Table of Content
List of Figures
1.1 Starting Position
1.2 Objective and Structure
2 Cognitions of Neuromarketing
2.1 Consciousness and Subconsciousness
2.1.1 Pilot and Autopilot
2.1.2 Framing Effect
2.1.3 Priming Effect
2.2 Emotions and Motives of Decisions and Buying Behavior
2.2.1 Interaction of Emotion and Motive Systems: The Limbic® Map
2.2.2 Neurobiological Target Group Segmentation: The Limbic® Types
3 Instruments of Persuasive Webdesign
3.1 Persuasion and Mindset
3.3 Elaboration Likelihood Model
3.4 Heuristic Systematic Model
3.5 Decision Making Process
3.5.1 Process Phases of the Buying Decision
3.5.2 Influencing Factors of the Buying Decision
3.6 Fogg’s Behavior Model
3.7 Extrinsic Motivation and Flow
3.8 Persuasion by Triggers
3.8.5 Consistent Behavior
3.8.7 Social Proof
4 Applicability Analysis for Cooperative Banks
4.1 Cooperative Principles and Values
4.2 Website Objectives
4.3 Online Design Guidelines for Volksbanken Raiffeisenbanken
4.4 Application of Persuasive Webdesign Instruments
4.5 Critical Assessment
5.1 Target Achievement
List of Figures
Figure 1: The Limbic® Map
Figure 2: Fogg’s Behavior Model
Figure 3: Limbic Map Design Possibilities
The increasing requirements for the effectivity of a website and the more and more complex knowledge about human behavioral patterns are challenging the online presen- ce of banks. Nowadays, a good usability by itself is no significant basis for a decision making and the choice of a house bank. The usability is expected. Rather, the user expe- rience is an essential factor for the success of a website. Due to the fact that the human behavior is determined by unconscious patterns it is necessary to take these into consideration when concepting a website in order to develop a user-centered, target- oriented website design. By means of persuasive design it is possible to directly address these behavioral patterns. Therefore it is reasonable to optimize the user experience by the application of persuasive design methods. This shall provide a motivating experi- ence in consideration of decision making tools and motives of the user. In this way it is possible to generate competitive advantage and to gain new customers as well as to boost customer loyalty. Here, the need for emotionalization plays a particularly im- portant role. But especially in view of banking products it is difficult to create an emoti- onal presentation due to the absence of haptics and because accounts are rather a functi- onal instrument and a means to an end than a product with a high pleasure value. Cooperative banks here benefit particularly from competitive advantage. Due to the cooperative idea and their values and principles they are enabled to address (potential) customers emotionally. If values are illustrated the users have the opportunity to identi- fy themselves with those and to bring them in line with their own ideals. Working with the example of Volksbanken Raiffeisenbanken, this thesis examines measures to com- municate cooperative values via a persuasive website design in consideration of the online guidelines of the Bundesverband der Deutschen Volksbanken und Raiffeisen- banken.
1.1 Starting Position
Persuasive design is a comprehensive approach that starts in the early conception phase of a website. Here, one should seriously question what users expect, how they can be motivated and how their processes can be simplified. The website pursues increasingly complex and multilayered goals. Usability is preconditioned by the user and no longer offers a comprehensive solution design to achieve these goals. Usability fundamentally determines to what extent the aims can be reached effectively, efficiently and satisfac- torily from the user’s point of view. In order to achieve the objectives of the particular website it is important to develop the classical models to more innovative models and ideas.
Also the understanding of human behavior and motivation becomes more and more complex. The concept of the homo oeconomicus who makes decisions totally based on cost-benefit optimization is considered disproved from a current standpoint1. The hu- man behavior is mostly determined by unconscious behavioral patterns. A target group analysis provides important findings about the requirements and wants of the users but often unconscious bases of decision making remain unrecognized, although they in- fluence the buying behavior. It is therefore a need to take account of these behavioral patterns and decision making tools when concepting a website in order to create a user- centered design.
