, 2004, p.17), Program Office (PMI, 2004, p.17), and while in some cases there is no official label has been assigned or given (Hobbs & Aubry, 2007, p.78).

Briefly, here is what different type of PMOs mean- as with the white paper by Arvind Rathore (2010).

“Project Management Office- Project Management Offices are typically setup for large projects where they help the project managers in collecting timesheets, collating status reports and financial data, tracking deliverables, coordinating issues and risks etc”.These project management offices are short-term or long- term initiative that a department head implements to improve operating processes within a business unit, Michael F. Hanford, (2004).

“Program Management Office - Program Management Offices are generally setup at Program level where there are several projects running under a program. Program Management Offices support program managers, project managers and project teams. Typical responsibilities of the Program Management Offices include collating project related data from the project teams, ensure process adherence, collating project reports from project managers and creating reports for senior executives/project sponsors, identifying project dependencies and coordination between projects within the program. Below (figure 1a) is examples of the different types of PMO’s but just a few are reviewed here”. Program management office is a long-term initiative as compared to project management office with short term, that top executives implement to improve its organization's strategic mission, vision and competitive status, and its program entails major changes in corporate processes, Michael F. Hanford, (2004).

Examples of the different types of PMO’s below (figure 1a)

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Figure 1a: PMO labels in common use (PMI 2012, White paper)

Portfolio Management Office - “Portfolio Management Offices are generally setup at Department/Business unit level to ensure the Department/Business unit projects are aligned to overall enterprise business objectives. They facilitate business prioritization of projects. Benefit realization and value management also form part of Portfolio Management Office responsibilities. The Portfolio Management Offices support the portfolio leaders with portfolio management activities”, Arvind Rathore (2010).

Not everything can be figured out with the way the PMOs operate today. While the department level PMO and Portfolio Management Office operate at a tactical level at best, the Program Management Office and Project Management office often function at operational level. The strategic element is missing from the type of the PMOs described above.

The next section 1.3 discusses some of the limitations of a traditional Program/Project/Portfolio Management Offices and highlights the importance for Enterprise Project Management Office and why chosen it for GECOL.

1.3 Defining Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO)?

Considering the challenges faced by the traditional PMOs, organizations are feeling the need for a business function that will help overcome the traditional PMO challenges. Therefore GECOL as an organizations that is extending to Europe and other African countries will be having an international presence or having multiple business units should be moving towards such a structure that will allow it to overcome the challenges listed in the section above. Therefore the need of creating a business function that is referred to as Enterprise PMO (EPMO). Enterprise PMO (EPMO) is a centralized business function which operates at strategic level with the enterprise executives and provides enterprise wide support on governance, project portfolio management best practices, mentoring, tools and standardized processes.

GECOL EPMO will ensure strategic alignment between business objectives and projects executed. The EPMO will not eliminate the need for Project, Program or Department level PMOs. It simply complements these traditional PMOs. While the traditional PMOs operating at the tactical and operational level focus on doing the things right. With GECOL having an EPMO and traditional PMOs get the right things done the right way (see Figure-1b). So the EPMO will help the overall organization achieve its strategic goals and in the process also helps better support the project teams.

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Figure 1b: EPMO and traditional PMO in an organisation. Source; Arvind Rathore (2010)

EPMO differentiates itself from other PMOs mainly by the level on which it operates. It is mainly operates as a business function within the organization and reporting directly into one of the CEOs. With the authority that comes with being at this position the EPMO can effectively control the portfolios, programs and projects running across the enterprise.

Its position is regarded close to the Portfolio Management function. Strategic alignment of business objectives with the projects, project prioritization, value management and benefit realization are some of the key responsibilities of EPMO. The GECOL EPMO if implemented will not be restricted to governing only the production of electricity and water programmes but the sales PMO, finance PMO, marketing PMO, HR PMO functions will also be typically reporting to the EPMO. Therefore EPMO collaborates and supports cross functional projects. This results into better synergy between the projects running under different enterprise functions.

In an organization that has global or international operations, the geographically dispersed PMOs will report to the centralized EPMO thereby providing much needed coordination between these multinational PMOs. In today’s uncertain business environment amidst the financial crisis where organizations putting more emphasis on cost cutting, better resource utilization and trying to do more with less, EPMO have become even more relevant . Another factor leading to rise in EPMO adoption is increasing globalization. Organizations are now having global footprint and it becomes ever so important to have a centralized PMO (EPMO) at the enterprise level overseeing all the projects undertaken in the organization.

Before today´s activities, researchers have done so much in trying to find out what really, a PMO can offer any organisation, be it national, global or international, and (Hobbs & Aubry, 2007, p.82) tried to analyst PMO functions as shown in the table 1a below.

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Table 1a: PMO functions in decreasing order of importance (Hobbs & Aubry, 2007, p.82)

1.4 An Overview of GECOL

General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL) is a state-owned vertically structured power company. GECOL is responsible for the operation of the entire power sector in the country. The company undertakes the generation, transportation and distribution of electric power. GECOL is also a leading operator of water desalination plants. The company operates several electricity generation plants including steam and simple- cycle gas-turbine units and diesel generators in rural areas. The company provides energy services to residential, industrial, agricultural and commercial customers. It also offers public and other consumer services related to electricity.

It operates more than 30 electricity generation plants, mainly steam and simple-cycle gas-turbine units and diesel generators in rural areas. The available installed generating capacity in the existing plants is 5500 MW. The current system maximum demand is about 4000 MW. GECOL is also the sixth largest operator of water desalination plants in the world. More than a billion US$ will be invested in more than nine desalination units over the next decade.

The future vision is focused on reinforcing the GECOL infrastructure by utilizing modern technologies in the fields of generation, transmission and distribution. To run its core-business in a commercially and technically very demanding environment, GECOL has selected ABB5 to install a highly reliable communication network throughout Libya.

2010 Key Figures:

Peak Load 5,759 MW

Installed Generation Capacity 8,907 MW

Generated Energy 32.6 TWh

400 kV Transmission system 2,823 km

220 kV Transmission system 13,782 km

30, 66 kV Sub transmission 23,132 km

11 kV distribution 52,260 km

Customers 1,224,193

Per-Capita Consumption 4,351 kWh

Urban & Rural Electrification Rate ~99%

1.4.1. GECOL Master Plan

1. Projected Peak Loads for the years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020 (5722)6 MW.
2. The actual peak load during summer 2010 and 2012 (5722) MW).

Load growth recorded about 79% increase between 2003 and 2012

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Figure 1c: GECOL Growth Rate. (Source; GECOL Annual Review of 2013) MEDELEC 7 21 st Annual meeting - Tripoli, Libya, 4 th April 2013

Energy Production Development 2002 - 2013

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Figure 1d, GECOL growth rate as of 2012 (Source; GECOL Annual Report 2013)

1.4.2. Cross-Border power exchange

1. Libyan-Egyptian Interconnection:

The feasibility study of the Libyan-Egyptian Interconnection concluded that exporting 500MW to Egypt is possible.

2. Libyan-Tunisian Interconnection:

The feasibility study of the Libyan-Tunisian Interconnection suggested the possibility of exchanging 500MW in both directions over 400kV voltage level.

3. Libyan-Algerian Interconnection:

The technical study of the Libyan-Algerian Interconnection has been implemented exchange 400 MW between the two countries

1.4.3. GECOL future vision

Increase the exchange capacity between Libya and neighbouring countries.

1. Libyan-Italian Interconnection:

The preliminary findings of the feasibility study of the Libyan-Italian Interconnection over DC through submarine cable suggested that exporting 1000MW to Italy is possible.

2. Libyan-Greek Interconnection:

Discussions between Libya and Greece are underway, with emphasis on the importance of such interconnection aiming at exporting 3000MW to Greece.

GECOL`s future goal goes beyond this, it is to build and implement a world class fully functional centralized Enterprise GIS at a central site in GECOL, connected to all GECOL PMO branches throughout Libya and other related or selected organisations.

The system will be required to be extendable, scalable, open standard, capable of supporting web and mobile applications and integrated into current GECOL systems as well as future similar systems that support GECOL in delivering its services.

The design of the system should take into account the optimal performance between a centralized and distributed architecture reflecting the highest reliability and availability. Implementation will be based on a phased approach and an infrastructure that supports the longer term goals.

The figure below shows the future connectivity of countries to which GECOL plans distribution of power “Interconnection”

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Photo 1a: Interconnection with Neighbouring Countries (Source: GECOL Annual Report 2013)

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Figure 1e Source: GECOL Annual Report 2013) Figure 1f

Damage in Libyan network during the revolution

Total damage

400 kv transmission line (1393) km

400 kv transmission tower (6)

400 kv transmission substation (3)

220 kv transmission line (2135) km

220 kv transmission line tower (118)

220 kv transmission substation (5)

Sub transmission line 66 & 30 kv (2400) km

Sub transmission stations (25)

Sub transmission towers (35)

Distribution system station (241)

Power plans (3)

Generation units (2)

Number of death (63)

Number of wounded (94)

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Photo 1b: Damage Generation power substation. (Source: GECOL Annual Report 2013)

1.4.4 Challenges facing GECOL

‘According to the latest 2010 World Bank estimate8, 99.8% of people in Libya had access to electricity provided by GECOL, which is the highest among African countries. Despite the high electrification rate, the country suffers from power outages due to electricity shortfalls, which occurred even before the 2011 civil war, according to IHS CERA. In addition to end users being affected by outages, power shortfalls have also affected production at some of Libya’s largest oil fields’.

‘Electricity generation was more than doubled from 2000 to 2010, reflecting high economic growth and greater investment in the oil and natural gas sectors, particularly after sanctions affecting foreign investment in the hydrocarbon sectors were deposed. Installed electricity generation capacity has not grown as quickly as power demand, which led to regular power shortfalls. As of 2010, GECOL Libya had a total electricity installed capacity of 6.8 gigawatts, made up of power plants that are either fueled by oil or natural gas. Before the 2011 civil war, GECOL several power plants were converted from oil to natural gas to lower costs, but most of the country’s power plants are still fueled by oil9 ’.

Beside the above challenge, GECOL faces a lot more challenges as stated below. There is lack of accountability because of no formal good enough PMO to handle these challenges. Thus with an overall establishment of an EPMO, these issue will be well handled and problems solved.

1. Minor and major inspection for power plants which force GECOL to stop them, as a results overdue maintenance needed. This situation causes a power shortage.
2. Building our capacity specially in following:-
3. Generation transmission project management.
4. Renewable energy integration in the planning stage.
5. Asset management and online conditional monitoring.
6. Energy efficiency for both the end use equipment and network operation.
7. Respond quickly to changing project and market conditions
8. Deal effectively with the increasing complexity of projects and technology environments
9. Application of Lead project management
10. Deliver ROI, without unnecessary rework or waste
11. Course correct or cancel failing projects in a timely manner
12. Replicate successful projects
13. Fully automate cross-functional business processes

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Photo 1c. Office and transmission station Proparty demage (Source, GECOL Annual Report 2013)

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Photo 1d: Transmission line damage (Source, GECOL Annual Report 2013)

Overcoming the Challenges

For GECOL to overcome some of these challenges EPMO will help GECOL make business and project decisions based on the financial, human capital, and supply chain considerations. With the right EPMO processes and systems in place, GECOL can improve alignment between their many functional groups to produce accurate and timely answers to some of these questions:

1. Which projects should they fund, and which ones should they cancel?
2. Which of their projects are the most risky, and how may they mitigate those risks?
3. Which of their projects are under-performing and need more management intervention?
4. How do they improve monitoring and management of risk and compliance?
5. How do they attract, retain and motivate the best employees?
6. How do they manage product costs to improve profit margins?
7. Which are their most critical projects for the upcoming year?
8. How do they shift spending toward investments that will drive competitive differentiation?
9. What are the project risks that may have a material impact on their business operations?

