Exploring secondary school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' attitudes to and perceptions of using the internet in English language teaching in Benin


Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2014
234 Pages

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1.Statement of the Problem
1.2.Purposes of the Study
1.3.Significance of the Study
1.4.Limitations to the Scope of the Study
1.5.Definition of Terms
1.5.1.EFL Teacher and Related Terms
1.5.1.1. Characteristics
1.5.1.2.Attitudes
1.5.1.3.Perception
1.5.2.Internet and Related Concepts
1.5.2.1.Level of Internet Use for Instructional Purposes
1.5.2.2.Access to the Internet
1.5.2.3.Expertise in Internet Use
1.6.Organization of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Theoretical Framework
2.1.1. Innovation
2.1.2 Technological Innovations, Information and Uncertainty
2.1.3 Technology Clusters
2.1.4 Characteristics of Innovations
2.1.5 Re-invention
2.1.6. Communication Channels
2.1.7 Time
2.1.8. Social System
2.2. Literature Review
2.2.1. Defining the term ‘‘Internet’’
2.2.1.1. Internet Applications
2.2.2. Use of the Internet in Education
2.2.3. Computer-Assisted Language Learning
2.2.4. Factors Limiting Internet Use among ESL/EFL Teachers
2.2.5. Literature in relation to the Theoretical Framework
2.2.5.1. Previous Studies conducted in America
2.2.5.2. Previous Studies conducted in the Middle East
2.2.5.3. Previous Studies conducted in Developing Countries
2.2.6. Literature in relation to Variables used in the Current Study
2.2.6.1. Teachers' Perceived Access to the Internet
2.2.6.2. Teachers' Perceived Expertise in Internet Use
2.2.6.3. Teachers' Perceptions towards the Internet as a Tool for
2.2.6.4. Selected Characteristics of EFL Teachers

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Research Design
3.2. Type of Research
3.3. Research Population
3.4. Research Instruments
3.4.1. Questionnaire
3.4.1.1. Close Questions
3.4.1.2. Open-ended Questions
3.4.2. Interviews
3.5. Data Collection and Ethical Considerations
3.5.1. Data Collection
3.5.2. Ethical Considerations
3.6. Data Analysis
3.6.1. Quantitative Data Analysis
3.6.2. Qualitative Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS OF THE STUDY
4.1. Presentation of the Results
4.1.1. Results from Questionnaire
4.1.1.1. Secondary School EFL Teachers' Personal Characteristics
4.1.1.2. Use of the Internet by Secondary School EFL Teachers
4.1.1.3. Level of Access of Secondary School EFL Teachers to the Internet and Factors Limiting their Internet Access
4.1.1.3. 1. Place of Access to the Internet
4.1.1.3. 2. Factors Limiting the Use of the Internet
4.1.1.4. Level of Expertise of EFL Teachers
4.1.1.4. 1. Computer Expertise
4.1.1.4. 2. Internet expertise
4.1.1.5. Secondary School EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Internet
4.1.1.6. Relationships between Secondary School EFL Teachers' Use of the Internet and Independent Variables
4.1.1.7. Proportion of Variance in Teachers' Use of the Internet Explained by the Independent Variables
4.1.1.8. Summary of Responses provided to Open-ended Questions of the Questionnaire
4.1.1.8.1. Importance and Uses of the Internet
4.1.1.8.2. Advantages of Using the Internet
4.1.1.8.3. Limitations of Using the Internet
4.1.1.8.3. 1 Affordability-related Responses
4.1.1.8.3. 2. Information-related Responses
4.1.1.8.3. 3 Expertise-related Responses
4.1.1.8.3. 4 Awareness and Support-related Responses
4.1.1.8.3. 5 Time and Curriculum-related Responses
4.1.1.8.3. 6 Equipment and Access-related Responses
4.1.1.8.3.7 Resistance-related Responses
4.1.2. Findings of the Interviews
4.1.2.1 Teachers' Attitudes towards the Use of the Internet for Educational Purposes
4.1.2.2 Reasons for Using the Internet in EFL Instruction
4.1.2.3 Factors Limiting the Use of the Internet in EFL Instruction
4.1.2.3.1. Internet Access
4.1.2.3.2. Internet Content
4.1.2.3.3. Student-related Limitations
4.1.2.3.4. Teacher-related Limitations
4.1.2.3.5. Institutional Limitations
4.1.2.4 Future Uses of the Internet by Secondary School EFL Teachers
4.2. Analysis of Results
4.2.1. Results of Research Question 1
4.2.2. Results of Research Question 2
4.2.3. Results of Research Question 3
4.2.4. Results of Research Question 4
4.2.5. Results of Research Question 5
4.2.6. Results of Research Question 6
4.2.7. Results of Research Question 7
4.3. Implications of the Results

CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1. Recommendations
5.1.1. Recommendations to the Government
5.1.2. Recommendations to the Teaching Professionals
5.1.3. Recommendations to Curriculum Designers
5.2. Suggestions
5.2.1. Suggestions to Teachers
5.2.2. Suggestions to Students
5.2.3. Suggestions to IT Ventures
5.2.4. Suggestions for Future Research

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX

DEDICATION

To You!

With poignant memory of what might have happened! Your names are not written here but are forever etched in my memory. Thank you because this one is over!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My sincere gratitude goes to my Supervisor, Professor Taofiki KOUMAKPAÏ, who has readily accepted to follow this work. He is inspiring and with him, dark aspects of life are simpler and more bearable

I am thankful to Associate Professor Méterwa Akayaou OURSO, my Co- supervisor, for all of his support and wisdom. I am truly fortunate to work with such a dedicated and knowledgeable lecturer who has helped me avoid a lethal mistake

I warmly thank Associate Professor Coovi Innocent DATONDJI for his in-depth reading, comments and questions which have helped me improve the quality of this work

I hereby express my heartfelt gratitude to my father, A. Valentin GNONLONFOUN, and my mother, K. Brigitte SOUROU, for their unstinting faith in me, their steadfast encouragement and invaluable financial support. I thank them manifold

I also thank Dr. Pedro Marius EGOUNLETI and Dr. Ulrich Orlando Sèna HINDEME for their insightful remarks. I am much indebted to them

I thank all my friends, especially Tanguy N. DOHOUNKPAN, J. Rodrigue KOUTON, and late E. Laetitia LOKOSSOU, members of the R7 Translation Master Committee, who have helped me throughout this work

My sincere thanks go to all those people who have contributed in various ways to the completion of this work. To each of them, I am grateful

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

illustration not visible in this excerpt

LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Tableau 1: Research Questions and Analysis Procedures

Tableau 2: Secondary School EFL Teachers ’ Characteristics

Tableau 3: Level of Use of the Internet

Tableau 4: Frequency of Internet Resource Use for Instructional, Professional, and Personal Purposes