1.2 Objective and Structure
This thesis takes up the idea that human beings can be motivated and influenced in their decisions and establishes a direct link to the field of website design. It elaborates a prac- tical implementation concept for the optimization of the user experience on websites. The objective is to analyze the importance of neuroscientific findings for the website design of cooperative banks. For this purpose, strategies will be explained to motivate the users and to persuade them in their behavior. To influence the effectivity of a web- site it is necessary to describe the theoretical basics of the decision making process. In this process it will be examined to what extent emotions have an impact on the buying behavior and by which instruments and codes to make use of it. The theoretical contents will be transferred to the context of website design. This will connect psychological- scientific findings with economic-marketing-oriented strategies. Through the evaluation of persuasive design methods strategies for an optimized and effective online presence for cooperative banks will be developed.
2 Cognitions of Neuromarketing
Neuroscience is an emerging and interdisciplinary branch of science. It has established itself based on traditional brain research2 and makes use of the findings of neurobiolo- gy, neuropsychology and neurophysiology. It analyzes the structure and functions of the nervous system and the anatomy of the human brain3. Neuroscience became popular especially due to the development of the so-called imaging methods, which made it pos- sible to localize brain areas that are activated through stimuli4. In recent years, there was a significantly enhanced integration of neuroscience in different fields of social scienc- es5. Consequently, new fields of research like neuroeconomics and neuromarketing arised. Neuroeconomics emerged to an independent research field in the late 90s6. Ac- cording to Kenning, the importance and popularity of neuroeconomics has arisen only in the last 10 years7.
Relating to its contents, neuroeconomics intend to use the findings of neuroscience for economic research purposes8. The aim is to analyze the decision making process of human beings and to find out which brain processes have an impact on it9. According to Kenning, neuroeconomics make a significant contribution to the further development of economic sciences10 because theories of eoconomics often are based on assumptions that could not be proved objectively so far11.
Neuromarketing identifies the development of purchase decisions and how to influence them. It is a field of research which works with the findings of brain research and which integrates them in marketing practice12. The Pepsi and Coca Cola study in 2003 can be considered as the birth of neuromarketing. The consumption of both products without the mention of the brands showed that the consumption of Pepsi leads to a stronger ac- tivation in the brain’s reward center than Coca Cola does13. The result was a different one when the probands got to know the brand’s name during the consumption: Pepsi lost brain activation whereas Coca Cola activated further brain areas14. This study illus- trates the importance of emotions and unconscious behavior in the decision making pro- cess.
2.1 Consciousness and Subconsciousness
The greatest part of all human decisions is made imperceptibly and unconsciously. The shares of conscious and unconscious decisions are differently weighted in science due to the fact that there is no consistently definition of consciousness15. However, there is agreement in science that the unconscious decision making tops the conscious one16. According to Zaltman, 95% of all decisions made are unconscious17. Hence, 95% of all advertising measures are perceived unconsciously. In cognitive science unconscious decisions are described as implicit processes and conscious decisions are described as explicit processes. Explicit decisions are always active. They occur especially in new, complex and important choices18. The consumer intensively analyzes the decision and is able to explain and comprehend the behavior19. The implicit system influences the buy- ing behavior by an imperceptible and unconscious process20. It includes subliminal per- ceptions that are not focus of attention and moreover forgotten or displaced memories21. The high proportion of implicit processes is caused by evolution in order to enable hu- man beings to react qickly in dangerous situations22. Consequently, perceptions are put into practice without the person having to think about it. Furthermore, there are proven decision and behavioral patterns in the unconscious, which human beings automatically refer to. This makes it possible that decisions can be made within fractions of a se- cond23. In contrast, explicit processes are slow and inflexible and cause a high energy effort24. Due to this, the brain strives for automated and unconscious processes in order to avoid energy intensive thinking. Aware thinking consumes 20% of the entire energy whereas automated processes of the implicit system only consume 5%25.