Answers to these questions can be all difficult, if not impossible, to get answer given the discontinuity of information and data that exists across departments within the organisations.

‘To begin to answer the questions from a projects perspective, the project portfolio management system must be tightly coupled to other business systems in the enterprise, including financial and accounting systems, human capital management systems, and supply chain management systems, among others’. Here, will stop and not going to go into details of each.

For any organisation to know what it has to do it’s board of directors or sponsors and executive most have to put on the drawing board what it has in mind and how to go about. The following sub-titles each exams what has to be do and why this write-up. Therefore we examine GECOL EPMO Goals, Objectives, Mission and Vision as explained below

1.5. Goals

The Project Management Office outcome goals will be that all projects implemented achieve success. Its performance goals are to successfully guide and support all projects to success. Its organisational goals are to provide to all project, staffs and project practitioners support in the form of appropriate best practice leadership and just-in-time services.

1.6. Objectives

The thesis for GECOL EPMO’s objectives are to develop one of a world-class best practice capability and capacity to assist programmes and provide well-planned projects that will successfully deliver expected outcomes within budget, on time, and aligned with programme scope and portfolio goals and objectives.

1.7. Mission

The mission of transforming GECOL traditional PMO to an Enterprise Project Management Office EPMO is to provide programme and project management leadership, expertise, experience, and training to teams for initiating, planning, and guiding implementations and completions. The primary responsibilities of GECOL EPMO will be to manage and control the constraints by ensuring plans are implemented on schedule, within budget, and within scope. Maintaining alignment to the strategic goals and mission of the GECOL is critical to successful programme and project management, whether projects are managed for the benefit or for social purpose or for statewide critical functions that benefit the entire enterprise and surrounding community. Incorporating programme and project management administration with best practice methods and standards that are either based on Strategic Plan or single in purpose and scope ensure consistency is applied effectively and is scalable to be administered across various sized projects and be it Energy, Water and Construction.

1.8. Vision

Promote, implement an operational EPMO best practice standards and methodologies into a programme and project management discipline that will advanced the core vision and mission of the General Electricity Company of Libya Strategic Plan through a comprehensive and iterative development comprising education, training, and a set of guiding principles.

Chapter Two Setting the stage for EPMO implementation

2.1 Current practices in GECOL

GECOL PMO is rather a disorganised structural organisation, with inadequate description. Some of the aspects examined in this study are somehow grouped into the following four aspects. See appendix 3a. Questionnaire done was among twenty GECOL senior staff.

- Monitoring and coaching
- Enterprise strategy alignment
- Value Management
- Demand Management
- Resources Management
- Standardisation
- Coordination between PMOs
- Centralise tracking

The most significant of the findings are the varieties and lack of consensus on the following core elements.

- Coordination between PMOs
- Enterprise strategy alignment
- Centralised tracking
- Demand Management

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Figure 2a. (Source: Analysis from twenty participants during my GECOL PMO questionnair) Figure 2b.

Comments (next page)

From the questionnaires and evaluation analysis, it tells us that GECOL project office or PMO dose not have a monitoring and coaching system good enough for it programmes to archieve results and a its enterprise alignment for strategic projects and programme management is lacking for a company looking to extend its services internationally. This therefore gives room for a change in strategy for the implementation of a new and better system for which projects and programmes can be manage.

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Figure 2c (Source: Analysis from twenty participants during my GECOL PMO questionnaire) Figure 2d


Value and demand management (figure 2a and 2b) also considered as important in project and programme management are above sixty percent indicating lacking in GECOL. Therefore an introduction and total over view of GECOL project office will lead to adding value and increase demand management.

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Figure 2e (Source: Analysis from twenty participants during my GECOL PMO questionnaire) figure 2f


From our bar chart, it is noticed that fifty percent of the survey are unsatisfied with standardization and resource management within the company. This unsatisfactory nature mean the resources are not well managed and for them, more has to be done to enable GECOL to meet up with the quality management system and making it up the European partners who are contracting with him.

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Figure 2g (Source: Analysis from twenty participants during my GECOL PMO questionnaire) figure 2h


From the pie charts, the is lack of coordination between PMO within GECOL. This lack of coordination might lead to misinformation and not getting the stakeholders involved in the activities. With this lack of coordination between PMO, there is therefore a need for a EPMO that will be use to better coordintes activities. Also because of lack of a coordinating body, there is lack of a centrelised tracking body. Thus the need of EPMO for GECOL.

GECOL Organisational Context

GECOL present PMO might not be an isolated entity, rather it lacks the integral components of project management. To better understand this, their PMO lacks the organisational context that defines the following.Their Economic sector; Size of the organisation; Number, size and duration of projects and Level of organisational support

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Fig. 2i: GECOL Present PMO organizational structure (Source: GECOL Office Libya)

2.2 Current challenges facing GECOL’s traditional PMO’s

In Libya today, since after the revolution, many companies have come in and signing contracts with GECOL. As they come, they come along with they own quality management methodology and project management style. These methodologies are different from the one that GECOL uses. Therefore, with a standard PMO and EPMO, GECOL will be able to put in place a single quality management methodological tool which will be used by all contractors and sub-contractors. Proposed quality management methodology is examined in chapter 7.

With different quality management methodologies, GECOL can hardly understand how its business and management of resources is been managed and use. So this is also one major issue affecting GECOL performance. Some of the few contractors for GECOL are follows:

VA Tech Wabag Australia; ‘has received a contract from the General Electric Company of Libya (GECOL)10 for four industrial water treatment plants in Tobruk, Tripoli and Derna. The company will be responsible for the provision of two demineralisation plants, each having three lines producing 60mA/d, plus two electro- chlorination plants with two lines with outputs of 71 and 35mA/d. Commissioning is scheduled for 2015- end. Wabag's scope of performance include planning, engineering, delivery, installation and start-up’.

Daewoo E&C South Korea; ‘signed an EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction) contract with the General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL) in Libya on August 5th, 2010 for the construction of a 750MW combined cycle power plant. KEPCO E&C signed a final contract with Daewoo E&C on September 201011 after negotiating over estimates submitted based on its RFQ (Request for Quotation) of integrated design services’. “KEPCO E&C is a unique technological company in Korea that specialises in both thermal and nuclear power plants”.

Siemens Germany; ‘the global powerhouse in electronics and electrical engineering operating in the energy, infrastructure, industry and healthcare sectors, has been awarded a series of contracts in Libya with a combined value of €100 million for the inspection, service, upgrade and maintenance of two existing power plants, ensuring reliable and efficient power supplies to the cities of Khoms and Ruwais by GECOL12 ’.

French Alstom; ‘has inked a contract worth €250m with General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL) to provide spare parts for eleven gas turbine units at five different power plants in Libya13. Delivery for the contract includes a package of strategic spares for use across GECOL's installed base’.

Here are some of the limitations faced by the Traditional PMOs14, and thus resulting into some challenges for the GECOL.

1. GECOL PMOs operating at department level, programme level, and project level are started with a bottom up approach to tackle issues at the programme, and project level. Therefore these types of PMOs often lack strategic alignment. These PMOs at best operate at tactical and operational level. Often the goal of these PMOs is doing the things right i.e. delivering the task given correctly. The focus is not so much on ensuring that the things which are being done are right or not. That is where there is the need to have a group/function at an enterprise level which can have all the department level PMO report to this group/function and provide the missing link for strategic alignment between corporate and departmentally based projects.
2. Traditional GECOL PMOs dispersed geographically in Libya and often work in silos. This federated approach often leads to lack of communication, ineffective resource utilization and operational inefficiencies. There is a need of a group/function that can help prioritize projects across different GECOL departments, identify if there are any duplicated efforts and investments, mitigate risk and find opportunities for collaboration amongst departments across the enterprise.
3. GECOL PMOs are many times not involved in overall Demand Management at the organizational level. Therefore it’s often difficult to forecast the demand pipeline for a multiyear horizon demand.
4. GECOL traditional PMOs, because of their department level, program and project level operations are many at times unable to present the big picture while reporting to the enterprise leadership. Enterprise leadership wants to see consolidated reports for the enterprise wide programs in a way that they do not get lost in details and yet are able to take critical decisions based on the reports.
5. Departments across GECOL lack standardization in the way they run projects. This may be due to several reasons like organization having gone through mergers and acquisitions or organizational changes because of the war at different points in time or to merely because the organization has several different departments. The GECOL PMOs is such that it has different PMO framework, practices, tools and maturity levels. Under such conditions, the organization will require a centralized group/function to standardize PMO operations across the organization. Thus the need of an EPMO for GECOL
6. The projects that are running with GECOL traditional PMOs from our observation and analysis do not have visibility at the top executive level and therefore lack leadership buy-in. A business function in the form of EPMO can not only provide this information to the leadership in real time but also provides leadership buy-in for enterprise wide projects.

Considering the fact that a structure has to be built, some questionnaires on competency were carried out to note the state of GECOL strength in its present structure. (See appendix 2b). Below is a presentation of analysis.

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Figure 2j: Assessment of GECOL PMO. (Source: own evaluation based on appendix 2b)

The analysis in all of these is based on the twenty participants mostly heads of departments, and from this an average sum was calculated and use for the formulation of the radar diagrams in figure 2j and figure 2k. The letters: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h are denoted in appendix 2b questionnaire.

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Figures 2k: determine the value of GECOL PMO. (Source evaluation based on appendix 2c) The letters: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h are denoted in appendix 2c.

In this light, a competency evaluation was also carry out to check the competencies of the projects and programmes managers of GECOL under the following areas as indicated in appendix 2d.

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Figure 2l: Competencies level for project and programme managers (Source based on first five sections on appendix 2d questionnaire)

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Figure 2m: Competencies level for project and programme managers (last five sections on appendix 2d (Source based on last five sections on appendix 2d questionnaire)

2.3 Why GECOL is in need of an EPMO

There are enormous variability on how PMOs are constructed and in their relations to the functions they perform (Hobbs & Aubry, 2007). Several authors have made attempts to classify EPMO functions into broad functional groups (Dai & Wells, 2004; Hill, 2004; Hobbs & Aubry, 2007). It is also argued that the EPMO has a significant role to play in developing organisational project management maturity (Hill, 2004). As maturity develops the PMO will evolve.