Tableau 5: Mean Scores on the Internet Place of Access Scale

Tableau 6: Barriers to Access to the Internet

Tableau 7: Computer Expertise of Secondary School EFL Teachers

Tableau 8: Internet Expertise of Secondary School EFL Teachers

Tableau 9: Secondary School EFL Teachers' Perception of the Internet

Tableau 10: Reported Secondary School EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Internet

Tableau 11: Relationships between Independent Variables and Use of the Internet

Tableau 12: Overall Regression Model R Square

Tableau 13: Relationships of the three Variables and the Use of the Internet

Tableau 14: Regression of Level of Use of the Internet on Related Independent Variables

Figure 1: Data Analysis Spiral (Creswell, 1994)

Abstract

As one of the technologies of information and communication, the Internet has been, for some years now, the topic of much interest within the educational community. Ways of using the Internet as a medium to deliver instructional materials and to access digital libraries are reshaping education in general and language instruction in particular. This exploratory study has attempted to find out the attitudes and perceptions of secondary school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers towards the use of the internet in English Teaching in Benin. It has also set out to investigate the possible impediments for such integration in the classrooms. In this line, a review of the existing literature related to Computer-Assisted Language Learning and the internet uses and benefits for Education has been presented. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been employed to collect data on the field. A questionnaire was distributed to 500 secondary school EFL teachers during the 2012-2013 school year. The return rate of this questionnaire was 99% (N=495). This stage was followed by interviews with a random sample of 40 teachers. The results from both the quantitative and qualitative instruments of research indicated that the participants had rarely used the Internet, particularly for instructional purposes. Indeed, they reported more use of the Internet for personal than for instructional purposes. Participants had high levels of Internet use in mainstream Internet services such as e-mail and the Web. While they had positive perceptions of the use of the Internet as a pedagogical tool, they had relatively limited levels of access to and expertise with computers and the Internet. Positive correlations existed between teachers' level of use of the Internet and five independent variables, including computer and Internet expertise, place of access to the Internet, perceptions of the Internet, computer experience, and Internet experience. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only expertise, place of access, and Internet experience had a significant predictive value of teachers' use of the Internet. The results also indicated that 39% of the variance in Internet use was explained by the independent variables included in this study. To increase Internet use, secondary school EFL teachers need to be given more Internet training. In-service training needs to be a top priority, with a primary focus on using the Internet as a tool for teaching and learning. Also, based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that policy-makers maintain secondary school EFL teachers' positive perceptions of the pedagogical use of the Internet by spending more money on increasing the computer infrastructure, on improving Internet access and services, and on educating both teachers and students with respect to issues concerning the cultural appropriateness of materials available on the web.

Keywords: EFL Teachers Attitudes and Perceptions - Internet - English Language Teaching and Learning - Benin secondary school context - Problems.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

This introductory chapter deals with the overall problem which has triggered the present research. It pinpoints the purpose, the significance and the scope of the study. After the definition of some relevant concepts, the structure of the dissertation concludes this chapter.

1.1.Statement of the Problem

Since the early 1990s, there has been a growing use of the internet, an international collection of computer networks. Internet is one of the most powerful inventions in human history, with an impact on many fields: business, sciences, entertainment, etc. It has transformed these fields in the process. It has changed the way in which people communicate with one another and how they access and use information. In the field of education, it provides valuable access to communication services and information resources for millions of users especially teachers and students around the world. As such, it can then be said that the internet has created new and extraordinary instructional possibilities.

Because of its far-reaching impact on many aspects and functions of educational institutions and its potential benefits for different actors in the educational/instructional community, the internet has been the subject of much interest within this community. Schools, universities or colleges, where the academic dialogue and access to information resources such as digital databases are increasingly essential for professional success, are particularly likely to enjoy the benefits of the internet. This means that, through the internet, educators have much wider access to curricular materials, content area information and news of professional interest. Moreover, they are better able to establish and maintain contact with other colleague teachers and students across the globe through the connected computer on their desktop.

Therefore, ways of using the internet as a medium to deliver instructional materials and to access digital libraries are reshaping how schools, universities or colleges function, including the creation of e-learning schools, online schools, distance learning and virtual campuses. Indeed, web-based instruction, online courses and the use of the internet to deliver distance education are emerging together with important fields of research. Digital libraries, too, have attracted considerable interest, with many universities being inspired by the capabilities of the internet to reshape the traditional library infrastructure so as to take advantage of the many resources available from the internet.

Actually, the internet originated as a network of the U.S. government and military computer facilities back in the 1960s (Zakon, 1996; Lynch, 2002; Murray, 2008; Nichols, 2008; Hughes, 2005; Klein and Knight, 2005; Surry, and Ensminger, 2003), but it was not until the early 1990s that the wider public became aware of its importance. This perceived “newness” of the internet, together with its ever-widening reach around the world, has earned it the status of an innovation. For Rogers (1995), an innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or some other unit of adoption. Innovations can reach what is called a “critical point,” i.e. a level of use at which further adoption is considered “self-sustaining” (Katona, 1999; Rogers, 1995). In the light of its many users and many uses around the world, the internet, as an innovation, appears to have reached this critical point of adoption and diffusion.

Therefore, in the light of the internet’s vast potential for education, expectations are high up to now that it will serve as an innovation that will modify or replace conventional forms of education (e.g.: blackboards, chalk, books, etc) with possibly better means of instructional delivery and thus improve teaching and learning. Gifford (1995) summarizes these hopes as follows:

The teaching and learning architectures enabled by powerful networking and communication technologies will propel institutions to shed many constraints that are deeply embedded in the current [methods] for transferring [instruction] to students (p45).

Today, the reality of the information age as represented by the internet is no longer a new development, and computer-based technology is not the mysterious and unknown thing it was when it began. Instead, it has become a tool that many English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers use, particularly in Western countries.

The rapid growth of the internet has not escaped the attention of secondary school English language teachers in Benin. More and more secondary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language in Benin are becoming internet users.

While growing numbers of secondary school English teachers in Benin and elsewhere are turning to the internet, this does not necessarily mean that all of them are comfortable with it or use it well, or that student learning is enhanced significantly by such technology. For all the promise of the internet as a pedagogical tool, there are still some wonders with respect to its effectiveness as an instructional tool. There is also a confusing picture as to the most popular uses of the internet in the English language teaching landscape as well as secondary school teachers’ attitudes toward the internet as a pedagogical device. Up to date, there is a dearth of literature on the subject (Mubireek, 2001; Gnonlonfoun, 2009): only a limited number of studies have been conducted on the use of the internet for instructional purposes by ESL teachers, and there has even been less focus on EFL teachers.

The scarcity of the literature does not permit the creation of any firm conclusions or generalizations about the internet and English language instruction, especially in EFL contexts and particularly in Benin. Without this knowledge, it is difficult to know whether or how to proceed in the implementation of internet-based English language teaching and learning in Benin, where the interest on the internet is ever-growing. It is particularly important to understand teachers’ attitudes towards the internet and their willingness or unwillingness to use it in their classes since they (teachers) play a key role as agents of change and innovation in the world of education.