A study of Carleton University in Canada from 2006 confirms the existence of uncon- scious behavioral patterns when looking at a website. The respondents were divided into two groups. The first one was allowed to take a look on the website for only half a se- cond, whereas the second group was allowed to study the website as long as they want- ed to. The results showed that the impressions of both respondent groups were nearly identic. With different test criteria there were correlations from r = 0.86 to r = 0.92. It can therefore be concluded that the first impression of a website plays a key role and that it is evaluated within only a few milliseconds. In order to reduce the effort, prede- termined categorisations, such as the halo effect, lead to a quick transfer of the overall impression to other characteristics of the website. Thereby, the consciousness gets re- lieved and less energy is spent26.
2.1.1 Pilot and Autopilot
The explicit system is described by Scheier and Held as pilot27. The implicit system is called autopilot. Within one second, eleven millions of bits reach the memory through our five senses. Only fourty bits of this information are absorbed and processed by the brain28. The other 10,999,960 bits are transferred directly in actions through the unconscious29. The human mind reflects this process as if the particular person made the decision consciously and rationally. In fact, the brain already influenced the human’s behavior before the perceived decision making process30.
The pilot contains the mental activity, rationality and language. All conscious emotions and cognitive processes are placed here31. The implicit system, the autopilot, processes the remaining 10,999,960 bits. Automated processes that influence the buying behavior and are activated via codes are placed here32. The autopilot is a self-contained system that works independent from the consciousness. Accordingly, the pilot is unable to sense the processes of the autopilot33. The behavior results from the processes of both systems. However, there is only a slight correlation between the consciously experi- enced and the implicit processes in the brain34. The own perception differentiates from what really occurs in the organism. This is important for marketing communication be- cause therefore it is necessary to address the autopilot via suitable measures35. The rea- son for the small correlation is that both systems have an impact on different brain are- as. Basically there is no area that is specifically responsible for the consciousness. Yet, the association cortex is especially involved in the development of the conscious36. It is also characterized by its strong connection to the limbic system, which is classified as the brain’s reward center37. Reversely it can be said that information that is not pro- cessed by the association cortex cannot be perceived consciously38.
2.1.2 Framing Effect
The framing effect describes the understanding that perceptions and decisions between options are strongly influenced by the type of presentation, the wording, the context or the situation39. One strategy is the price framing40. By a different frame of reference, the price perception and therefore also the decision making process can be influenced. The presentation of product in a particular surrounding can be used as well to influence the consumer’s decision. Through the framing effect it is shown that consuments are affect- ed by external circumstances in their attitude and behavior41. The framework for deci- sion making is divided into gain and loss scenarios. In a gain scenario it is suggested to the consumer that he wins something. Thus, in a loss scenario the consumer is given the feeling of losing something. If the buying behavior shall be influenced by gain or loss scenarios in the end depends on the product and circumstances. For instance, the word- ings “80% fat-free” and “20% fat” are associated in different ways. Consumers more likely decide for the first version due to the fact that it is more pleasing to renounce 80% fat than consume 20%42. Equally, the framing effect can be used on websites. Through gain scenarios such as rewards in terms of price reductions or benefits consumers can be directed to a purchase, without the possibility to be controlled by their consciousness43.
2.1.3 Priming Effect
The priming effect causes the activation of particular imaginations and thoughts by a previous stimulus44. Depending on the activation of the previous stimulus different evaluations or perceptions are made. This effect is based on the finding that particular decision making and behavioral fundamentals are connected with each other within neu- ral networks. If this network is addressed by stimuli, then those fundamentals are acti- vated and unconsciously influence the decision making process. The stimuli may appear in a variety of ways, for example through words, images or audio-visual content45. Therefore, the decision making process can be influences by the evocation of a particu- lar association.
By means of the priming effect, the consumers’ associations and behavior patterns can be influenced. The priming effect can be subdivided into semantic and affective prim- ing. The semantic priming occurs when a previous stimulus activates the unconscious information intake from the environment. The consument perceives the stimulus implic- itly. It causes associations, for example there is a faster reaction to the word “table” if the previous stimulus contained the word “chair”46. Affactive priming is equal to se- mantic priming, but here the stimulus leads to an unconscious behavioral reaction47. The person’s behavior gets manipulated without being able to perceive it. The perception, the decoding of the meaning and the activation remains implicit48. Scheier and Held proved that even a low perception level of credit card logos in the entrance area of res- taurants lead to the willingness to spend more money on the dinner49. Another example is the correlation between the background music and the purchase of wines in super- markets. The demand for French wine increases if French music is played in the back- ground50. Consequently, such methods can be used for website design and e-commerce as well51.