Since the EPMO is a change agent, White Paper, (PMI 2011) agree on what needs to be changed. This will drive the roadmap for the GECOL PMO. Here are some examples of “points of pain” that have created a perceived need for an EPMO:

1. Project failures—Projects are running late, not delivering desired results. Too many errors are occurring, resulting in a high maintenance cost for the finished product. End users of the product are dissatisfied with results, so uptake is very poor. The focus of the EPMO will be Execution Excellence.

2. Costs out of control—Redundant projects are occurring in different business lines. Projects are costing more than estimated. Funding for projects are confused or unclear. Some projects are capitalized, others are expensed. The focus of the EPMO will be Financial Reform.

3. Insufficient information—Management has little or no picture of how projects are being done, or how well they are being done. Initiatives surface when they are in trouble. The focus of the EPMO will be Portfolio Information Transparency.

4. Lack of decision framework—Projects are undertaken with little or no analysis. Projects with a strong champion or determined evangelist drive other possible investments out of consideration. The focus of the EPMO will be Portfolio Decision Support.

5. Resource bottlenecks—Key resources are chronically overscheduled. There is no clear method for project managers to get the right people for their projects. Project managers “hoard” or “hide” resources to provide for contingencies. The focus of the EPMO will be Resource Allocation.

Since GECOL is currently thinking, “All of the above,” think again. If it EPMO is to be successful, it must be focused on a few key goals. Other goals can be added over time. Create a roadmap, with a timeline for adding additional focus areas.

6. Expansion of projects to foreign countries - GECOL is fast expanding its supply of energy to other countries, both in Africa and looking forward doing so to some European countries. Thus creating an EPMO will just come in time to serve the purpose that will let the company better know it areas that will require innovations and improvement.

2.4 Benefits that will result from the EPMO implementation


- The whole of GECOL will be empowered to enable the effective implementation of its strategy through engagements, portfolios and/or projects value propositions
- The EPMO will be providing strategic direction in line with GECOL´s strategy and goals and objectives
- The EPMO will assist in maintaining some optimum balance in the enterprise project portfolio aligned to the strategic plans of the organization
- Delivering optimisation through the establishment of an integrated enterprise-wide project governance framework will be facilitated by the EPMO implementation
- Providing the realisation of benefits across the project portfolio through effective governance, tracking and management

Core Functions

- EPMO will empower the effective stakeholder management for the organization
- Effectively resource utilisation across the portfolio of projects/programmes of GECOL
- EPMO Central point of coordination and consolidation of project and programme reporting (budget, schedule, risk)
- GECOL EPMO will be championing and facilitating cultural change within the organization
- Effectively support innovation in all its business and managerial departments
- Proactive business project management, not reactive will be achieve
- GECOL EPMO will be defining and maintaining project and programme management standards, tools, processes and methodologies
- EPMO will ensure that PMOs have effective tools, processes and resources allocated to execute their projects

Tangible Benefits

- With the running of the EPMO time to market of project initiatives will be improved
- EPMO will help improved consistency and predictability in project delivery
- Structured framework for capturing, managing and escalating project risks across the enterprise
- Centralised funding processes and budget management will be one key benefit
- EPMO will help improved consistency and accuracy in cost and resource and timing

Critical Success Factors

- EPMO will defined charter for each project
- Endorsement from CEO
- Achievement of results versus tasks focus
- EPMO will provide a clear and open communications system

Chapter Three Change management aspect

3.1 Present position of GECOL management office

Present GECOL project management office is structure in dealing just with the following programmes.

- Scope Management
- Scheduling
- Cost Management
- Resource Management
- Quality Management

For GECOL PMO to be transformed into an EPMO, a change management questionnaire for a short survey was given to get the reaction of the staff. See figure 3d

From the survey with the questionnaires, a lot people are getting aware of the importance of innovations in today´s world thus more stakeholders accepted the implementation of a new type of project office, which we call here the EPMO. 67 percent accepted the introduction and implementation of a new type of project office, while 30 percent are opposing the introduction and implementation of any new form of project office. Analysis from appendix 4a section of “Changing PMO Type”

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Figure 3a: changing PMO type in GECOL (Analysis from appendix 3a. Changing PMO type)

To begin with the implementation of the EPMO, during one of the assessment and questionnaires, the project managers and programme managers were assessed in various areas of competencies to determine their strengths and to propose possible training or workshops using the training need analysis (TNA) methodology.

The following knowledge and management areas as indicated within the radar diagram below in figure 3b and 3c were assessed to check the level of competencies. From the radar, it can be seen and concluded that both project and programme managers competencies levels in the area of PMO. With nearly all programme managers having no idea of how a PMO function, and just a few project managers having an idea of what and how a PMO function. Thus a call for GECOL to implement a system that will better be used to make his business makes up with the changing world in managing projects.

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Figure 3c: Competencies level for project and programme managers (Source: Analysis from appendix 3a)

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Figure 3c: Competencies level for project and programme managers (Source: Analysis from appendix 3a)

3.2 Description of the change and its implementation

Looking at organisations as part of the social innovation system and new forms of structure as innovation is paramount. Along this line of thought, innovation is viewed as an art or, more exactly, as a craft (Graham & Schuldiner, 2001). Innovation then becomes a creative act, the dynamic construction of something new in which it can be difficult to discern any regular pattern15 (Dooley & Van de Ven, 1999) GECOL, the number of people working on it project in the present PMO provides or shows some characteristic of the projects undertaken in the PMO. Less than twenty five people or staffs are working at the present PMO. At the opposite end, the EPMO will require more than a hundred staff if implemented. The amplitude of change noted from the survey conducted as shown in figure 4a follows a normal distribution but with a higher number indicating radical change (60%). It is so surprising and worth taken note of.

It is worth mentioning that 60% of respondents during the survey evaluated an amplitude of wanting changes within the GECOL. (radical change). In this population, PMO changes are important and a large proportion of them would be considered major changes.

From the survey and questionnaire 30% of the PMO changes had change management processes, while 60% of respondents reported having no change management processes. See above. It is of interest to note that PMO implementation in almost all cases is considered an organisational change itself that merits consideration of change management.

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Figure 3d: Change management in implementing a PMO (Source: Analysis of appendix 3a)

Attitude and process of the change to be followed: Figure below is a demonstration of the change maturity levels of the Project Management Office, Programme Management office and Enterprise Project Management office. The changing process taking places at various levels are as follows. Changing process

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Figure 3e. steps for EPMO (Change management process adopted from Arvind Rathore white Paper, 2010)

Figure above is a demonstration of the maturity levels of the Project Management Office, Programme Management office and Enterprise Project Management office. The changing process taking places at various levels are as follows. Project support office/Project Management office usually operates at operational level. Programme Management/Department level PMO on the other side often moves a step higher and operating at a tactical level. The Enterprise PMO which follows is created so that it fills the important gap of strategic focus within the organizational PMO setup.

The Project support office/Project Management office properly ensures that the scope, budget and schedule (the basic triple constraint of any project) are managed may need checks and reviews to improve the quality of the project output. When this is the case, we can then move to the next stage of changing from this to a PMO.

Programme level PMO bring the following practices to the table like creating programme direction, having a governance structure within a department, and also manage vendors if vendors are involved in contracts, supply, ensure better risks and issues resolution. When the expending nature of GECOL business operations, PMO is therefore change to EPMO.

Enterprise PMO will works closely with the decision making leadership in GECOL and will be responsible for strategically aligning the business vision and objectives to the projects that are been initiated in different departments. With the creation of EPMO, it will ensure that there is top leadership buy-in for every project initiated. The EPMO will be putting together a governance structure16 in the organisation such that there is seamless flow of information top to bottom and the other way around so that they can view how each project is performing.

Chapter Four Implementing a EPMO for GECOL

4.1. Overview

EPMO initiation had begun by defining roles and responsibilities, conducting a EPMO strategy session kick off meeting (see appendix 4a). Next, project management assessments of individual experiences were conducted (see appendix 4b). The assessments were used to conduct alignment analysis of the EPMO to be implemented.

During EPMO Implementation, deliverables and criteria for success will be defined along with PM supporting tools. Sustaining the EPMO will involve establishing processes and procedures for knowledge transfer, professional development, enterprise resource management, decision support, and continuous process improvement17.

4.1.1 Background and Understanding

Projects are becoming more important than ever for companies, as a way to achieve strategic business goals benefits (Harold Kerzner (2009) pg 34. Therefore, to obtain the best possible project results is becoming crucial for some organizations. Companies which implement best practices in project management will be more prepared to succeed in these initiatives.

In implementing this GECOL EPMO, the plan of how and what will be done, is tabulated below. The duration of each phase is also showed at the bottom of the table.

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Table 4.a. EPMO project implementation time line of 7 months (source: created by author)

According to a presentation given and a further meeting held in Tripoli on 08 to 12 September 2013, we understand GECOL is looking for consultancy services in order to perform a deep improvement regarding project management (PM) organization, practices, performance, and results.

We have previously sent a proposal for an initial assessment workshop. After receiving from GECOL side the ‘Request for proposal for providing project management consultancy services’, our understanding is that GECOL is expecting a proposal for a complete transformation roadmap from the current situation towards a model with use of modern, professional and top best practices regarding PM, which will include the initial assessment of current situation of processes, practices, skills, a training plan and also a map of change from the initial situation to the desired final situation.

4.1.2. Approach and Methodology

For the deep improvement initiative required at GECOL, our proposal’s major point is the creation of an Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO), as a means of establishing project management (PM) as a company’s enterprise-wide core competency.

The vision of the Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO) organization is to achieve a world-class proficiency in the consistent application of project management practices, processes, procedures, tools, and techniques. The goal is to inculcate project management as a core capability discipline that is part of the fabric of the work that is performed. Achieving world-class status results in consistently exceeding customer expectations for the products and services that the company provides.

Establishing a EPMO should not be viewed as a quick-fix solution, but rather as a long-term, foundation- building effort, since it not a trivial pursuit. In establishing a EPMO, the company communicates the strategic importance of PM throughout the organization; provides uniform criteria for measuring results; and establishes a central resource for training, ideas, support and problem-solving. The approach of Great Standard Consulting (GSCTS) considers elements of models that have proved results in the market, such as: Model for building PM Centers of Excellence developed by D. Bolles, CMMI developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI), OPM3 developed by the Project Management

Institute (PMI), Wysocki’s model in “Effective Project Management”, P3M3 of The Cabinet Office (UK), IPQMS Method, and also for Competence Management: ICB (IPMA Competence Baseline), and a model of better practices of PM based on ICB, by J. Hermarij (2011).

Our EPMO creation methodology, depicted on the following pages, consists of 3 phases: Initiation, Planning, and Execution, like it is shown in Figure 4a

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Figure 4a - Our methodology for building an EPMO (Source: created by author)

During the initiation phase, the current conditions (as-is) will be determined through an assessment exercise. Documenting the current conditions establishes a baseline from which to estimate the effort required to achieve the desired future conditions (to-be). Depending on the gap size between present and future conditions, an iterative strategy may be defined, and then phases of Planning and Execution can be run several times, making a measurable improvement for the organization with every iteration. Whether the approach for implementation will be iterative or not will be decided after knowing the assessment results. The iterative approach is shown in Table 4b

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Table 4b: Implementation Assessment Initiation period of one month (Source: created by author)

As shown in the diagram below, the initiation phase of the implementation process of the GECOL EPMO is structure below from the initiation assessment of GECOL to the organizational structure and charter creation.