It is also important to determine which teachers among the EFL teachers in Benin are adopting the internet for the purposes of instruction and professional development and why some avoid such uses. Such information can play a role of first and foremost importance in helping EFL educators and curriculum designers diagnose and address teacher-related reservations and limitations concerning the internet and thus contribute to the creation of new possibilities for students’ English Language Learning and English teachers’ professional development.

1.2.Purposes of the Study

The problem addressed and solved in the current research is the exploration of the level of internet use for instructional purposes among secondary school EFL teachers in Benin and the different factors that may affect their attitudes toward the internet. Therefore, the major purpose of this work is to investigate the extent to which EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools use the internet for instructional reasons. This would help construct a meaningful profile of the status of the internet as an innovation in Beninese EFL instruction. It specifically aims at examining the relationships among factors identified as potentially related to internet use. Selected factors used in this study are based on Rogers’ (1995) diffusion theory and previous researches and include: (i) teachers’ perceived access to the internet, (ii) teachers’ perceived competence in internet use, (iii) teachers’ perceptions towards the internet as a tool for instructional purposes, and (iv) selected characteristics of secondary school EFL teachers in Benin.

The following are the sub-research questions:

i. What is the level of the internet use among secondary school EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools?
ii. What are selected personal characteristics of secondary school EFL teachers related to internet use in Benin?
iii. What is the level of secondary school EFL teachers’ perceived access to the internet?
iv. What are the limitations to secondary school EFL teachers’ access to the internet?
v. What is the level of these teachers’ perceived expertise in computer and internet use?
vi. What are secondary school EFL teachers’ perceptions toward the internet as a tool for instruction?
vii. What is the relationship between teachers’ level of the internet use, on the one hand, and their access to the internet, expertise in the internet use, perceptions of the internet as well as their personal characteristics, on the other hand?
viii. Which variables explain the amount of variance in the level of the internet use by EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools?

1.3.Significance of the Study

The present study is significant for several reasons.

1. Firstly, it provides valuable information concerning EFL teachers’ use of the internet in a developing country, Benin. As mentioned before, a large part of the existing and relevant research literature focuses on ESL teachers and very little is known about the use of the internet among EFL teachers, especially in sub-Saharan countries. Thus, the current study provides a much-needed window into an area of the world as far as EFL instruction is concerned.
2. Secondly, the data for the present study are about the attitudes, beliefs and other barriers that prevent Beninese secondary school EFL teachers from accepting the internet and thus integrating it into the curriculum. As such, the study is valuable to the government, school authorities, curriculum designers, teacher training instructors and teachers themselves in filling the gap between those EFL teachers who use the internet in instruction and those who do not. Particular information and insights provided by the current study may assist EFL educators and policymakers in the government in deciding whether skills and knowledge related to the internet should be introduced within the actual curriculum and, if so, how this may be accomplished.
3. Thirdly, the study sheds light on new and perhaps better approaches to language instruction using the internet as a pedagogical tool. Related to this, the findings may assist curriculum and software developers in designing appropriate tools to make EFL teaching and learning more effective in Benin.
4. Fourthly, teachers in Teacher Training Schools will draw some benefits from this study since one of their responsibilities is to equip novice teachers with appropriate knowledge of cutting-edge technology like the internet so as to enrich their future and continuous professional development. The results of this study would better prepare them to meet this responsibility by drawing their attention to the issues and limitations experienced by practicing teachers.

Last but not the least, the present study will provide insights into research on EFL teachers’ use of the internet. Therefore, it can also be considered as an addition to the existing literature.

1.4.Limitations to the Scope of the Study

As stated earlier, this study is mainly concerned with the exploration of the nature of secondary school EFL teachers’ attitudes to and perceptions of the use of the internet in English instruction in the Beninese context. The qualitative analysis might have some limitations on the scope of this dissertation for several factors:

a. One is that the research population is restricted to the in-service (full-time and part-time) EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools. Therefore, the findings of this study might not be generalized to a wider population within the country unless similar characteristics exist. Research on other EFL populations may reveal different findings within the Beninese context.
b. Another limitation of this study is related to the sample size. It should be noted that the sample size is not large enough to draw generalizable conclusions. The themes and patterns emerged in this study should be considered as hypotheses to be tested in future studies conducted with larger groups.
c. Likewise, the findings pertain only to the Beninese EFL context and cannot be generalized. Thus, another limitation is that the results will not be applicable to ESL settings and thus cannot be generalized to the creation of an overall portrait of internet use in the field of teaching English as a second language.
d. There is also a limitation that pertains to the data collection procedure. The current study may have yielded more reliable results with multiple data sources incorporating a survey questionnaire for students and classroom observations. The analysis of the data was limited since the students were neither questioned nor interviewed. Had it been possible to discover students’ perceptions of and reactions to the integration of the internet in English instruction, the study might have provided a better understanding of teachers’ perceptions on this use, as well as their eventual implementation of it in English classrooms. Using data from multiple sources would allow triangulation, and thus benefit the overall results of this study.
e. A further limitation of this study can be attributed to the subjectivity of the teachers’ points of view. It should be noted that teachers may have been subjective in their responses. Therefore, their actual practices may be dissimilar to the answers they reported in the questionnaire and the interviews.

Finally, as the investigator of the current study, my interpretation of the data gathered may diverge from what the respondents actually thought during the processes of prompting, note-taking, categorizing, and coding. Attending to some of these limitations in the study would make it possible to conduct a more reliable larger-scale study in the future time. Other aspects of limitations are addressed in the recommendations for further studies (Chapter 5).

1.5.Definition of Terms

For the clarity of meaning throughout the dissertation, the following definitions and abbreviations are applicable.

1.5.1.EFL Teacher and Related Terms

The Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2002) defines EFL as English in countries where it is taught as a subject in schools but not used as a medium of instruction in education nor as a language of communication within the country (e.g., it is not used in government, business, or industry). In other words, EFL comes from the sense that English is practiced by students only inside classrooms and rarely or not used or practiced in public by members of the society. The United States, England, and Australia are not considered as EFL settings because English is used and practiced in public (not only in classroom) for social and life needs.

A teacher is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004) as one who teaches, i.e., one whose occupation is to instruct. EFL teachers may therefore be defined as those who teach English in a setting (e.g., Benin) in which the English language is not the first (or second language) language and is not used often in daily communications.

For the purpose of this study, secondary school EFL teachers are those whose primary responsibility is to teach English as a Foreign Language to Beninese students in secondary schools. It should be noted that, unless specified otherwise, the terms “teachers”, “EFL teachers” and “secondary school EFL teachers” are used interchangeably with the same meaning.

1.5.1.1. Characteristics

A characteristic is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004) as "a distinguishing trait, quality, or property". In this study, characteristic is operationally defined as personal information about secondary school EFL teachers in Benin as was measured as such by the instruments developed for this study.