2.2 Emotions and Motives of Decisions and Buying Behavior
Emotions have been a part of marketing and consumer research for a long time. By means of neuroscience and especially by development of the imaging methods, this ap- proach could by physiologically proved by numerous studies and experimental proce- dures52. The concept and meaning of emotions are controversial in emotion research. A consistent definition does not exist so far53. Mau defines emotions with four characteris- tic features54. Therefore, emotions are current and temporally definable states of a par- ticular quality, intensity and duration. Furthermore emotions are aimed at an object and are consciously experienced. According to Scheibe, emotions exist when those change the subjective sense, thereby influence the behavior and as a consequence cause physio- logical arousal55. Moreover, emotions are described as complex constructs that repre- sent a person’s reaction to a personally significant and important situation56. Brain re- search provides basic findings about emotions which are relevant for the marketing.
The widespread assumption is that the left hemisphere is rational and the right one is emotional57. However, brain studies proved that both hemispheres are emotional. The reason for this is that both hemispheres are connected through innumerable nerve tracts. Those transfer the hormones and messenger substances, which are involved in the emo- tion processing, via the limbic system to the whole cerebrum58. In addition, it should be noted that, in terms of anatomy, emotional and cognitive brain areas are not separated by the hemispheres59. Consequently, both hemispheres are emotional as well as rational. In the final analysis, the entire brain operates emotionally.
The rationality of the brain consists of avoiding negative emotions and to experience as many positive emotions as possible60. The term of logic is often related to rationality, but the striving is a purely emotional process. Therefore, rationality is also an emotional construct and is no opposite of emotions61.
Based on the finding that the entire brain operates emotionally and that there are no purely rational processes it can be concluded that all decisions are made by emotions. Only by emotions a valuation of objects can exist62. According to that, objects that cause no emotions are worthless, and vice versa objects are the more valuable the more positive emotions they give63. So objects are given worth by emotions. This valuation happens unconsciously in the brain and is imperceptible to the human64. Hence, emo- tions affect the decision making process unconsciously for the most part65. According to Häusel, the percentage of emotional influence on the decision making process is be- tween 70% and 80%, whereas the remaining conscious percentage of 20% to 30% also does not completely result from free choice. Because implicit processes have a high response in the brain, emotions arise a half to one second faster and make decisions already unconsciously. In consequence, the decision is already made even before the consumer becomes aware of it66.
Emotions and motives are always regarded in one context. This is due to the different concept application of the particular research areas. In brain research emotions are men- tioned, whereas psychologists use the concept of motives67. Neuroscience showed that both systems are based on each other and are consonant68. Considering the pathway of activating processes it can be observed that emotions accompany with a target orienta- tion that finally causes motivation69. Thus, motives are connected to targets which transact the emotion systems and shall satisfy needs70. In turn, imbalances between mo- tives provoke emotions that motivate the particular person to act71. The aim of market- ing measures is to activate already existing motives of the consumers. With regard to the pathway of activating processes there can be no decision or buying behavior when there is no motivation created72. Due to the fact that motives are the result of the emo- tion systems, Häusel found that a precise knowledge of emotion systems in the human brain is the precondition to understand the customer needs and motives73. For this pur- pose, Häusel developed the so-called Limbic® approach, which represents an emotions, motives and personality model74. This approach is based on the findings of brain re- search and psychology. It provides a basic understanding of emotions and motives of the consumers and is a useful instrument for the target group identification.
2.2.1 Interaction of Emotion and Motive Systems: The Limbic® Map
The Limbic® Map is a tool to demonstrate value structures of brands and products. It illustrates the emotion systems, the submodules and the mixed forms that are the result of the core emotions and thereby shows human motives and values connected with the particular instructions75. In this way the motives of the consumers are clearly analyzed, demonstrated and correlated76.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 1: The Limbic® Map
Source: Taken from: Häusel (2012a), p. 53.