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Figure 4b - Iterative approach for building a EPMO (Source: created by author)

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding approach and methodology will be oriented to:

- Ensure the process will be conducted as expected
- Determine, after the initial assessment, if an iterative strategy is recommended

4. 2. Creation of a PM Enterprise (EPMO)

In this section, we explain the reasons for proposing the creation of EPMO and the characteristics it should have. After that, we describe our methodology for the creation of EPMO, which consists of three phases: Initiation, Planning, and Execution.

4.2.1. Reasons for creating a EPMO

One important reason for the creation of a EPMO is because we understand the executives, representing the organization, can deliver on its promises only if the organization successfully executes the right projects. Activate too many projects, and the system will clearly fail. Execute some but not all, of the right projects, and the results are not sufficient to meet the business strategic goals. The execution of projects sanctioned independently by functional executives, and project managers will compete with each other over resources, without clear overall priorities. It is common to find some projects of functional areas, without a direct link to overall organization goals.

Prioritization involves first gathering some key information, such as opportunity and risk rating, cash flow and utilization of the organization’s strategic resources. Once the prioritization scheme is accepted and the rankings of all projects by the Governance Board is complete, the EPMO must communicate, track, and help to ensure that the project portfolio is managed correctly. This will give EPMO team members a focus on accelerating high priority projects, preventing delays and communicating back to the Governance Board and other stakeholders to ensure that everyone is on the same page.

We have seen some attempts made by project managers who try to solve these problems in isolation from the executives whom they support. They focus on methodology, tactical data, and tools without having a breakthrough impact on project cycle time, project flow, and strategic value of projects. A research by (Hobbs, Brian 2007) shows that over 90% of current PMOs (Project Management Offices) are not connected with their senior management team and have no metrics that matter to senior executives. Therefore, we think that the creation of a EPMO can be a good solution, but we are sure that a more strategic approach and more oriented to the business goals will be much better. This way this unit, that we call a EPMO, will have the chance to add much more value to the organization.

It is important to make this definition at the beginning, when the EPMO will be chartered and the objectives, approach, roles and responsibilities, and also the value proposition will be defined.

4.2.2. The right people, the right tools, and the right data

The recommended solution should have the right people, the right tools and the right data.

Once the business understands what it should expect from the EPMO, identifying the staff requirements becomes much easier (PRINCE2, 2009, pg. 287-294).

By the right people we mean people whose first priority is bottom line results, not PM methodology, which is also important. A EPMO must be able to market its message in order to get the collaboration of people who do not report to the EPMO. Also, this unit should cover multiple disciplines. Every functional area that is involved in projects should feel that someone in the EPMO represents their best interests.

By the right tools we mean the evaluation and selection of the appropriate tools, but at the right time. The maturity of the organization with respect to PM skills has a large impact in the acceptance by the user community of the EPM (Enterprise Project Management) tools and processes. Often in organizations with low PM maturity, sophisticated tools meet heavy resistance. Therefore, at the startup, the EPMO must understand functional unit behavior characteristics and needs, of which some have been obtained during the assessment exercise. And then the use and selection of tools can be planned accordingly.

In every organization, even non-profit ones, functional units compete with one another every day. When it comes to scarce resources, functional units often view themselves as stand-alone. The challenge for the EPMO is to assist these units to be collectively better at project delivery. In order to improve, project delivery must be measured. And then, by the right data we mean to accomplish the measurement process through project status reporting from all identified projects that are key to the business. The EPMO must choose carefully what data it presents and starting by winning the trust of the people it will serve.

4.2.3. Initiation phase

The diagram of Initiation phase is shown in Figure 4e.

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Figure 4c - Phase 1 Initiation (Source: Created by author)

Implementation of best practices will imply to improve performance by analyzing three interrelated components: processes, people competence, and technology.

Before any implementation of best practices, the most recommended initiative is to perform an initial assessment, which is an interdepartmental exercise, defined to determine where the organizations stands from different points of view, regarding its capabilities of managing projects. This exercise will provide information about processes, methodology, tools and techniques, methods, competence and skills, roles and responsibilities, governance models and other related elements that may affect project results. (Some of these exercise have been perform).

Initial Assessment (as-is)

The initial assessment will consist of 4 parts: Preparation, High-level assessment, detailed assessment, and Results. These four parts are shown in Figure 4f.

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Figure 4d - Approach of the assessment exercise of PM maturity and capabilities (Source: created by author)

The assessment workshop is intended to perform an analysis of the current practices, methods, tools, and processes regarding the management of projects. The analysis process will be guided by experienced facilitators from GSCTS, whereby all the gathered details will be owned by the participants from GECOL’s side. This exercise will be done by answering questionnaires, by interviews and meetings, and by reviewing supporting evidence.

Pre-assessment required documentation

Before the assessment workshop, some documentation is required for our preparation. Those documents are as follows:

- GECOL’s current organizational chart
- GECOL’s ‘Strategic Planning & Projects’ current organizational chart
- A complete document set of a representative project, including: contract, RFP, project plan, status reports, and everything else normally used in a project
- Project manager job description
- Consultant job description (we understand who works closely with project manager)
- A project dashboard or summary
- Pre-assessment questionnaire answered by every project manager and every project department head

Attached to this document there is a brief pre-assessment questionnaire, that was answered by every project manager and every project department head. This also gave me important initial information. See appendix 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b.

During the initiation phase, the outcome of the assessment exercise will be a document with the initial conditions of PM at GECOL (as-is). This document will be used as a baseline or starting point. From this point, the desired future levels (to-be) will be defined and also the roadmap or map of change. This future situation will be established in a document called EPMO Charter. The importance of this document is that it will be the best way to communicate what the EPMO is all about. EPMO charter will be used to inform the organization of the purpose of creating this unit and will help sell the new idea and get the necessary buy-in. It will also serve to establish all the required definitions: its role, responsibilities, accountability, and authority.

The EPMO should contain at least the following information:

- Purpose
- Vision
- Mission statement
- Strategy
- Goals and objectives
- Methodology
- Critical success factors
- Roles, responsibilities, accountability, and authority

The Initiation phase ends with the EPMO presented to the executive management team to be reviewed, and formally approved.

Role of GSCTS

Our role during the initiation phase will be oriented to:

- The conduction of the initial assessment exercise, to ensure a clear understanding of the current situation of the organization’s practices
- Obtain the resulting view of organizational PM maturity and capability
- Develop a list of recommendations, improvements, and prorities
- Act as facilitators for the EPMO charter,

4.3. Planning phase

The diagram of the Planning phase is shown in table 4c.

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Table 4c Implementation period of one month (Source: Created by author)

Another way to plan can be by using the process below in the implementation of the EPMO for GECOL as show below in figure 4e.

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Figure 4e - Phase 2 Planning (Source: created by author)

Depending on the gap size between present and future conditions, an iterative strategy may be defined, and then phases of Planning and Execution can be run several times, making a measurable improvement for the organization on every iteration. In this case, the scope statement will define the things to be done, and achieved, in the present iteration, which contributes to the big roadmap defined in the EPMO charter. Every iteration will be considered as a project.

Scope statement

As every iteration will be considered as a project, a scope statement will be defined for the iteration. This scope statement will contain at least the following information:

- Project name
- Project sponsor
- Project manager
- List of stakeholder representatives
- List of project team members
- List of GSCTS consultants
- List of steering (management oversight) team members
- Description of corporate strategic objective
- Description of the project purpose
- Description of how the project will achieve the stated purpose
- List of specific inclusions
- List of specific exclusions (out of scope)
- List of deliverables
- List of constraints
- List of assumptions
- List of critical success factors
- Preliminary project budget
- Preliminary project milestones

Executive Buy-in and Support

These kinds of initiatives, which imply a major change on the way things are being done until now, can produce some kind of resistance. Some people may feel uncomfortable. Therefore, executive support is needed.

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding the planning phase will be oriented to:

- Act as facilitators to ensure a scope statement is properly defined
- Recommend trying to engage top management as required for this initiative
- Propose the most suitable definition of a EPMO for GECOL
- Develop the resulting outcome of the planning phase: the plan for execution
- Prepare and conduct the kick-off event

4.4. Execution phase

The diagram of the Execution phase is shown in Table 4d.

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Table 4d Implementation period of four months (Source: Created by author)

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Figure 4f - Phase 3 Execution (Source: created by author)

The successful adoption of PM best practices across the organization will depend on the implementation of the four identified functions shown in Figure 4g. A diagram with these four elements is shown in Figure 4g.

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Figure 4g - The four functions of a EPMO (Source: Created by author)

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding the Execution Phase will be oriented to:

- Coordinate activities defined in execution phase
- Gather data to prepare status reports
- Present status reports
- Track progress regarding the plan elaborated in planning phase
- Facilitate for all other activities required by GECOL’S side
- Permanent monitoring, giving support to people assigned to this initiative

4.4.1 Authorization

The purpose is to define and implement a project authorization process to ensure the use of resources is aligned with the corporate strategic goals. This function normally addresses the following issues:

- Project identification
- Project categorization
- Project prioritization
- Project portfolio management
- Project request review
- Master planning and capital budget

This will be translated into a list of prioritized projects. A formal approval process will also be defined and then the approved projects will form the portfolio of projects.