1.5.1.2.Attitudes

According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (1978:85), attitude is generally used to refer to the state of mind or feelings with regard to some matter. But for Good (1973), the term attitudes refers to the predisposition or tendency to react specifically towards an object, a situation, or a value, usually accompanied by feelings and emotions. Therefore, attitudes cannot be directly observed but must be inferred from overt behavior, both verbal and nonverbal. In this study, the term EFL teachers’ attitudes is taken to refer to the way that these teachers think and feel about the integration of the internet in English instruction, especially when this typifies their teaching behaviors. In this trend, attitude scale is a technique for measuring a person's reaction to something (Richards et. al., 1992).

As for beliefs, they refer to mental constructions of experience-often condensed and integrated into schemata or concepts that are held to be true and that guide behavior (Sigel, 1985) quoted by Pajares (1992). For this understanding, Likert Scale is a common scale to measure a person's reaction to something. With this scale a statement of belief or attitude is shown to someone, and they are asked to show how strongly they agree or disagree with the statement by making a scale (Richards et. al., 1992).

1.5.1.3.Perception

According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (1978), perception “simply refers to the process, act, or faculty of perceiving. It is also referred to as any insight, intuition, or knowledge gained by perceiving” (p.973). For the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004), it is the "result of perceiving" or a "mental image of a concept". For the purposes of this study, perception is defined as EFL teacher's beliefs regarding the use and integration of the Internet as a tool for instructional and professional purposes as was measured by the instrument developed for this study.

1.5.2.Internet and Related Concepts

The Internet is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004) as "an electronic communications network that connects computer networks and organizational computer facilities around the world". In the present study, the Internet is defined as an interactive network allowing users to have access to different functions within the system. On the Internet, information could be exchanged through several media such as electronic mail or the World Wide Web.

1.5.2.1.Level of Internet Use for Instructional Purposes

Level is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004) as a "position in a scale or rank"; use is defined as a "method or manner of employing or applying something"; and instruction is defined as "the action, practice, or profession of teaching". Level of Internet use for instructional purposes is then a position in a scale or rank of the application of electronic communications network in the practice of teaching.

In this study, level of Internet use for instructional purposes is defined as the use of Internet for lesson preparation, lesson delivery, evaluation, communication and administrative record keeping (i.e., grades, attendance) as was measured by the instrument developed for this study.

1.5.2.2.Access to the Internet

Access is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004) as "permission, liberty, or ability to enter approach, communicate with, or pass to and from"; it also may mean "freedom or ability to obtain or make use of something". Accessible is defined by the same source as having the capability of being reached (e.g., information can be accessible).

For the purpose of this study, access is defined as being physically able to use electronic communications network at home and in the office/at school. In this study, access is measured on a five-point Likert-type scale by two variables: place and limitations of access. The first one gathered data about participants' ability to gain access to use the Internet in various locations, and the second one examined factors that may limit such access.

1.5.2.3.Expertise in Internet Use

Expertise is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2004) as the "skill of an expert (having, involving, or displaying special skill or knowledge derived from training or experience)".

For the purposes of this study, expertise is operationally defined as EFL teachers' beliefs about their personal efficiency and effectiveness when using the Internet for instructional and professional purposes as was measured by the instrument developed for this study.

1.6.Organization of the Study

This dissertation is divided into six chapters. The present chapter has dealt with the statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, scope of the study, and the organization of the dissertation. Chapter II outlines a review of the literature as well as the theoretical framework relevant to this study. Chapter III encompasses the research design, the research population as well as the methods and procedures used to carry out this research. Chapter IV presents the research findings and subsequent analyses. Chapter V includes the different alternatives that can be used to cope with the stated problem. The conclusion, presented as Chapter VI, ends the study.

CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter presents the theoretical framework on which this study is based as well as an overview of the related literature. Several aspects including the concept of Internet, the use of the Internet in education, the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and related issues are discussed.

2.1. Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for this study is the diffusion of innovations theory developed by Everett M. Rogers (1995). Many researchers considered Rogers as the leader of adoption/diffusion research since he published Diffusion of Innovations in 1962 (Carr, 1999). In this book, he presented a thorough study and description of the model of diffusion of innovations, as well as an extensive review of diffusion research in the field of social sciences. Even now, Internet is still considered an innovation (Porter, 1997). According to Rogers (1995:10), diffusion of innovations is defined as "the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system". The meaning of this statement consists of complex and interrelated concepts that describe the process of change based on decision-making as it occurs in a community. In the academic community, instructors are assumed to be the major stakeholders (Siegel, 2002).

Rogers (1995:419) provides a guide for the adoption and diffusion process in relation to consequences, both internal and external to the system. He states:

a system is like a bowl of marbles: Move any one of its elements and the positions of the others are inevitably changed also.The interdependency is often not fully understood by the adopters of an innovation, and may not be comprehended by the change agents who introduce a new idea in a system.

2.1.1. Innovation

An innovation, according to Rogers (1995), is an idea, practice or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption. The person may not have yet developed favorable or unfavorable attitudes, nor adopted or rejected it. Much of Rogers' work deals with technological innovations. A technological innovation usually has at least some degree of benefit for its potential adopters, while not always very clear-cut.

Intended adopters are "seldom certain that an innovation represents a superior alternative to the previous practice that it might replace" (Rogers, 1995:13). Internet use for instructional purposes is a practice that was generally perceived as new by educational professionals because of the increased capabilities afforded by the increased Internet connectivity and refinement of information technologies (e.g., Porter, 1997). While proponents of an innovation frequently cite the beneficial aspects, there is considerable uncertainty about the actual consequences of adoption (Rogers, 1995).

2.1.2 Technological Innovations, Information and Uncertainty

Rogers (1995) sees technology as a:

Design for instrumental action that reduces the uncertainty in the cause-effect relationship involved in achieving a desired outcome. This uncertainty drives the potential adopter to seek out information, which will help to reduce the uncertainty associated with adopting or rejecting the innovation. Technology usually has two components: (a) hardware, consisting of the tool that embodies the technology as a material or physical object and (b) software, consisting of the information base for the tool (p. 12).

Related to this are two kinds of information with respect to technological innovations:

(a) software information, embodied in a technology and serving to reduce uncertainty about the cause-effect relationship in achieving a desired outcome and (b) innovation evaluation information, the reduction in uncertainty about an innovation's expected consequences (Rogers, 1995:6-12). Internet use for instructional purposes, as an innovation, contains both hardware and software components that are consistent with general computer information system models.

2.1.3 Technology Clusters

A technology cluster consists of a lot of distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being closely interrelated. Associated with the idea of technology clusters is the assumption that an adopter's experience with an innovation influences that individual's perception of the next innovation to diffuse through the individual's system (Rogers, 1995). Internet use for instructional purposes belongs to the cluster of information and communication technologies that have been adopted by people since the 1990s.