The core systems form the framework of the Limbic® Map. The circles within the map outline the submodules. The values with respect to their emotions are placed inside. The mixed forms are depicted between the actual emotion systems. They result from the independent and yet simultaneous effect of the so-called Big Three77. The combination of stimulant and dominance results in the mixed form of adventure/ thrill. The human being wants to experience adventure, which means to discover something new and to prove oneself78. The mixture of balance and stimulant results in fantasy/ pleasure. Whereas the stimulant seeks for the exploration of new delights, the balance inhibits it. This results in dreams and fantasy79. The last mixed form is discipline/ control, which arises from the balance and dominance system. Dominance causes the exercise of power and control, whereas the balance system provides security and order80.
2.2.2 Neurobiological Target Group Segmentation: The Limbic® Types
Pursuant to their emotional categorization, the so-called Limbic® Types can be identi- fied and classified with the help of the Limbic® Map as well81. The Limbic® Types are the traditionalist, the harmonizer, the open-minded, the hedonist, the adventurer, the performer and the disciplinarian. The traditionalist’s main emotion field is balance. This is why the right, pessimistic hemisphere is more active. Moreover, an increase of stress hormones can be observed82. With regard to consumption, the traditionalist prefers proven products that are low-risk and give security83. The traditionalist is price-sensitive due to the fact that high costs go hand in hand with financial risk. The harmonizer is directed by the social modules of bonding and care, which are both part of the balace system84. Harmonizers differ from traditionalists in the pronounced social modules and the increased concentration of the hormone Oxytocin, which leads to a stronger want of harmony and security, and which especially affects women85. The open-minded is influ- enced by the balance system as well as by the stimulant system. Both hemispheres show activation. The left optimistic hemisphere shows an increased enhancement of dopa- mine, which leads to strong sociability and openness. Moreover, the open-minded at- taches great importance on enjoyment and quality of life86. Also the buying behavior is characterized by an enjoyment and experience orientation. The open-minded wants to discover something new and pushes the cost aspect into the background87. The hedon- ist’s dominating system is the stimulant instruction. The striving for shrill, extravagant and individualistic objects is the prevalent characteristic of the hedonist. Quality and price play only a subordinate role, however, the demand for innovative products is high in order to stand out from the masses. The combination of stimulant and dominance shapes the type of the adventurer. Along with an increased dopamine of the left hemi- sphere there is also the male hormone testosterone that influences the neuronal activity. Consequently, the adventurer is mostly assigned to men. Through consumption of rele- vant goods the adventurer experiences fun while increasing his performance88. This may include an extreme sport or alcohol as well89. The performer is characterized by his drive to status and superiority. This is mostly due to a great concentration of testos- terone90. In spite of the activity of the left hemisphere, the concentration of dopamine is low. By the consumption of exclusive status objects and luxury goods the performer wants to stand out from others91. The disciplinarian is influenced by the dominance and balance instruction and is placed in the field of discipline/ control. The right hemisphere is more active what leads to a strong pessimism. The disciplinarian avoids changes and variety and consumes only to satisfy basic needs92. His buying behavior is economical due to the fact that he only buys products because of their functionality. The disciplinar- ian sets no great store by trends or innovations.
As mentioned above, consumers own different motives that are the outcome of the emo- tion systems. Those motives shall be activated via codes to gain in importance from the perspective of the consumer93. The precondition is that the codes trigger emotions. Codes are stimuli that transfer the messages of the products and objects unconsciously to the brain94. Through the perceptible characteristics of products the autopilot gets acti- vated. It registers and decodes the message and links it automatically to a so-called mental concept95. This means that the codes get unscrambled and are given importance. Mental concepts work implicitly and are automatically transferred into a buying behav- ior. This process is hidden to the consumers96. With regard to the emotion systems a successful code-management refers to the wants of the target group. Conversely, codes can be perceived differently and can also activate a person. The more codes get harmo- nized and transfer the same message, the stronger is the effect97. Scheier and Held dif- ferentiate four codes that offer a successful marketing communication and influence the buying behavior positively98. These include language, storytelling, symbols and sensors.