The Authorization function will provide the following business benefits:

- Improves master planning and capital budget planning processes
- Provides an enterprise-wide forecast of future projects
- Facilitates the growth of the organization’s PM ability

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding the Authorization Function will be oriented to:

- Identify elements that can be already developed
- Facilitate the development of the most suitable solutions for the required processes

4.4.2 Standards

The purpose is to establish PM standards and methods to be applied to all projects. These guidelines will include common processes, tools, templates, and technology, and will be established to be used across the organization for the management of all authorized projects. This function normally will addresses the following issues:

- Policies
- Procedures
- Processes
- Tools
- Templates

The Standards function will provide the following business benefits:

- Improves efficiency and shortens the learning curve
- Reduces project timing and cost
- Improves project organization, planning, and management skills
- Enables tracking of actual vs. budgeted project costs
- Facilitates regular management review of project status
- Aids the growth of the organization’s PM maturity

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding the Standards Function will be oriented to:

- Identify the main elements required for a PM methodology
- Provide and/or develop templates and procedures
- Help in defining the most suitable PM methodology for GECOL
- Establish the best for continual improvement quality methodology

4.4.3 Education

The purpose is the development and delivery of a comprehensive education and training program to provide the knowledge, skills, and capabilities required at all levels of the organization to effectively apply the defined PM standards. This function normally will address the following issues:

- Education and training goals
- Education and training requirements
- Education and training curriculum

The Education function will provide the following business benefits:

- Improves time-to-market, quality-to-market, and cost-to-market
- Reduces project timing and cost
- Improves project organization, planning, and management skills
- Aids the growth of the organization’s PM maturity

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding the Education Function will be oriented to:

- Detect training needs at the different levels of the organization regarding PM practices, knowledge, and skills
- Develop a comprehensive education and training program, aligned with the implementation plan of the EPMO and its different possible iterations
- Provide the training activities defined in the training program

4.4.4 Readiness

The purpose is the development of processes to ensure and validate that:

- The required standards, knowledge, and skills are in place before starting a project
- Work in-process is meeting project deliverables
- Post project reviews, including lessons learned, are carried out

The post project reviews will help in ensuring project success and continuous improvement. The Readiness function will provide the following business benefits:

- Ensures project standards are being properly applied to all projects
- Facilitates creation of a “learning organization” environment
- Aids the growth of the organization’s PM maturity

Role of GSCTS

Our role regarding the Readiness Function will be oriented to:

- Identify and propose the control points necessary for compliance
- Define and propose a procedure and templates for post project appraisals
- Define and propose a procedure and templates for gathering and registering lessons learned

4.5 GECOL EPMO Communication Plan

Information dissemination about this project will be essential for the project success. Communication describes the means and frequency of communication to parties in a project, both internal and external to the project. “It facilitates engagement with stakeholders through the establishment of a controlled and bi- directional flow of information”, (PRINCE2 2009, pg. 239). Project team will be happy to have knowledge of what status things are and if there is anything that is or might be affecting the smooth project implementation. With this everyone is anxious to be part of the project and same time educated them about the progress and success. Putting into use a communication plan and using it to reach project team help them to better understand the trend and make them more likely to participant and the benefit to be gotten.

This GECOL EPMO communication plan will provide a framework for information, involvement, and obtaining buy-in from all the participants (from sponsor to project staff) throughout the project life cycle.

The EPMO implementation communication plan is or will be for the following audiences:

- Project Sponsor
- Steering Committee
- Project Managers
- Programme Managers
- User Group Participants

Communications Methodology: The communications methodology will be utilizing three directions for effective communication:

Top-Down It will be absolutely crucial and important that all project participants sense the executive support and guidance. It is also very crucial that the executive leadership of GECOL together with the EPMO implementation partner needs to speak with an unified, enthusiastic voice about this project and what the GECOL EPMO holds for everyone involved in this project. These will be 'hands-on' change management, if they wish to be successful. Not only will the implementation team and sponsor or project owner need to speak directly to all levels of the organization, they will also be a need for them to listen directly to all levels of the organization.

Bottom-Up For GECOL to ensure a buy-in and confidence of the project personnel involved in bringing the proposed changes from PMO to EPMO to reality, it will be of almost important to formulate and develop a communicate the way in which the solutions were to be created. If the perception in GECOL is that only the Steering Committee or project owner and project manager creates the proposed changes, resistance is likely to occur; John Kotter (2007). However through effective communication, if it is well understood that participants were all consulted, acceptance seems more promising for project success.

Middle-Out For GECOL to obtain full support at all project levels, where changes are supposed to be implemented, it is of almost important to sustainable improvement. At this level therefore, there must be an effort to communicate the specific benefits of the procedures and the changes. Every team member needs a personal stake in the success of the project management practices.

The following is a list of communication events that are (will be) established for this project:

Monthly-Status- Reports The Project Manager and project owner will provide monthly written status reports to the project Steering Committee. This report shall include the following information tracked against the Project Plan:

- A summary of tasks completed in the previous month
- A summary of tasks planned for completion in the next month
- A summary of issues from status and resolutions

Monthly Steering Committee Meeting These status meetings are held or to be held at least once per month and should normally be coordinated by the Project Manager. Every member of the project committee participates in this meeting. The EPMO implementation Project Manager have to send the status report to each team member prior to the meeting time so that everyone can review it in advance.

Bi-Monthly Project Team Status Meeting These status meetings are held every other month. Every member of this Project Team has to be invited to participate in the meeting. Project Manager have to send the status report to each member of the team member prior to the meeting so that everyone can review it in advance before the meeting.

Website Usage, E-mails, face book, bill board, Project team will be updated weekly or monthly at the discretion of the Project Manager. Information will be posted to the project’s website or communicated on bill board to communities set up by the project community.

Communication Flowchart

The communication flowchart below is created to help in this project communication. The flowchart helps in providing a framework for the whole project team to better understand and follow this EPMO project.

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Figure 4h. Communication flowchart adopted by GSCTS. (Source: Created by author)

Sometimes, there may arise situations which might fall outside of this communication flowchart where some additional clarification maybe necessary. In situations like this the Project Manager will be solely responsible for discussing and directing the communication methodology with the Project Sponsor in making a determination on how to make things work.

Communication matrix: This communication matrix shows how project stakeholders and other staff will be kept in touch, with issues about the EPMO implementation process.

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Table 4e. communication matrix during the whole project. Adopted by GSCTS (Source: created by author)

Appropriate communications Methodologies for use during EPMO implementation process with stakeholders. As below, we I try to strategist the communication methodology to be used with stakeholders.

The use of various communication methods today are all going to be use as can be seen in the boxes below in the figure.

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Figure 4i. Communication medium with stakeholders. Adopted from presentation by ; Sunein, Uzo and Ekomenzoge. 2013

Chapter Five Deliverables of GECOL EPMO

In this section, we describe what is going to be done during this project of creation of a EPMO. The outcomes will be shown.

5.1. Work Breakdown Structure

Considered one of the best practices in project management, we will use a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) to depict graphically what is going to be obtained as outcomes. The WBS is shown in the next figure. 5a

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Figure 5a. WBS (Source: Created by author)

With this WBS we are assuming that the best approach will be undertaking this project in phases. Normally the implementation of PMOs and EPMO are recommended to be done in phases, mainly because they are organizational change projects and the amount of change of the whole project normally is too big to be implemented healthy in a company.

As we see in the WBS, there are three branches with smaller boxes in green. These three branches: Project Management, Initiation, and Phase 1 of Implementation will have concrete plans and will have duration of 5 months.

Definition of scope for Implementation of Phase 2 and possible further phases is highly recommended to be done during Phase 1, and not before, because considerable information is yet unknown at the moment. But the big picture will be clear as the objectives are clear in the EPMO charter, to be obtained during the initiation phase. This will provide the necessary framework for phase 2 and possible further phases. During Initiation, a maturity assessment exercise will be conducted, to know exactly how project are being run in the company. What is recommended to be improved and what to be kept. And also training needs will be determined. With the maturity assessment, the EPMO charter can be created, as part of the same Phase of initiation.

5.2. Description of deliverables

What the company (GECO) will obtain with these phases of Initiation and Implementation-Phase 1, will be described below.

5.2.1 Maturity Assessment

This deliverable will consist of official reports, regarding:

- Actual level of processes and practices of project management
- Actual policies and procedures regarding projects
- Actual skill levels of people who participate in projects
- Priorities and recommendations for improvements

5.2.2 EPMO Objectives

This deliverable will be created after the maturity assessment is clear. To determine the EPMO objectives is important because the type of EPMO, the functions, the organizational level, the people required and other things will be deducted from these objectives. This will be an official document and will be presented for approval.

5.2.3 EPMO Charter

This deliverable will define the major characteristics of the project. A high level definition of the scope of the EPMO, and also things like: the functions which will be implemented, the main risks, and detailed objectives.

5.2.4 Executive Buy-In

As this project involves a major change in current way of doing projects, the approval and real support of top management is highly required. So presentations and explanation as much as needed will be made to the executives until their support is guaranteed. Failure in getting this real support will highly affect the project and the initiatives for change will face trouble.

5.2.5 Implementation approach

This deliverable will provide the best approach of implementation of the EPMO for GECOLL. This means, maybe in 3 phases, or 2 or something like this. According to the defined objectives and the definitions of the EPMO charter, different scenarios will be analyzed, choosing the best implementation approach. Only when this is clear, the project can move to the Implementation Phase 1.

5.2.6 Formal Creation of the EPMO

This deliverable will guarantee that the EPMO has been created as a permanent unit within the company and/or the functions are formally defined as responsibilities of the EPMO and also the necessary staff is assigned to it.

5.2.7 PM Methodology - Phase 1

This deliverable will be the methodology itself to manage projects. It will consist of procedures, processes, templates, and recommended practices to manage projects in GECOL. This will be the version 1 of the methodology, as the improvement is recommended to be done in phases. Of course, this methodology will have an impact on the definition of the training needs, and also on the support to be done to project managers by the EPMO.

5.2.8 Methodology Support & Compliance

This deliverable will contain all the guidelines and practices to provide support to the project managers, and project team members in general, regarding how to use the new methodology and also how to plan projects, how to manage risks, how to manage issues, how to create project status reports according to the new methodology, etc.

It will also contain the framework and definitions about how to control the use of the methodology in projects, including some metrics to be measured by the EPMO in order to ensure proper use of the methodology.

5.2.9 Training Phase 1

This means the delivery of all the training courses defined for Phase 1. The details will be determined after the maturity assessment, but at least will contain training about:

- Fundamentals of project management
- The defined PM Methodology
- Scheduling
- WBS and Scope
- Risks
- Procurement

5.2.10 Project Portfolio Management - Phase 1

This delivery means the implementation of the necessary procedures and processes for project portfolio management, to the extent defined for phase 1. Project portfolio management basically has to do with studying in detail which initiatives will be approved as projects and why, in detriment of other potential projects. Things like alignment to the company’s vision, mission and strategies are the major elements.

Summary schedule

The figure below shows the summary level schedule. It contains the work packages defined within the already mentioned 7 months of timeframe.

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Table 5a work schedule (Source: Created by author)

5.3 Cost of Service

The cost of the consultancy services is estimated on a daily rate basis. There are different levels of expertise in the GSCTS proposed professional team. This financial proposal also is based considering the initiation phase and the phase 1 in the implementation of the EPMO, with an estimated duration of seven months For this financial proposal, we assume that the approach for the implementation of the EPMO will be done in phases, as it was explained above. This financial part shows the figure for the initiation phase and also for the phase number 1; both phases combined have an estimated duration of 7 months.


The following list shows the assumptions taken into account for this financial proposal:

The implementation of the EPMO will be done in phases, because the estimated amount of changes required is considerable and in these cases this is the recommended approach

Some of the work will be done at the office of GECOL in Tripoli. Other parts of the work which do not need face-to-face interaction with GECOL counterparts, such as analysis or studies, will be done at the main office of GSCTS in Bonn-Germany

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Table 5c. Daily rate allowance (source: Created by author)

This gives the following costs for the consultancy services, for the whole period of 7 months (Initiation and Phase of Implementation)

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Table 5d. total cost for consulting (Source: Created by author)

All the GSCTS consultants will come from Germany. This means the addition of travel and accommodation costs to this proposal. Considering also the additional costs for this project, we have the following table, for all the cost items, considering the already mentioned 7 months:

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Table 5e Total cost for the project (Source: Created by author)

5.4 Function/Roles of GECOL EPMO

Most organisations differ greatly in their approach for using project management practices. In extremes are some organisations that have no formal project management process at all and in some extremes are organisations that have integrated project management process into their fabric. From this standpoint, one of the primary role of the GECOL EPMO will be to:

Enterprise Strategy Alignment - GECOL EPMO will ensures that projects undertaken in various departments of the organisation are aligned to the near and long term of its business objectives. Thereby ensuring its organisation is spending money on the ‘right things that have to be done’.