2.1.4 Characteristics of Innovations

Rogers (1995) identified five characteristics of innovations: Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Complexity, Trialability, and Observability.

Relative Advantage is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes.

Compatibility is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the past experiences, existing values, and needs of potential adopters.

Complexity is the degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand and use.

Trialability is the degree to which an innovation may be experimented on a limited basis.

Observability is the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others. All these stimulate peer discussion of a new idea (Rogers, 1995:15-16).

The characteristics of an innovation, as perceived by individuals, help to explain their different rate of adoption and are associated with the first three out of five steps in the innovation-decision process. Previous studies (Rogers, 1995: 22-23; Surry & Farquhar, 1997) indicate that the above five qualities are the most important characteristics of innovations in explaining the rate of adoption—"... the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system". As such, innovations that are perceived by individuals as having greater relative advantage, compatibility, trialability, observability, and less complexity will be adopted more rapidly than other innovations. In other words, an innovation will experience an increased rate of diffusion if potential adopters perceive that this innovation:

1) has an advantage relative to other innovations;
2) is compatible with existing practices and values;
3) is not overly complex;
4) can be tried on a limited basis before adoption; and
5) offers observable results.

An important fact to note is that perceptions count. Receivers' perceptions of the actual attributes of an innovation, not the attributes as classified by experts or change agents, affect its rate of adoption (Rogers, 1995). These attributes were reflected in varying degrees in previous studies. In the current research, they are refined to fit the scope of the study through the investigation of teachers' perceptions of Internet use as a tool for instructional purposes.

2.1.5 Re-invention

Re-invention is "the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of its adoption and implementation" (Rogers, 1995:17). This can significantly alter what some might consider a linear process. Re-invention is responsible for the major refinements that have occurred in the computer technologies in the last thirty years leading up to the increased capabilities of the Internet.

2.1.6. Communication Channels

A communication channel is "the means by which messages get from one individual to another" (Rogers, 1995:18). An example of such communication channels would be interpersonal channels (i.e., the face-to-face exchange of information), which are found to be effective in spreading new ideas among individuals, especially when those individuals have similar education, socioeconomic status, or other important features. Most adopters depend mainly upon the experience of near-peers (Rogers, 1995).

Homophily is the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes (i.e., beliefs, education, and social status). More effective communication occurs when two or more individuals are homophilous. However, one of the most distinctive problems in diffusion of innovation is that the participants are usually quite heterophilous, i.e. not similar. The very nature of diffusion demands that at least some degree of heterophily exist between the two participants (Rogers, 1995).

2.1.7 Time

Time is involved in an innovation's rate of adoption in a system, the innovation decision process, and the innovativeness of an individual. Any innovation goes through a period of slow, gradual growth before experiencing a period of relatively dramatic and rapid growth. In addition, the time element is involved in identifying the stage of the innovation-decision process and the innovativeness of the adopters. The innovation-decision process is the process through which an individual passes from knowledge of an innovation to confirmation of his/her decision. It is essentially an information seeking and information-processing activity in which the individuals and/or organizations are motivated to reduce uncertainty about the consequences of the innovation. This aspect of the theory remains among the most useful and well known (Surry & Farquhar, 1997; Adams, 2005).

The five steps of the diffusion process for individuals are knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation, and confirmation (Rogers, 1995). Many innovation-decisions are made by an organization rather than by individuals. In those cases, the decision process is more complicated because a number of individuals are involved. This process for organizations also has five steps: agenda-setting, matching, redefining/restructuring, clarifying and routinizing (Rogers, 1995).

Innovativeness is the degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than the other members of a system. Adopters are categorized based on innovativeness into five categories: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards, based on the normal adopter distribution (Rogers, 1995). On one extreme of the distribution are the innovators, the risk takers and pioneers who adopt an innovation very early in the diffusion process, and on the other end are the laggards, those who resist adopting an innovation until rather late in the diffusion process, if ever.

2.1.8. Social System

A social system is defined as "a set of interrelated units that are engaged in joint problem solving to accomplish a common goal" (Rogers, 1995: 23). It constitutes a boundary within which an innovation diffuses. Important concepts within the social system are the structure (the patterned arrangements of the units in a system), system norms (established behavior patterns for the members of a social system), opinion leadership (the degree to which an individual is able to influence other individuals' attitudes or overt behavior informally in a desired way with relative frequency) and change agents (an individual who influences clients' innovation-decisions in a direction deemed desirable by a change agency external to the system) (Rogers, 1995).

Given the role a social system can play in the diffusion of innovations, there are three types of innovation-decisions: optional innovation-decision (independent choices made by the individuals within the social system); collective innovation-decision (choices made by consensus among the members of a system); and authority innovation-decision (choices made by a relatively few individuals in a system who possess power, status or technical expertise) (Rogers, 1995).

2.2. Literature Review

As suggested in the title, this section deals with the review of previous studies related to the topic under investigation.

2.2.1. Defining the term ‘‘Internet’’

The Internet is a worldwide network of computers, which is often explained as the world's largest computer network as well as the fastest growing worldwide system. Computer network means the connection of many computers together for communication (Ciampa, 2000). Also, the Internet can be called the network of networks based on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). The Federal Networking Council (1995) agreed that the following statement reflects its definition of the term "Internet":

Internet refers to the global information system that:

(a) logically links together a global and unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions and follow-ons; (b) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP- compatible protocols; and (c) provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein (p19).

Mueller (1996:77) has defined the Internet as "an information distribution system giving anyone connected to it instant access to an immense amount of information". Krol and Ferguson (1995) describe the Internet as nothing more than a worldwide local area network, or a worldwide extension of a computer hard disk, although the technology used to connect all local area networks into one whole is complicated. According to Krol and Ferguson, the idea that the Internet is a connection of networks means little to the end user who wants to do something useful, such as, run a program or access some unique information. They further state that the basic concept of the Internet is a vast collection of libraries of information, all available online for retrieval and use. In short, the Internet might be considered as a collection of people who act as resources themselves, and who are willing to share their knowledge with the world.

2.2.1.1. Internet Applications

Maddison (1983:13-14) in Finnegan (1988:9-10) makes the following perceptive statement:

Ineluctably, the advent of microprocessors and information technology have the most profound and far-reaching consequences [ … ]. The view that we are witnessing a truly profound and pervasive change in our society is now so widely held and the evidence for it is so unequivocal that it seems justifiable to speak of revolution.

This revolution began bearing fruit in the early 1980’s, just as personal computers were made available to, and became affordable to, individuals, and ushered in the dawn of computer-mediated communication which supports this statement.

The mid 20th century saw the invention of the computer. In the 1960’s, computer networks were designed and implemented with the intention of facilitating the transfer of information between computers (Herring, 1996). Unbeknown to its inventors, this networking would become the foremost medium used for human-to- human interaction by millions of people around the world by the end of the century. As personal computers became more accessible and affordable to the public, more and more people came into contact with the Internet, “an association of computer networks with common standards which enable messages to be sent from any central computer (or host) on the network to any host on any other” (Crystal, 2004:66).