Language is an important instrument of communication to influence the cognition of consumers unconsciously. This is by reason of the connection of language and emo- tions99. The receiving of linguistic instruments happens explicitly so that the words get cognized by their meaning. However, language can also transfer signals unconsciously through implicit methods100. The autopilot decodes these signals and connects the emo- tions with the specific code. Implicit linguistic instruments are amongst others the word sound, particular keywords such as “sale” or “discount”, speech melodies or slogans101. An example of Häusel points out the unconscious implications of different word sounds102. The word “Maluma” was constrasted with the word “Takete”. Whereas the first word sounds soft, the second word was linked to associations like hardness. In rela- tion the Limbic® Map “Maluma” is on the feminine side in the area of the balace and stimulation system. “Takete” is settled in the much more masculine dominance system. This example clarifies the connection of the emotion systems with the language and shows how to activate different target groups via word sounds. Besides it should be not- ed that based on this the linguistic methods can activate different emotions. The code management has to analyze the opportunities of emotional activations and integrate those into the language103. In addition, neuroscientific research proves that the convert- ing and storage of words is carried out in different brain areas. In general images cause a higher activation of the brain - and therefore also figurative language104. On the con- trary abstract words are longer processed in the brain. Consequently they aren’t regis- tered by the autopilot105. The words that are registered fast are those with an emotional context, which therefore also trigger stronger emotions106. Besides there are studies that prove that the brain prefers short words and simple sentences and processes them quick- ly107. Finally the success of the language depends on the emotionality, the choice of picture language and keywords and its simplicity108.
Based on the finding that the human being mostly acts and decides unconsciously the communication via storytelling is an effective instrument, which functions implicitly109. Storytelling means the target-oriented adoption of stories in order to transmit the matter of the advertising message efficiently to the consumer and to influence the cognition and behavior110. The brain processes the story with internal information that is stored in the forms of patterns. These patterns may be memories or experiences111. Storytelling uses the patterns that are linked to the particular story and therefore create an individual reference to the object or the brand112. The success of this method is due to the fact that the stories access the memories of the consumers and thereby cause strong emotions113. Again, short and simple stories are more memorable for the brain and can be processed quickly114. Another factor of success is the activation of so-called mirror neurons. By the use of mirror neurons the consumer gets the feeling of being part of the story and to sense the emotions that the story transfers115. Storytelling uses this native mechanism and causes emotions unconsciously.
Communication by means of symbols proceeds via the autopilot and is therefore effi- cient116. Symbols can influence the cognition of consumers in different ways. One method is the reaction of learned symbols that transmit a specific message. An example for this is a symbol for special discount117. The precondition for the effectiveness of these symbols is that they are already learned118. If the reaction is known the symbol functions automatically in the autopilot and implicitly connects the code with its mean- ing119. This process happens quickly and automatically and thus is efficient. The out- comes of this are two significant benefits. On the one hand it is the fast transfer of the messages given. On the other hand there is the automated reaction to those. A second possibility is the use of icons. Icons are defined as symbolic images that result from personal experiences. Thereby experiences with a brand or a product can make those to a personal icon120. The advantage of icons is the individual connection of the consumer with the object.
Sensory perception differentiates between visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and haptic signals that are perceived through the sensory organs. The receptors receive those impulses121. Every object can be fragmented into its physical characteristics, which activate various mental concepts in the brain122. Those can have an effect on the person as sensory signals and influence the buying behavior. The perception is a precondition for the effect of the codes. If a signal is not perceived then it consequently can’t be processed in the autopilot123. Marketing can use this knowledge of the implicit impact of sensory codes to differentiate from competitors124.
