Motivation and Attitudes of Sudanese Students towards Learning English and German


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2016
170 Pages, Grade: Magna Cum Laude

Free online reading

Table of Contents

Acknowledgment

Bibliographische Darstellung

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Chapter I - Introduction
1.1 Research Background
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Research Objectives ..
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Research .
1.7 Methodology of Investigation
1.8 Definitions of Key Terms
1.9 Thesis Setup and Structure

Chapter II - Theoretical Framework
2.1 The Concept of Motivation
2.1.1 Categorization of Motivation into Integrative and Instrumental
2.1.2 The Role of Motivational Type in Second Language Achievement
2.1.3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Self-Determination Theory (SDT)
2.1.4 Importance of Motivational Strength and Intensity in Foreign Language Learning
2.1.5 A Critical Review of Gardner’s Socio-educational Model of L2 Motivation
2.1.6 Current Trends and Alternatives in L2 Motivation Research
2.1.7 Dörnyei’s L2 Motivational Self-system
2.2 The Concept of Attitudes
2.2.1 Attitudes Components and Predictability of Behavior
2.2.2. Attitudes Measure
2.2.3 Classification of Attitudes in Foreign Language Learning
2.2.4 Attitudes Functions
2.2.5 Attitudes Change and Modification
2.3 Motivation and Attitudes
2.3.1 The Relationship between Motivation and Attitudes
2.3.2 Motivation and Self-regulated Learning
2.3.3 Attitudes and Second Language Achievement
2.3.4 Empirical Research on Motivation and Attitudes in Second Language Learning
2.4 General Background to Second Language Acquisition
2.4.1 Language Acquisition Device
2.4.2 The Dichotomy of Language Acquisition and Language Learning
2.4.3 The Distinction between Second and Foreign Language
2.4.4 Krashen’s Theory of Second Language Acquisition
2.4.5 Individual Differences in Foreign Language Learning
2.4.5.1 Age of Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis
2.4.5.2 Gender Differences in Second Language Acquisition
2.5 Foreign Languages Learning in Sudan
2.5.1 Sudan: Socio-linguistic Background
2.5.2 The Situation of Foreign Languages in Sudan

Chapter III - Methodology of Investigation
3.1 Research Methods of Investigation
3.2 Research Population and Samples
3.3 General Description of the Samples
3.4 Construction and Adaptation of Investigation Instruments
3.5 Reliability and Validity of the Instruments
3.6 Administration and Procedures of Data Collection
3.7 Methods of Data Analysis

Chapter IV - Research Findings

Chapter V - Discussion, Conclusions and Implications ...98
5.1 Interpretations of the Research Findings
5.1.1 Students’ Motivation and Attitudes towards the Target Language
5.1.2 Integrativeness vs. Instrumentality in Learning the Target Language
5.1.3 Gender Differences in Motivation and Attitudes towards Learning the Target Language
5.1.4 Correlation between Students’ Perceived Achievement and Motivation to Learn the Target Language
5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Implications

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

Appendix A - Summary of the Thesis

Appendix B - Zusammenfassung

Appendix C - English Version of the Items of the Motivation Scale

Appendix D - English Version of the Items of the Attitudes Scale

Appendix E - Final Version of the Motivation Scale in Arabic

Appendix F - Final Version of the Attitudes Scale in Arabic

Curriculum Vitae

Declaration

List of Tables

Table 2.1 The Distinction between Acquisition and Learning

Table 3.1 Sample Distribution According to Department and Gender

Table 3.2 Sample Description According to Study Level

Table 3.3 The Motivation Scale

Table 3.4 The Attitudes Scale

Table 3.5 Original Example of the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery

Table 4.1 Students’ Level of Motivation in Learning English and German

Table 4.2 Students’ Attitudes towards Learning English and German

Table 4.3.1 Students’ Instrumental vs. Integrative Orientation to Learn English

Table 4.3.2 Students’ Instrumental vs. Integrative Orientation to Learn German

Table 4.4 Differences in the Motivational and Attitudinal Orientations towards Learning the Target Language

Table 4.5.1 Gender Differences in Motivation and Attitudes towards English

Table 4.5.2 Gender Differences in Motivation and Attitudes towards German

Table 4.6.1.1 Correlation between Students’ Perceived Achievement and Motivation to Learn English

Table 4.6.1.2 Correlation between Students’ Perceived Achievement and Attitudes towards Learning English

Table 4.6.2.1 Correlation between Students’ Perceived Achievement and Motivation to Learn German

Table 4.6.2.2 Correlation between Students’ Perceived Achievement and Attitudes towards Learning German

List of Figures

Figure 2.1 Main Feature of the Socio-educational Model

Figure 2.2 Continuum of Self-determination

Figure 2.3 Modified Version of the Socio-educational Model .