According to the Internet World Stats (2012 accessed online www.internetworldstats.com on December 23rd, 2012), the estimated number of Internet users all over the world was approximately 2,5 billion by 30 June 2012. The Internet offers its users services for searching, retrieving, and exchanging digital files. Researchers (Krol and Ferguson, 1995; Cady and McGregor, 1995; Adeya, 2001; Alamhaboub, 2000) have agreed that the Internet consists of electronic mail (Email) applications, file transfer, databases and file search, and the World Wide Web.

E-mail stands for electronic mail. It involves the “use of computer systems to transfer messages between users” (Crystal, 2004:67), which is a very diverse form of communication that comprises personal and institutional messages of differing lengths and with different purposes. In his book, Crystal (2001) attempts to explain the uniqueness of email. In some ways, an email is like a quick letter or memo, but it is also like a phone call, in that it is a blend of talking and writing. Ultimately, email is unique and like no other communication utilized by mankind before. Baron (2000:248) sees email as a component which lies at one end of the spectrum of computer-mediated communication, since it ’ s primarily used for one-on- one message exchange between people who know each other ’ s identity. Email is informal compared with traditional writing, helping to develop a level of conversational playing field and encouraging personal disclosure, which can even become emotional.

The traditional letter has, in some ways, begun sharing some of its responsibilities with emails, which are now used in much the same way as letters were. One can send a Curriculum Vitae or job application via emails. Important letter exchanges between employee and employer take place via email, even bills and other important notifications can be sent and received using email (Crystal, 2001:126).

Email is the most frequently accessed Internet application used as a communication medium (Engst, 1994; Wang & Cohen, 1998; Allesi and Trollip, 2001; Anderson and Kanuka, 2003; Arias and Clark, 2007; Arias and Dickelman, 2005; Babbie, 2007). It was developed during the 1970's and early 1980's, but it was limited to scientific, scholarly, and educational uses (Lasarenko, 1997). According to Engst (1994), email serves four types of telecommunication needs: one-to-one communication, distribution list (one-to-many), listservs (many-to-many), and auto reply (information request).

Hauptman (1998) states that email is beneficial for education and research use because of its cost-effectiveness as a means of communication among administrators, faculty/teachers and students where a vast quantity of information can easily be exchanged. Lasarenko (1997) contends that email is an important tool for educational purposes, such as electronic peer review, collaborative projects, journal subscription, social construction of knowledge in action learning communities, and research.

Several studies (Dayton, 2006; Baia, 2009; Baltaci Goktalay and Huguet, 2008; Donner, 2007) have shown broad email adoption among faculty members and students in higher education. For example, Voorbij (1999) has reported that electronic mail is the most important and most frequently used Internet application by faculty members and students in his random sample of 1,000 members of the academic community of the Netherlands. He stated further that more than 80% of the Internet users in his study used electronic mail at least weekly. Also, Fusayil (2000) mentioned that 95.2% of Ohio University faculty members used email on a daily basis, 3% used it on a weekly basis, and only 0.6% could be considered non-adopters.

Email is one of the basic components of the Internet that eventually influenced ESL and EFL learning, and it is very widely used by ESL/EFL students and teachers. ESL/EFL teachers have been using email in their classes for more than a decade (Warschauer, 1995b). Learners of all proficiency levels use e-mail communication for many purposes in ESL/EFL classes. Many teachers in colleges' writing classes have used e-mail discussion groups within their classes to give learners various opportunities for authentic written interactions with other learners or with native speakers of the target language (Gonglewski & et al, 2001). In addition, e-mail group communication such as bulletin boards, newsgroups that allow messages to be threaded, allow more opportunities for students to focus their discussions in more creative and useful ways.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) enables the user to upload or download files from a remote computer. Although this application is an old Internet application, it is still used by scholars and educators. Krol and Ferguson (1995) have reported two reasons for its continued use: first, users' familiarity and, second, its compatibility with today's common web browsers. On the other hand, Wang and Cohen (1998) claim that FTP is rated as the least used Internet application in comparison with other applications like email.

Another Internet application related to electronic mail is the automated e-mail distribution system often called "Listserv". A listserv program facilitates electronic distribution of electronic mail for communicating with other people who have subscribed to the same list. Using e-mail, a person can participate in listserv related to his/her topics of interest. When he/she submits a message to the server, the message is relayed to all those on the listserv. A participant receives messages from other participants via e-mail. Many colleges and departments in higher education and educational organizations have their own Listserv. On a listserv, educators from all over the world can engage in scholarly discussions about specific areas of research problems or particular fields of study. This has evolved and is nowadays known as Internet Relay Chat or chatrooms.

Chatrooms are “continuous discussions on a particular topic, organized in ‘ rooms ’ at particular Internet sites, in which computer users interested in the topic can participate” (Crystal, 2004:67). Actually, Chatting is a powerful tool for educators to exchange ideas and discuss educational issues, although the majority has not yet totally realized its importance, especially for ESL/EFL learners (Pellettieri, 2000). Unlike asynchronous communication in which participants are not existing in the same time (e.g., e-mail), chatting is a synchronous communication in that participants occur or exist at the same time on the Internet or having the same period or phase (Shetzer & Warschauer, 2000). Synchronic chatting can be carried out in a text-based format for more reliable access. However, nowadays audio and video chatting can be used effectively if there is enough bandwidth (Al-Fulih, 2002). Unlike the Listserv and discussion boards, synchronous chatting requires participants to be online at the same time.

The World Wide Web (WWW), the fastest growing information service, has only been a part of the Internet since 1990 (Zhang, 1999; Del Favero and Hinson, 2007; Becker, 2001; Brzycki and Dudt, 2005; Carr, 2006). The WWW is sparking a revolution in the way humans think about the dissemination of ideas in the information age (Robin, Keeler & Miller, 1997). The WWW is already starting to transform academic practices, and its impact on education seems to be revolutionary. It can be used as a library, publishing house, communication device, and interactive media (radio/TV) (Warschauer & Healey, 1998). It has integrated almost all existing technology applications into a Web browser, combining text, graphic, sound, video, and much more to present a variety of ever-changing materials in one set (Krol & Ferguson, 1995). Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are examples of web browsers that come in combined information packages.

Many search engines (Yahoo, Google, Mozilla Firefox, etc) include a browser, email, newsgroup, Web editor, and real time audio and data collaboration (Zhang, 1999). According to Netscape (2003), the integration of all these applications in one product allows users to easily and effectively communicate, share and access information on the Internet. Microsoft Internet Explorer has gone further by integrating computer applications like word processing and spreadsheet into a web browser. This integration is web-based, in which application are stored on a web server and users have to log on to use them. That has shifted user culture from applications buyers to applications subscribers (Al-Fulih, 2002). As Warschauer and Healey (1998) noted, the WWW is also considered the most recent medium of computer-mediated communication (CMC) used in the second and foreign language learning.