The human receives the majority of information and signals through the eyes. The rate is between 60 and 90 percent. From this it follows that the influence of visual impulses are considered as the most reliable instrument125. Forms, motions, designs or colors are part of its area of application126. The directed and target group specific use of visual elements has an unconscious effect and initiates emotions. The eye receives the signals in terms of luminous energy. Those signals are transferred to the right hemisphere,
which converts non-linguistic and visual stimuli127. Auditory stimuli provide the inter- mediation of information through the ear. In doing so those impulses are transported via sound waves, which are perceived in terms of volume, tone pitch and tone color128. Au- ditory signals function implicitly at first until they get into the limbic system. In the limbic system they are linked to emotions and thus gain in importance. Not till then the passive hearing turns into an active listening and then finally into a conscious percep- tion129. Research results show that tones and sounds influence the opinion on the quality and value of objects130. For instance this can be observed in the automotive industry respective the sound of engines or as well in the choice of background music. Accord- ingly, unconscious emotions and reactions are caused in the brain131. Olfactory stimuli get into perception via scents and fragrances. Although visual and auditory signals are of prime importance to the human being, the fundamental benefit of scents is the fact that they rarely have a part of consciousness. Consequently they are transferred into the limbic system and turned into behavior immediately132. In addition it is found that there is an effect on the hypothalamus. Hormones that activate drives like hunger or thirst in consequence of olfactory impulses are produced here133. The percept and evaluation of a scent is possible to result in an important opinion on the specific object. Is is why scents are perceived as key information from which the whole product quality is suggested. Moreover the opinion is possible to exert influence on the estimation of another impres- sion134. This effect is called irradiation. Olfactory stimuli can be produced also in the online trade with suitable marketing communication instruments even though it is im- possible to receive chemical substances for the perception of scents. Closely related to olfactory and visual stimuli there is the flavor perception, which means the feeling and cognition during the ingestion135. Characteristics like the taste or the consistency influ- ence the percept. Those have an effect in the insula of the brain where the taste is evalu- ated136. Flavor stimuli can be influenced in their cognition by olfactory and visual sig- nals, for example the smell or color of food137. Other physical attributes are haptics.
Haptics describe the impact of perception by touching an object with the skin and accordingly hands138. Thereby, features like weight, temperature, form or consistency influence the quality evaluation139. However, merely 1,5% of all information are received through haptics. According to this visual, olfactory and flavor perception stimuli have a higher importance and influence on the buying behavior140.
Every sensory characteric of an object activates different brain areas. If several senses are addressed simultaneously, the brain connects the information parts automatically141. It is worthwhile and required that preferably all senses transfer the same message142. Consequently the neuronal activity of the so-called interneurons is increased, which is also described as multisensory enhancement143. From this it follows that stimuli are per- ceived up to ten times stronger than the sum of the single sensations would cause. In specialist literature this effect is called super additivity144. The finding that is proven by neuroscience is that the brain works multisensory and consequently it is more effective the more senses are addressed145. The brain puts all cognitions together in the limbic system where those finally are rated emotionally146. Companies have the possibility by application of the multisensory enhancement effect to successfully differentiate, to de- sign products more attractive and to influence the buying behavior. Yet it is to consider that codes are perceived in several ways and may have different meanings to different customers147. Moreover there is the risk of a stimulus satiation148.
1 Cp. Held, D., Scheier, C. (2006), p. 53 ff.
2 Cp. Taverna, N. (2013), p. 10
3 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 2
4 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 3
5 Cp. Kenning, P. (2012), p. 22
6 Cp. Schilke, O., Reimann, M. (2007), p. 249
7 Cp. Kenning, P. (2012), p. 23
8 Cp. Kenning, P. (2012), p. 22
9 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 3 f.