Value Management - So often some projects handled by programme levels PMOs are part of a bigger organisational initiative. At these traditional PMO levels it’s difficult to measure the business value of the projects. On the other hand GECOL EPMO will have the view of the organisational initiatives which are broken down into several projects. So EPMO are in a position to evaluate the tangible and intangible benefits of these initiatives. GECOL EPMO will use techniques like ROI, NPV, and IRR etc to measure the benefits.

Mentoring and Coaching - EPMO will provide mentoring and coaching to the program managers, project managers and staff of the PMOs operating at different levels in the organisation. EPMO will conduct periodic training needs and coordinate for organisational level certifications related to project management.

Demand Management - The Enterprise PMO will be responsible for demand forecasting and collating the project demand generating from different PMO business cases developed across the organisation. This then becomes the central office whereby the demand is captured and classified as much as possible into strategic, tactical or operational demand.

Coordination between PMOs - Where a PMO is facing some problem which can be resolved by reaching out to another PMO in the organisation, EPMO because of its uniqueness will be able to view the proceedings in the different PMOs. Here they are able to coordinate between the different PMOs and improve the communication between various PMOs reporting to the EPMO. This results in improving risks and issues resolution.

Centralized Tracking, Auditing and Reporting - Within GECOL all its portfolios, programmes and projects will roll up to the EPMO. Therefore GECOL EPMO will view of all the portfolios, programmes and projects running across the organisation. The EPMO will have the responsibility to track the portfolios, programs and projects. It will periodically also audit these portfolios, programmes and projects to check for compliance, and for standard practices. Having this centralized nature view, it will in a position prepare reports and dashboards for the enterprise leadership in the way that helps them to take critical decisions to pilot the plane. Determine where the organization is failing in its project management maturity model. Determine where the organization wants to go or wants to be. Determine and develop, execute plans to move the its activities to a higher level

5.5 GECOL EPMO Governance Structure and Roles

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Figure 5b: Propose Governance structure (Source: adopted from Arvind Rathore 2010 paper)

As shown in the figure above, with GECOL larger structure its EPMO will look like the one above. Its EPMO will be positioned as a business function operating at the very highest level, usually the EPMO report directly to the one of the CEO. This will demonstrates the vantage point the EPMO will have in overseeing the enterprise wide projects. The Project support office and Project Management office will report to the Program Management Office.

The program management offices will report to their departmental PMOs level. The PMOs from various functions, departments and business units then will report to the central business function - EPMO.

Chapter Six Embedding and aligning Six-Sigma to EFQM Methodology Application for GECOL EPMO

6.1 An overview of Six-Sigma and EFQM Model

Six Sigma, (DMAIC) Model

DMAIC is a data-driven quality strategy used to improve processes. It is an integral part of a Six Sigma initiative, but in general can be implemented as a standalone quality improvement procedure or embedded as part of another process improvement initiative such as EFQM.

DMAIC is an acronym for the five phases that make up the process:

- Define the problem, improvement activity, opportunity for improvement, the project goals, and customer (internal and external) requirements.
- Measure process performance.
- Analyze the process to determine root causes of variation, poor performance (defects).
- Improve process performance by addressing and eliminating the root causes.
- Control the improved process and future process performance.

The DMAIC process easily lends itself to the project approach to quality improvement encouraged and promotion. These processes can be used for analysis during quality management as in the figure below (figure 6.a) Also see appendix 6a for DMAIC phases and tools analysis.

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Figure 6a six sigma flow charting process for quality management (Source: created by author)

DMAIC Approach

1, Define.

As with leadership in the EFQM model, the leader is concern with the selection of customers, focused problem, document business impact, determine project deliverables, complete project charter with sponsors, stakeholders and helps to create or formation of a multidisciplinary work force team. Defining change management processes can also be defined here as it is been handled by the leadership criteria.

2, Measure

Development of factual understanding of the current process, locate current problem sources, establish “as-is” process baseline, measure baseline process capability. Products and services are developed to create optimum value for customers as with process criteria in the EFQM model.

3, Analyse

The leadership identifies potential defect root causes and sources of variation, and investigate using experiment and statistical verified root causes.

4, Improve

Using design of experiments to develop solutions. Eliminate the verified root cause or reduce sources of variation demonstration with data. People´s knowledge and abilities are developed, aligned, involved and empowered as with the criterion with people in the EFQM.

5, Control

Implement methods to hold the gains such as Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and Statistical Process Control (SPC). Technology development is managed to support and enhance the delivery of strategy.

As you can see, the power of the Six Sigma DMAIC methodology lies in the structure and the rigor. Of the hundreds of TQM tools and technics that have been developed for years, the most important ones (described above). For a detail analysis of the DMAIC methodology and Tools, see appendix 6a

EFQM Model

The EFQM Excellence Model is a practical self-evaluation tool that can help a company or organization measure what it is achieving and how well it manages itself. It can help staff understand the gaps between where the company is and where it would like to be, and subsequently stimulate solutions. The first layer of the EFQM Excellence Model is a framework of nine criteria as illustrated below. Fig.6b

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Figure 6b EFQM quality methodology application (Source: EFQM Excellence Model 2013)

The EFQM model comprises of nine major criteria in two categories, namely enablers and results. Enablers consist of the first five criteria, namely leadership, people, strategy, partnerships and resources and processes, products and services. Results consist of the next four criteria, namely people results, customer results, society results and key results18.

6.2 Alignment of Six-Sigma approach to EFQM

Six Sigma and EFQM Model: The model shown (Figure 6c) provides an ideal framework to review organisational performance against world-class best practice and to identify strengths and areas for improvement. If it’s not an integral part of a Strategy Review and Business Planning process, one should really be asking ‘why not?’ By way of a refresher, or as a high level introduction, the model contains nine criterion that link together in a variety of ways. Essentially, though, the ‘results’ (the criterion on the right hand side), are caused by the ‘enablers’ (the criterion on the left hand side). The enablers represent the ‘what you do’ and ‘how you do them’ activities of the organisation. Get them right and the results follow.

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Fig. 6c: Six sigma & EFQM model

Source: World Applied Sciences Journal 17 (8): 1066-1073, 2012

Six-Sigma and the Excellence Model are complementary approaches. Indeed, two of the early winners of the American equivalent, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award19, have been Motorola and Allied Signal both proponents of the Six Sigma approach and in Motorola’s case, the organisation that first packaged the approach. There is a straight-line link through the model from Leadership setting the Policy and Strategy and achieving it through the organisation’s Processes. Six-Sigma requires very determined leadership which from this write-up can easily fit or be embedded into the EFQM model. It must set the framework for the management system for the organisation and that system should be built around the principles of Six Sigma leadership and management by fact.

After haven’t gone through six-sigma model the following success factors for implementation of six Sigma makes it easier for one to embed or aligns it with EFQM model for use by GECOL

(1) linking Six sigma to customers; (2) linking Six sigma to business strategy, (3) linking Six sigma to employees, (4) linking Six sigma to suppliers, (5) Management involvement and participation, (6) organisational Infrastructure, (7) project management skills, (8) training and (9) cultural change. In the follow paragraph, we try to embed the six-sigma and EFQM to come up with the best methodology in project management which any company like GECOL can better use to match the flow of European companies contracting with him.

6.2.1 Leadership

In this criterion the model expects “Leaders reinforce a culture of excellence with the organization’s people”. In Six sigma approaches, the project champions through the respective Black belt infuse the culture of excellence by demanding project specific achieving stretch goal, which is again relevant to the organization’s strategy, as six sigma projects must be having direct link with organization’s strategic objectives. By doing so the six sigma approach makes the leaders fulfill all the guiding points relevant to this requirement, (like inspiring people, establish vision and mission, develop ownership, empowerment with accountability)20, help create partnership within the inter functional peer group, ensure that the organization is flexible and manages effectively, engage with customers, partners and representatives of society (Andre Moll, Gabbiele Kohler, Excellence-Handbuch, Grundlagen und Anwendung des EFQM Excellence Modells, 2013, pg. 60-64).

The model expects “Leaders ensure that the organization is flexible and manages effectively”. If we embed or align six sigma approach an organization creates flexibility through implementing six sigma mesostructure as mentioned above. By taking strategy related projects, six-sigma ensures both short and long term concern as in with the EFQM model of the organization and thus help mobilize long term resource allocation, which is one of the guide lines relevant to this requirement. By involving people it help implement and manage changes effectively.

All individuals affected by the definition of leadership manage Key and Innovation Processes on an autonomous basis (Figure. 6d). This system is designed to encourage and promote joint responsibility, one of the reference Values of that can be better use by GECOL embedding the six-sigma with EFQM management system in the area of leadership as a basis for stimulating and encouraging all its people to proactively accept responsibility for the processes in which they are involved, and to participate in and provide suggestions for the continuous improvement of those processes.

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Figure 6d (Source: GECOL quality management information 2013)

The members of the Management Team (MT) can also participate in key processes, regularly defining and reviewing the concept of leadership and the quality features related to their own performance. In this way, MT members can identify as in Six-sigma and plan, on an annual basis, those events in which, in line with the strategic priorities of the organisation, they are to appear and participate as behaviour role models.

6.2.2 Strategy

In criteria 6.2.2, just like with defining and measure in Six-Sigma the model expects, ”Strategy and supporting policies are communicated, implemented and monitored”. Project selection in Six-Sigma, will involves senior management to filter out Six Sigma projects that do not have financial or strategic implications ( al, 2007). From this perspective the decision rights to initiate a project are allocated to senior management. Thus Six sigma help achieve strategy deployment in a great way by selecting strategy related projects. While defining the project charter extensive discussions takes place between top and other levels of management-like Black and Green belts. Thus it will help also in communicating the strategy. During the define phase the group derive technical business (Kumar, D. (2006)). and in target setting it considers bench marked figures, best achieved figures and competitors’’ performance,etc.

6.2.3 People

In this criterion, the model expects “People’s knowledge and capabilities are developed”. As mentioned in section 6.2.1, six sigma demands structured in depth training on problem solving, project management, statistical techniques. Thus makes people more competent. And through the parallel structure it empowers people to exercise their knowledge in practical field.

In this criterion therefore, the model expects “People are aligned, involved and empowered” as with people in the enabler with the EFQM model. By taking projects related to Strategy people are aligned with the organization’s goals and objectives, by creating a six sigma meso-structure people are empowered and involved, Akbarian, M. & Najafi, A.A. (2009).

6.2.4 Partnership and Resources

In this criterion, the model expects “Partners and suppliers are managed for sustainable benefit”. Many a time a Six-sigma project requires working with the suppliers. At a matured stage an organization extends its expertise in six-sigma to their suppliers for mutual benefit, thus strengthening the partnership. As for example, GECOL Company took up a six sigma project of increasing the load Factor of induction Furnaces where they worked with the supplier for improving the Electro Paste casing development. This was appreciated by Siemen Company during a meeting held when they were awarded a contract last year 201321.