2.2.2. Use of the Internet in Education

The educational community is increasingly focusing its attention on the potential of the Internet as a communication tool, research tool, and instructional tool (Fusayil, 2000). The Internet is currently considered as the preferred technology to improve instruction, increase access to research, and raise productivity in higher education (Baer, 1998). Gilbert (1996) stated that Internet applications such as the WWW and email are bringing computing into instruction in a way similar to when word processing became commonly used for personal use by students and faculty members in the 1980s in the United States.

Faculty members are increasingly adopting Internet applications for academic purposes. Wang and Cohen (1998) conducted a study on the use of the Internet by university faculty in a public university in the United States and found that they were aware of the role of the Internet in their professional development and mostly used it for teaching and research. Osborn and Fields (1996) pointed out that Internet communication applications such as electronic mail are widely used in educational settings. Gabriner and Mery (1998) in one of their survey of faculty computer use reported that there has been a strong trend towards the adoption of Internet applications by faculty in comparison to their previous results.

Kenneth Green, of The Campus Computing Project, the largest continuing study of the role of information technology in American higher education, has documented how, for many years (See Green, 1999, 2001 and 2002), the use of computers for teaching was confined to a tiny minority of faculty. Green (1999) reported that in American higher education 44.4% of classes use email, 33.1% use Internet resources as syllabus components, and 45.1% of undergraduates and 51.6% of faculty members use the Internet at least once a day. In the last few years, however, those percentages have been growing sharply (Green, 2004) in that half of faculty uses all Internet applications and more than 76% use email alone. In their study on the use of the Internet by university faculty, Wang and Cohen (1998) found that 85% of them used email, 55% used the WWW, and 48% used Gopher, which is a widely successful method of making menu of materials available over the Internet. In another study about the adoption of the Internet by Ohio University faculty members, it was found that 98.8% use the Internet (Fusayil, 2000).

From all the preceding, it can be concluded that the Internet seems to be an effective medium to deliver instructional materials. Web-Based Instruction (WBI) and Web-Based Training (WBT) often in the form of webinars are emerging fields of study to supplement face-to-face lectures and other classroom activities (Al-Fulih, 2002). Common use of the Internet in college level includes, but is not limited to: uploading course syllabus; creating hyper-links to useful course materials and supplementary readings; exchanging electronic documents and engaging in student-to- student or student-to-teacher discussions by email; and using discussion boards and listservs to support collaborative learning environments. Further, the Internet allows whole courses to be delivered via cyberspace using a number of different programs such as WebCT.

Therefore, the Internet has the potential to improve learning and teaching in a number of different ways. Just as the Internet has increased workers' productivity in business, it could reduce teaching costs as well. Also it could be more time efficient as it increases the speed by which instructional materials are delivered. Owen and Liles (1998) pointed out that the Internet's potential for improving effectiveness and efficiency is not limited to most educational institutions. Its ability to allow for access to information and knowledge across the world (Bjorke, 2006; Cuban, Kirkpatrick and Peck, 2001; Bjorke, 2006; Cuban, Kirkpatrick and Peck, 2001), to enhance communication between colleagues, and to provide a new teaching medium for student-centered learning (Clausen, Britten, and Ring, 2008; Gnonlonfoun, 2009; Ellsworth, 2000; Bryant, 2000) can assist educators in numerous ways.

2.2.3. Computer-Assisted Language Learning

Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is that branch of computerassisted instruction (CAI) applying computer technology to language learning and teaching. Warschauer and Healey (1998) described three distinctive stages in CALL's history: behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL.

CALL's first phase, behavioristic CALL, developed through the 1950s and was implemented in the 1960s and 1970s. Behaviorism was the basis for the pedagogical approach applied in the field during that period. For example, language drills and practice activities were widely utilized using mainframe computers.

Two decades later, the second phase, communicative CALL, emerged. This period occurred around the time when personal computers permeated the market (in the late 1970s and early 1980s). Here, the focus of instruction was on the communicative activities of language, meaning rather than form, implicit rather than explicit grammar teaching, and the generation of sentences rather than the imitation of ready-to-use language.

The third phase, integrative CALL, emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The pedagogical approach associated with CALL's third stage is based on the sociocultural theory. It aims to fully integrate technology in the teaching of all language skills, focusing on task-based, project-based, and content-based approaches to create authentic social environments for learners (Warschauer & Healey, 1998). Multimedia computers and the Internet seem to be the most advanced tools used in CALL at its third phase. Warschauer (1996) notes that multimedia computers help students to access text, graphic, sound, animation, and video, which allows for the integration of all four language skills. Nevertheless, their impact on language teaching is not yet felt, because teachers lack sufficient knowledge to develop their own programs and most commercial programs are poor in quality. The Internet seems to be the new technology that can overcome most of these disadvantages (Warschauer, 1996). This might be a starting point for a new phase of CALL, the rise of a 4th phase.

With regard to the lack of knowledge necessary to make full use of a technology, Norton and Wiburg (1998) define three stages in integrating technology into the curriculum successfully. The first stage involves the adoption of the innovation in a manner that does not threaten a culture. For instance, using computers as a function of "edutainment", that is an entertaining computer-aided form of learning, is typical of first stage users. When the innovation is merged with older technologies to make more efficient use of a standard skill, users enter the second stage. Keeping an electronic grade book and using word processors as typewriters are typical examples. The third stage of technological integration involves the use of innovations that grow out of the innovation itself (Norton & Wiburg, 1998; Durrington, Repman and Valente, 2000; Dwyer, Ringstaff, and Sandholtz, 1991; Ensminger and Surry, 2002). This can be in the form of holding students responsible for generating reading quizzes, developing discussions via e-mail, and the construction of collaborative web sites.

2.2.4. Factors Limiting Internet Use among ESL/EFL Teachers

Like computers, the Internet is a technology that has recently occupied a distinguished position in the educational arena. However, there are many studies that have identified a number of factors which limit ESL/EFL teachers from using computers and the Internet in instruction. For example, Debski (2000) found, in his study, that those teachers who were offered the chance to join an innovative computerenhanced project, did so for reasons ranging from pressure to use computers in their courses to the opportunity to learn new technical skills.

Other factors seen as facilitating teacher computer use are past experience of technology use, perception of the usefulness of technology for teaching, and overcoming technology-related anxiety (Keengwe, Onchwari and Wachira, 2008; Marx, 2005; Liao and Lu, 2008; Girod and Gavanaugh, 2001; Fillion et al., 2009; Knezek, Chiristensen, & Rice, 1996; Gnonlonfoun, 2009). Reed et al (1995) assert that attending a computer course can positively change language teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet, giving them more confidence and convincing them of its importance as a valuable teaching tool. Fisher (1999) found that teachers' attitudes were strongly related to their success in using technology, emphasizing the importance of prior experience with technology. Similarly, Lam (2000) notes that teacher confidence is significant and adds that other factors affecting teachers' decisions of whether or not to use computers include the usefulness of technology for job performance and its ease of use. Yil-dirim (2000) found that the current uses of the technology in schools and having a computer at home may also influence teachers' computer use. Therefore, teachers' attitudes towards technology can both support and inhibit the use of technology in the classroom.