10 Cp. Kenning, P. (2012), p. 32
11 Cp. Taverna, N. (2013), p. 12
12 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 14
13 Cp. Pispers, R. (2013), p. 65
14 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 9
15 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 159
16 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012b), p. 23
17 Cp. Thinius, J., Untiedt, J. (2013), p. 63
18 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 101
19 Cp. Taverna, N. (2013), p. 109
20 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 127
21 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 168
22 Cp. Taverna, N. (2013), p. 109
23 Cp. Nufer, G., Wallmeier, M. (2010), p. 15
24 Cp. Taverna, N. (2013), p. 109 f.
25 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 100
26 Cp. This paragraph: Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler , M.(2009), p. 212 f.
27 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2012), p. 106
28 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 51
29 Cp. Nufer, G., Wallmeier, M. (2010), p. 15
30 Cp. Nufer, G., Wallmeier, M. (2010), p. 14
31 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 66
32 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 214
33 Cp. Nufer, G., Wallmeier, M. (2010), p. 15
34 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2012), p. 106 f
35 Cp. Esch, F. (2013), p. 34
36 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 162
37 Cp. Taverna, N. (2013), p. 111
38 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 162
39 Cp. Pispers, R. (2013), p. 95
40 Cp. Weissstein, F.L., Monroe, K.B., Kukar-Kinney, M. (2013), p. 510 f.
41 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 224
42 Cp. Pispers, R. (2013), p. 95
43 Cp. Pispers, R. (2013), p. 95
44 Cp. Schenk, M. (2007), p. 305
45 Cp. Gröppel-Klein, A., Germelmann, C.C. (2009), p. 163 ff.
46 Cp. Wentura, D., Frings, C. (2013), p. 29
47 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 223
48 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 64
49 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 63
50 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 224
51 Cp. Pispers, R. (2013), p. 96
52 Cp. Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., Paradiso, M.A. (2009), p. 632
53 Cp. Winder, T. (2006), p. 25
54 Cp. Mau, G. (2009), p. 10f
55 Cp. Scheibe, S. (2011), p. 62
56 Cp. Rost, W. (2003), p. 4
57 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 90
58 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 74
59 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 30
60 Cp. Seßler (2013), p. 26
61 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 73f
62 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012b), p. 7
63 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012d), p. 75
64 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012b), p. 23
65 Cp. Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., Paradiso, M.A. (2009), p. 635
66 Cp. Seßler, H. (2013), p. 26
67 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 35
68 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 245
69 Cp. Esch, F., Herrmann, A., Sattler, H. (2013), p. 42
70 Cp. Rost, W. (2003), p. 47
71 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 245
72 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 107
73 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 76
74 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 69
75 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 52
76 Cp. Seßler, H. (2013), p. 41
77 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 50
78 Cp. Seßler, H. (2013), p. 41
79 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 51
80 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 81
81 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 252
82 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 118
83 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 87
84 Cp. Häusel, H. (2005), p. 50
85 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 254
86 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 119)
87 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 254
88 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 120
89 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 255
90 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 256
91 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 121
92 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012c), p. 89
93 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 107
94 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 207
95 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2012), p. 28
96 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 207
97 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 229
98 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p.77 ff.
99 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p.211
100 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 77
101 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 238
102 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 210
103 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 211
104 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 212
105 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 78
106 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 239
107 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 239
108 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 214
109 Cp. Fuchs, W. (2012), p. 139
110 Cp. Pispers, R. (2013), p. 104
111 Cp Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 240
112 Cp. Fuchs, W. (2012), p. 141
113 Cp. Raab, G. Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 240
114 Cp. Fuchs, W. (2009), p. 36
115 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 79
116 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 242
117 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 83
118 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 242
119 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 85
120 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 242
121 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 9 f.
122 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2012), p. 36 ff.
123 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2012), p. 44
124 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 243
125 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 16
126 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2012), p. 48
127 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 15
128 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 22 ff.
129 Cp. Gutjahr, G. (2013), p. 178
130 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 224
131 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 26
132 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 221
133 Cp. Gutjahr, G. (2013), p. 170
134 Cp. Gutjahr, G. (2013), p. 174 ff.
135 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p.42
136 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 222
137 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 45
138 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 225
139 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 31
140 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 31
141 Cp. Lindstrom, M. (2012), p. 174
142 Cp. Scheier, C., Held, D. (2013), p. 90
143 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 226
144 Cp. Lindstrom, M. (2012), p. 182
145 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 235
146 Cp. Häusel, H. (2012a), p. 227
147 Cp. Raab, G., Gernsheimer, O., Schindler, M. (2009), p. 244
148 Cp. Steiner, P. (2011), p. 14
- Quote paper
- Anonymous, 2015, Optimization of Cooperative Banks' Websites by Application of Persuasive Methods, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/349772