In criteria 4e, the model expects “Information and knowledge are managed to support effective decision making and to build the organizational capability”. Systematic implementations of Six-Sigma demands maintaining a project file for each project. Each project file maintains the key aspects of each project, thus each project file is a source of knowledge. The organization those are working with six sigma philosophy uploads key learning from each project, which facilitates knowledge sharing. Thus it also helps increase organizational capability.

6.2.5 Processes, Products and Services

In criteria 6.2.5, the model expects “Processes are designed and managed to optimize stakeholder value”. Systematic implementation of six sigma demands identification of key processes and the process owners. Identification of key performance parameters having linked with strategy of each key process needs to be identified. Organization wide deployment of six sigma demands key process sigma levels to be determined and improvement plans are to be chalked out wherever required. Author’s experience suggests that many organizations while going for six sigma ,identifies key processes but generally do not go for process wise sigma level assessment, thus are not able to disseminate six sigma culture across the organization and achieving a common goal/target level. But still, this can be aligned or embedded in the process area of the EFQM model.

This model expects “Product and services are developed to create optimum value for customers”. During the project selection phase (Define Phase) the team examines all aspects of critical to business including design of product and services. Thus six sigma help achieve this criteria of EFQM excellence model when embedded in it.

In this criterion, the model expects “Products and Services are produced, delivered and managed”. All these are key processes and six-sigma does examine the scope of optimizations of these processes through appropriate project selection.

Since the EFQM model as a business excellence model has been adopted and employed globally more than the other models and has systematic approach, framework, and structure that clearly illustrate the relationship between criteria, it can be decided to restructure the criteria and scores of the Six-sigma according to the EFQM framework.

In a comparison of the two models, it is found that the five criteria of Six-Sigma and the nine criteria of EFQM are surprisingly compatible with a minor difference and therefore, there is no need to add extra items into the EFQM model. In other words, three out of four criteria of the Six-Sigma model, i.e. stakeholders, basic skills and techniques and functional areas are mostly in consistent with the enablers of EFQM; in addition, the sub-criterion of the results of Six-Sigma model, could be divided into the results of the EFQM model, i.e. customers’ results, staff’s results, community’s results, and key business results.

6.3 Benefits of the Embedding Six-Sigma to EFQM Approach for GECOL

Embedding the Six-Sigma with EFQM Model will be simply a great way that will bring staff together and manage GECOL. It is also one of the best approaches to self-evaluation that will leads to improvement. The main benefit of using this Embedded Model is described as an effective way to unify GECOL, because it will help to:

Focuses energy

Gives all staff a voice

Achieves savings

Makes key work clear

Highlights strengths and areas for improvement

Clarifies policies and strategy

Promotes management by fact

Aligned methodologies brought in by contractors from Europe that are using the EFQM

Prompts ethical behaviours and has stood the test of time.

Improves communication

Reduces stress at work.

Self-Assessment using the Embedded Model: Regular, comprehensive and systematic review of GECOL activities and results against a tangible and relevant model which culminates in the identification of GECOL strengths and areas for improvement, which will facilitates the development of planned improvement actions. The main benefits of self-assessment are as follows:

- To measure success and give improvement targets
- To highlight and share best practices
- Better meet customer requirements
- Receive public recognition
- To create a vision or role model of excellence

Chapter Seven Environmental factors that may affect GECOL EPMO operations

7.1 Legal/Political/Security

Social, Infrastructural, Economic, Geographical, Cultural, Political factors plays important role for the project success. In the present competitive world, the success and survival of the project is more difficult so the project manager should be aware of such factors. If such factors are handled properly then it becomes easier to achieve the objectives of the project. Due to the Globalization, the complexity in the project is also increasing. Project managers find it challenging to manage international projects. They are generally familiar with domestic projects. However, the differences are obvious because international projects are implemented in a foreign environment that is typically unfamiliar to the project manager. Most researchers and practitioners (Gray & Larson, 2003; Han & Diekmann, 2002; Gunhan & Arditi, 2005) agree that the main factors that affect the success of an international project stem from the host country environment and not from the risk related to domestic projects.

7.1.1 Political Stability

Is the country in which the project is being implemented politically stable? What kind of government controls are imposed on projects? Do government officials have to be “compensated” to win their approval? (Often a situation in third-world countries, “Bribery”, in the Western connotation of the word is also common in Cameroon). What are the ecological laws - how will hazardous materials be handled - what are the pollution standards? What is the crime rate of the country? Are there threats from extremists or terrorist groups? This could be an issue if, say, an American company were to implement a project in Libya or Afghanistan. Perhaps the most important considerations for global business firms are the political and legal forces operative in the countries in which they plan to conduct business. Some foreign governments are unstable, that is, there may be frequent, dramatic and unpredictable regime changes and/or political unrest. When this occurs industries may be nationalized; private property may be seized or destroyed; normal business operations may be suspended, the workforce may go on strike. For example, since the illegal NATO attack on Libya; strikes, rioting, kidnaps have been the order of activity preventing foreign companies from establishing in Libya. General political instability may not be considered serious enough to cause investors to withdraw from a country. However, general instability risk raises uncertainty about international projects overseas. Even within relatively stable governments, as different administrations come to power different business regulations and attitudes may be adopted. Governments control the Projects activities is many ways both direct and indirect. However, government can control Projects activities in a more direct way. These are as follows:

7.1.2. National and local laws and regulations

In order to safeguard the interest of the community government may ban or limit the production of certain goods and services. For example, selling of guns, explosive and dangerous drugs are illegal in Libya, but the present situation has given room for most people to own guns. Moreover, Goods which harm the environment are also totally banned or strictly controlled in many countries, e.g. aerosol cans that use CFCs (chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, hydrogen and fluorine) has been banned in many African because of their damaging effect on the ozone layer.

Government may pass laws to protect the interest of employees such as; Laws against unfair discrimination at work and when applying for jobs. There is no unfair discrimination on the basis of Race, religion, sex, age, or colour. Since the invadesion of Iraq, there has been a big division between the Muslim communities, where by the Sunni and Shia in most countries do not want to see eye-to- eye. Therefore, there is a need for the government of Libya to intervene by placing a law in the recruitment of staffs and general labour by GECOL on the basis of Sunni-Shia division. To protect workers from dangerous machinery; Workers should be provided with proper safety equipments and clothing. A reasonable workforce temperature is maintained for workers. Proper hygienic conditions and washing facilities be provided. Workers get adequate breaks between shifts. The Islamic Shari’a law is another issue that might have an effect on international staff.

GECOL should not dismiss the workers because they have joined a trade union or for being pregnant. There should be proper warning before dismissing a worker otherwise it will be treated as unfair dismissal. The government should make it mandatory to have a written contract of employment. It contains the details of the wage rate; working hours, deductions (if any) and other necessary details regarding working conditions. Minimum wages paid to different types of workers are also determined by the government.

7.1.3. Government Interference or support

Most countries have consumer protection laws aimed at making sure that businesses act fairly towards their consumers: A few examples are;

Weight and Measures Act: goods sold should not be underweight. Standard weighting equipments should be used to measure goods.

Trade Description Act: deliberately giving misleading impression about the product is illegal.

Consumer Credit Act: According to this act consumers should be given a copy of the credit agreement and should be aware of the interest rates, length of loan while taking a loan.

Sale of Goods Act: “It is illegal to sell products with serious flaws or problems and goods sold should conform to the description provided”.

7.1.4. Government Corruption

Is corruption part of the business ethic? Could a company find itself having to make higher and higher payments to officials?

Prior to the revolution in 2010 Libya ranked 146 out of 178 countries on the Corruption Perceptions list compiled by Transparency International. In 2011 it fell to 148th place, and in 2012 fell several places to rank 168th. However in 2012 the country made a modest improvement, rising to 160th place22.

In early 2012 Libya's post-revolutionary leader Mustafa Abdul-Jalil warned that LIbya would take years to overcome its "heavy heritage" of corruption, to combat a culture of mistrust and to build state institutions and the rule of law23. In particular, in an August 2012 interview, Libyan Health Minister Fatima Hamroush raised concerns about a type of "new corruption" arising in the Libyan health sector. This related to a fund established parallel to the Health Ministry, reporting directly to the Prime Minister, which was reportedly misusing funds designed to secure medical treatment abroad for those injured during the 2011 war24.

7.1.5. Security

Even if a company cannot know in advance the scope of the risks, if it can predict the possibility of risk, provide for it, and still project a profit, its venture may be ready for approval. There are a number of questions that GECOL should ask itself:

1. Is terrorism part of the political landscape? Terrorism, civil unrest, and the overthrow of governments can seriously affect its business environment.
2. Could extremist groups pose a danger to the general stability, smooth implementation and operation of its activities?
3. Has there been a withdrawal of freedoms? If the country’s nationals are treated in this way, foreign companies or consulting bodies doing business there could find themselves having to conform to restrictive laws. Withdrawal from freedoms is a signal of unstable government and risk. As the government tries to protect a weakening hold on power, it becomes more controlling.
4. What, if any, is the military’s role in government? If it is in power, how firm is its grasp on power? It’s very risky doing business of any type in lawless countries for fear of kidnapers

7.2 Infrastructure factor

World Development Report 2013; On average, a 1% increase in infrastructure stock is associated with a 1% increase in GDP The contribution of infrastructure services to project environment is substantial. The link between infrastructure and project environment is most often indirect, and depends on the degree of “trickle down” and distributional effects of economic growth. Fan et al. (2009) Critical role of infrastructure development; particularly roads and telecommunications, in attracting foreign direct investments in Africa. The present Higher Growth in Africa is attributable to higher investment in Infrastructure.

Industrial agglomerations equipped with infrastructure and incentives have been formed in various places, (South Africa, Nigeria, Formal Libya) Multiϋnational firms fragmented their production process, and established sophisticated global production networks.

7.2.1. Telecommunication network

The rebuilding of Libya’s telecommunications infrastructure is at the top of the agenda of the Libyan authorities in this transitional phase. The government is exploring different approaches and areas that would help rebuild the system and satellite and fast fibre optics systems are one of the main areas the Libyan government is focusing on as it looks to rebuild and develop the infrastructure.

Fixed line and mobile telephony penetration rates are still low, and with a lack of a comprehensive network, there are opportunities for multiple technologies, including satellite to play a critical role in the building of a new communications infrastructure. The Libyan authorities know too well that building new (communications) infrastructure is easier than upgrading existing infrastructures. For that, reason work on a new fibre optics network is continuing throughout the country. Due to the law internet penetration in Libya, there is a big digital divide in in the country. Reducing this gap is one of the main challenges for the Communications Ministry and the government. In addition, Satellite technology becoming increasingly popular and is starting to play a key role in the country, particularly on a commercial business scale. Therefore, for GECOL to successfully carry out its operations, a good communication network is required. Communicating with its field project offices and sharing of project documents requires a good and fast network.