Figure 2.4 Interaction of Attitudinal Components

Figure 2.5 The Input Hypothesis Model of L2 Learning and Production

Figure 2.6 Stern’s Framework of Second Language Learning .

Figure 4.1 The Interaction between the Target Languages and Gender Differences in Terms of the Overall Level of Motivation

Figure 4.2 The Interaction between the Target Languages and Gender Differences in Terms of Integrative Orientation

Figure 4.3 The Interaction between the Target Languages and Gender Differences in Terms of Instrumentality

List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Acknowledgement

First of all, I would very much like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Frau Prof. Dr. Evelin Witruk, for her un-begrudgingly and extraordinary support and scientific guidance during those years at the University of Leipzig. I am also grateful to my co-supervisor Prof. Dr. Claus Altmayer from Herder-Institute, for providing me with invaluable comments and constructive advice throughout this project.

I would like to acknowledge the assistance I received in the early stages of the study from Prof. Dr. Norbert Schlüter from the institute of English language, University of Leipzig. A word of gratitude should be expressed to the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), and the International University of Africa, for their generous and solid support to carry out this project. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Frau Eleonore Vetterlein, our former Dean Prof. Kamal Obeid, Dr. Ahmed Alryah Youssuf and Mr. Adam Elnour for their kind support.

The fieldwork of this investigation would not have been optimally achieved without the assistance of Mr. Osman Daifalla and Mr. Mohammed Ahmed Alnoor the head of the German department, as well as the head and secretary of the English department and staff members in both departments, in the Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum. Furthermore, I would like to express my gratitude to the students in the English and German department respectively, who had kindly participated in the research survey.

I highly appreciate the great work provided by Prof. Ali Farah, Dr. Abdelwahid Awadalla and Mr. Alshafee Albadawi for translation, back-translation and revision of the instruments. I am also particularly indebted to Prof. Pieter Seuren from Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, for his time and consideration to evaluate the current dissertation as an external reviewer. Additionally, I am very much grateful to Dr. Alex Cristia and Markus Ostarek for their kind assistance and co-operation.

Last but by no means least, I would like to extend my warmest gratitude to my father Ishag for his ongoing dedication and unconditioned support, and to my family members as well for their invaluable assistance and encouragement all along.

Bibliographische Darstellung

Adil Ishag

Motivation and Attitudes of Sudanese Students towards Learning English and German

Fakultät für Biowissenschaften, Pharmazie und Psychologie

Universität Leipzig

Dissertation

160 Seiten, 199 Literaturangaben, 9 Abbildungen, 17 Tabellen

Motivation and attitudes are considered as hypothetical psychological constructs in explaining both the process and outcome of second/foreign language learning. The taxonomy and categorization of second/foreign language motivation into integrative and instrumental motivation has long been established and dominated L2 motivation research in different educational contexts. According to Lambert (1972), Integrative motivation reflects an interest in learning another language because of a sincere and personal interest in the people and culture represented by the other language group. Instrumental motivation on the other hand, refers to the pragmatic and functional orientations in learning a foreign language. Gardner (1985) claimed that integrative motivation is the most important and predictable factor of excelling in a second language than the instrumental motivation. Nevertheless, this assumption that stresses the importance of integrative motivation over the instrumental one in predicting the level of success in learning a second language, has rather been challenged, and a set of controversial findings have been reported.

This study sought to compare and investigate the motivational and attitudinal orientations of Sudanese undergraduate students towards learning English and German; in relation to the target language in question and gender differences. In addition, it intended to examine if there would be any correlation between students’ level of motivation and attitudes, and their self-assessed achievement in the target language. The sample of this study composed of 221 students from the Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum, Sudan. 148 students from the department of English language, and 73 students from the department of German language have participated in the survey. Based on Gardner’s Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB), a survey scale has been constructed to measure students’ motivation and attitudes.

The findings of the empirical investigation revealed that Sudanese students were relatively highly motivated and had favorable attitudes towards learning English and German, respectively. In line with the established literature in the field, the results demonstrated that Sudanese students were more instrumentally motivated to learn English. On the other hand, the students in the German department had more positive attitudes towards the German community and culture in comparison to the students of the English department. Gender differences have also been identified in the department of English only; where female students had a significantly higher level of motivation and were rather more integratively motivated to learn English than their male counterparts. Finally, the study could not indicate any correlation between students’ level of motivation and attitudes, and their achievement in the target language.

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Details

Title
Motivation and Attitudes of Sudanese Students towards Learning English and German
College
University of Leipzig
Course
Psycholinguistik
Grade
Magna Cum Laude
Author
Year
2016
Pages
170
Catalog Number
V339650
ISBN (Book)
9783668300934
File size
1215 KB
Language
English
Tags
motivation, attitudes, sudanese, students, learning, english, german
Quote paper
Adil Ishag (Author), 2016, Motivation and Attitudes of Sudanese Students towards Learning English and German, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/339650

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