The state owned company, Telecommunication and Information Technology Co (LIPTIC), which owns the country’s two mobile operators Al Madar and Libyana as well as Libya’s main internet provider, runs Libya’s telecom sector as a monopoly. However, there is keen interest from international and regional investors to enter the Libyan market. This would provide an opportunity to improve the performance of the sector through healthy competition, which ultimately would lead to better services at competitive prices. Huawei and Alcatel-Lucent to Rebuild Telecommunications Infrastructure in Libya25 ;

7.2.2. Power grids

The energy sector in sub-Saharan Africa is characterised by significant challenges including: low energy access rates, electricity costs as high as USD 0.50/kWh, insufficient generation capacity to meet rapidly rising demand, and poor reliability of supply (WB 2008). The estimated economic value of power outages in Africa amounts to as much as 2% of GDP, and 6ϋ16% in lost turnover for enterprises (WB 2009).

Some of the wellϋknown and emerging concepts, systems and technologies of Smart Grids may offer an important contribution to universal access to electricity in Libya by GECOL. With the aim of GECOL expending supplies to foreign countries, these Smart Grid advances may enable GECOL to leapfrog elements of traditional power systems in terms of both technology and regulation. This could accelerate national and regional electrification timeframes, improving service delivery, minimizing costs and increase foreign direct investment.

7.3. Social environment

Social environment means the environment created by people working together to achieve the ultimate projects’ objectives through collaboration, co-ordination, mutual understanding and so on. Social environment even includes the culture of the individual, people and the institutions with whom they interact on the daily basis. Social factors also play great role for the success of the project. Some of the social factors that influence the project are illustrated below:

7.3.1. Satisfaction

The level of Job satisfaction experienced by individuals in the project is one of the social factors that influence the project environment. People who are not satisfied with their jobs are unproductive which directly or indirectly lead to poor working environment in the project. Similarly, when people are satisfied with their jobs and are happy then the working capacity and work efficiency automatically increases leading to positive impact in the project. “Job satisfaction is normally influenced by salary, promotion, status, facilities provided by the project, individual perception on the job, future achievement and so on. Though job satisfaction is an ongoing process, it plays a vital role in any project for the achievement of the major goal”, Wood, Robert (2000).

7.3.2. Teamwork

In the project different employees at different level work together as a team or group. Therefore cooperation in the workplace is needed which helps to create a supportive social environment. When people work together on projects rather than competing with each other, they learn that their best interests are shared together and that what benefits their co-workers also benefits them and the output is also maximized and become easier to fulfill the objectives of the project. Project managers should always go deeper and encourage the teams for the teamwork. Although, few jobs are conducted efficiently by an individual, a dominant culture of teamwork within a workplace helps to create a social environment that is conducive to good work, whether it is done in a team or individually.

7.3.3. Politics

Politics in an organization somehow leads to the negative impact on the social environment. It might destroy the teamwork by raising few issues like gender relation, religion and even the racial issues. Workplaces should be far from these issues as it might hinder in achieving the objectives of an organization. Employees are not allowed to be the victim of sexist language, vulgar behavior and even disturbing other employees regarding the subject which others may not like. The slogan of "not saying anything at all when you have nothing good to say” is very applicable to organizational environments where people need to get along.

7.3.4. Conflict

“Conflict occurs when there is miss-understanding or disagreement between two or more than two individuals or party over their values, motivations, perceptions, ideas and desires”, Bell, Art Ph.D. (2002). The conflict might have positive as well as negative effect in an organization. Ongoing conflict creates an environment of disturbance and can interrupt the work of everyone around them and leads to decrease in productivity, lower job satisfaction and even ruin the morale. Sometimes conflict leads to the vital problem between the employees and organizations. The project manager should take appropriate action in time in solving the conflict so that it further do not ruin the social environment of the project.


In recent years the concept of a PMO at an enterprise level (EPMO) is growing and large organizations not only in the developed world and organizations having international footprint are now adopting Enterprise PMO for the number of reasons as discussed in this thesis. With GECOL plans to extend services to some European countries and the present contraction and procurement between GECOL and some Western countries is driving her to the adoption of EPMO so as to meet the growing glabalised market. Moving away from the traditional approach of having things embedded in program and project level PMOs to a PMO at enterprise level will be a logical step in increasing the PMO maturity level and thus an increase in quality management and increase in portfolio.


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Appendix for thesis

Appendix 2a

Mentoring and Coaching - EPMO with its expertise in project management provides mentoring and coaching to the program managers, project managers and staff of the PMOs operating at different levels in the organization

Overrall rating of your PMO/EPMO/PO etc.

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Enterprise Strategy Alignment - EPMO ensures that the projects that are undertaken in various departments of the organization are aligned to the near and long term business objective.

How far does this statement holds for GECOL

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Value Management

Often the projects handled by department or program levels PMOs are part of a bigger organizational initiative. At these traditional PMO levels it’s difficult to measure the business value of the projects.

Is GECOL using techniques like ROI, NPV, and IRR etc to measure the benefits?

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Demand Management Enterprise PMO is responsible for demand forecasting and collating the project demand generating from different business cases developed across the organization. This becomes a central office where the demand is captured and classified into strategic, tactical or operational demand.

Is your present project office with many projects and programmes; is there a suitable mechanism of conflict solving in running departmental projects or programmes?

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Resource Management EPMO maintains a picture about the resource available to work on this demand across all departments of the organization. This central view of resource at EPMO helps in strategic resource planning resulting in better utilization of resource and improves efficiency.

Without a project office or PMO, please rate how resources are been managed in GECOL

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent


Another important responsibility of EPMO is to standardize processes, methodologies, project management practices and tools across the enterprise.

Is there a tool or method use by GECOL that drives continues improvement of processes and project management practices

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Coordination between PMOs - There are often situations where a PMO is facing a problem which can be resolved by reaching out to another PMO. EPMO because of its unique vantage point is able to view the proceedings in different PMOs. Thus they are able to coordinate between different PMOs and improve the communication.

In the light of communication in GECOL, rate the level of communication between departments

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Centralized Tracking, Auditing and Reporting - All portfolios, programs and projects roll up to the EPMO. Therefore EPMO has view of all the portfolios, programs and projects running across the organization.

Can you rate the projects, progrannes, and portfolios tracking in your organisation

1. Unsatisfactory
2. Average
3. Good
4. Very Good
5. Excellent

Assessment before knowing type of PMO to implement

Use the following to rate your PMO

Not at All➔1 ; A little➔2 ; Somewhat➔3 ; Very➔4 ; Extremely➔5

Appendix 2b: Assessment of Your PMO Assessment of Your PMO

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Appendix 2c: Assessment of Your PMO Determine the Value of Your PMO

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Appendix 2d: Determine competencies of project/programme managers of GECOL

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Appendix 3a

Changing PMO type

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Appendix 4a. GECOL EPMO Project Kick Off Meeting

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Appendix 4b: EMPO creation assessment with individual experience.

General Information on GECOL

1. What is your present position?

@ Project manager

@ Manager in the PMO

@ Executive

@ Professional in the PMO

@ Professional elsewhere in GECOL

@ Consultant

@ Other

2. The organization is of which type?

@ Private enterprise

@ Public sector organization

3. What is the total number of employees in your department?

@ Less than 10 @ Less than 15 @ Less than 20 @ Less than 25 @ Less than 30

4. What name is given to your present PMO if they exist any PMO

@ Project Management office

@ Project support office

@ Programme office

@ Centre of Excellence

@ Others

5. How long has this PMO been in existence?

@ Less than 1 year

@ 1 to 2 years

@ Before the revolution

@ Never had any before

6. How many projects are executed simultaneously

@ Less than 2

@ 3 to 5

@ 5 to 7

@ 8 to 10

7. What percentage of these projects does the PMO plays an active role?

@ Less than 20%

@Less than 30%

@ Less than 50%

@ More than 50%

@ More than 80%

8. What is the PMO’s level of decision-making authority?

@ No authority

@ Little authority

@ Some authority

@ Considerable authority

@ Very significant authority

9. In your opinion in what extent will your GECOL support the implementation of a PMO

@ Not at all

@ Very little

@ Somewhat

@ Considerably

@ Very much

10. If you are having a PMO, are your contractors, vendors using your PMO or implement theirs?

@ Not at all


@ Implement theirs PMO for use

@ Use the two methods

11. Are you PMO methods, policies or recommendations followed?

@ Never

@ Occasionally

@ Regularly

@ Almost always

@ Always

12. Is your PMO more process driven or business driven?

@ Exclusively process driven

@ More process driven than business

@ More business driven than process

@ Exclusively business driven

Appendix 6a

illustration not visible in this excerpt


1 Medelec, or the Mediterranean Electricity Network is the organization that links the power grid systems of the Mediterranean countries

2 Dai, CX & Wells, WG 2004, 'An exploration of project management office features and their relationship to project performance', International Journal of Project Management, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 523-532

3 The four main components or departments with different PMO´s

4 Office of Government Commerce (2008): For Successful Portfolio, Programme and Project Offices: Think P3O”, The Stationary Office, London, UK.

5 ABB Switzerland Ltd:

6 MEDELEC 21st Annual Meeting-Tripoli, Libya, April 4th2013

7 Medelec, or the Mediterranean Electricity Network is the organization that links the power grid systems of the Mediterranean countries

8 U.S. Energy Informations Administration, Libya Country Informations, Accessed Dec, 15 2013,

9 According to IHS CERA. ‘Cambridge Energy Research Associate’

10 bags-contract-from-GECOL-17937558/




14 Traditional PMOs = Project/Program management offices (PMOs)/Department level PMOs

15 Dooley and Van de Ven have been working on what is called complexity theory. This theory says that more complex tools are needed to understand the complex reality of today’s organization. Changes in organization could follow three different dynamic types ( from less to more complex): periodic, chaotic or random.

16 See figure 6b

17 Use and application of Six Sigma and EFQM quality tools for continues improvement. Also see chapter 7

18 EFQM. 2010.“EFQM Model for Business Excellence. Brussels: European Foundation for Quality Management”.

19 Established in 1987, the award is named after the quality-management champion Malcolm Baldridge (1922-87) who was the secretary of commerce (1981-87) in Ronald Reagan administration. It is managed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and conferred by the American Society For Quality

20 key activities of the Leadership process

21 Libya Business News 08 February 2013

22 "Corruption Perceptions Index", Transparency International, retrieved 21 January 2011.

23 Libya: Corruption 'will last years'", Independent, 22 February 2012.

24 Libyan Health Minister criticises ‘new corruption’", Euronews, 29 August 2012.

25 Source:; Telecommunications market in Libya: need for development. Monday, 01 July 2013 09:59

99 of 99 pages


Implementation and Operation of a Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO)
Case study: General Electricity Company of Libya (GECOL)
University of Applied Sciences Dortmund  (University of Applied Sciences and Arts Dortmund)
Project Management
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
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implementation, operation, enterprise, project, management, office, epmo, case, general, electricity, company, libya, gecol
Quote paper
Ekomenzoge Metuge (Author), 2014, Implementation and Operation of a Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO), Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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