ESL/EFL teachers and practitioners are prevented from using technology in a number of ways. These include time limitations both outside and during class (Lam, 2000; Levy, 1997a; Reed et al, 1995; Smerdon et al., 2000; Strudler et al, 1995; Gnonlonfoun, 2009); lack of materials and resources (Loehr, 1996; Smerdon et al, 2000; Isaacs, 2007; Harris, 2008; Keengwe, 2007; Kalanda and De Villiers, 2008; Butler and Sellbom, 2002); insufficient guidelines, standards, and curricula (Langone et al., 1998); lack of leadership (Smerdon et al., 2000; Rajesh, 2003; Oncu, Delialioglu and Brown, 2008; Rashid and Gloeckner, 2008; Nur-Awaleh and Mtegha, 2005; ); lack of support or appreciation for integrating computers (Grau, 1996; Strudler, McKinney & Jones, 1999); a clash between new technologies at universities and older ones in schools; and the need for technical support and training (Abdal-Haqq, 1995; Lam, 2000; Langone et al., 1998; Levy, 1997a; Smerdon et al., 2000; Gnonlonfoun, 2009).

Among other factors that appeared to influence technology use are age, gender, and teaching experience. However, it is not clear to what extent these variables are related to teacher use of technology (Lam, 2000). Levy (1997a) also suggests that rapid changes in technology can constitute a barrier to technology use. This suggestion has also been made by Pennington (2004), who found that outdated hardware and software and the need to use newer technologies also affect teachers' decisions of adoption of computers and the Internet in instruction.

In addition, Lam (2000) found that forcing teachers to implement technology in instruction may cause avoidance and resistance. He also found that the lack of perceived legitimacy of the computer as a useful educational tool has an influence on teacher adoption of the technology. Similarly, Cuban (1986, 1996) noted that technology advocates have ignored realities of the classroom environment. He also stated that "innovations for solving productivity problems defined by non-teachers invariably were mandated into use by district policy makers, not teachers" (1986:54). He went further by stating that views of teaching and organizational compliance ill- fitted to schools and classrooms and married to feckless strategies aimed at coercing teachers to use the innovation explain limited use of [this technology ] (1986:56).

Nevertheless, it is important to mention that some ESL/EFL teachers implement technology in spite of the barriers mentioned above. Reed et al. (1995) found that "those able to overcome some of these hindrances included teachers who had had prior experience with computing" (p. 2). Therefore, it seems that there is a relationship between teachers' prior technological experience and technology implementation in instruction. Also, Egbert et al (2002) mentioned that teachers who use technology in their teaching are those more likely to have more teaching experience.

2.2.5. Literature in relation to the Theoretical Framework

Rogers (1995) discussed the importance of contexts in examining a social system as a factor influencing the rate of adoption. One thing to note about adoption research is that while Rogers' work is highly regarded and often used, some researchers use other theories in addition to, or instead of, his diffusion of innovations theory (e.g., Sherry et al., 2000; Blankenship, 1998). Also, while many researchers have studied the diffusion of Internet technologies in education, very few have studied the Internet use in general or in instruction in the context of secondary schools in Benin. The following studies are among those which present contexts related to this study. But I need to specify that most (if not all) of them relate to university context and not secondary schools. This is due, in part, to the dearth of literature related to the secondary school.

2.2.5.1. Previous Studies conducted in America

Most of the studies concerning technology adoption in education have been carried out in developed countries and more specifically in Europe and the UnitedStates of America.

In effect, Flood (2002) conducted a study to explore factors impacting faculty implementation of educational technologies within teaching/learning exchanges at The Ohio State University (OSU). The study examined six dimensions: faculty characteristics (personal, professional, and educational technologies), attitudes and beliefs, access and support, reinforcement and recognition, awareness and interest, and use as well as the relationships between these dimensions. The researcher found that personal characteristics of race and tenure were valuable in predicting the frequency of the implementation of educational technologies. In addition, the majority of faculty members believed that educational technologies provide potential for enhancing student learning, beneficial means for engaging students, and a stimulus for student problem solving. About 75% of the respondents reported that they did not receive any support and training opportunities or sufficient infrastructure for supporting technology-based teaching. Also, faculty reported that there were no existing incentives for teaching with technology. Finally, awareness and interest were found to be the most valuable predictors for the use of educational technologies within the teaching/learning exchange.

Using Rogers' model of diffusion of innovations, Porter (1997) carried out a study to describe the level of use of the Internet by The OSU Extension educators, and the relationships between their level of use of Internet and selected factors. She found that Extension educators rarely or occasionally used the Internet, although 94% of them had Internet access at work and 47% had access at home. Also, participants were somewhat proficient with the Internet, and they were most proficient at e-mail with a relatively positive perception of the Internet. The data also showed significant substantial associations for home access, computer literacy and proficiency, and Internet literacy. A very strong association existed between Internet proficiency and perception of the Internet. Internet proficiency, home access, and perception of the Internet were factors that most explained the unique variance in Internet use. The study concluded that Extension educators needed more information and training on the use of the Internet. The researcher suggested a number of motives for educators to use the Internet, such as rewards and offering them job announcements.

Likewise, Katona (1999) used the diffusion framework to carry out a study to describe the level of use of electronic communications by administrative office professionals and to investigate the relationships between the level of use of electronic communications and selected environmental and personal factors. The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about Ohio members of the International Association of Administrative Professionals (n = 312). The study found that 90% of participants use electronic communications at work, and most have access to email, an intranet, and the World Wide Web. Confirming Porter's (1997) results above, participants were not fully utilizing the resources that electronic communications offer because they lacked the knowledge and skill to use a wider range of electronic communications components. They also acknowledged the need for formal training for success in raising their level of electronic communications use. The researcher, as well as many others (e.g., Almusalam, 2001; Flood, 2002; Porter, 1997; Gander, 2003; Higgins and Spitulnik, 2008; Eteokleous, 2008; Fulford, Main-Anakalea and Boulay, 2008; Ensminger and Surry, 2008), suggested that Organizations should encourage professionals to attend technology training inside and outside the organization by offering them rewards and tuition reimbursement.

Mubireek (2001) conducted a study to examine ESL teachers' adoption of the Internet at The Ohio State University. He employed both quantitative and qualitative research methods (questionnaire and interviews). He found that ESL teachers at OSU were most proficient with e-mail and the World Wide Web; they had a generally positive perception of the Internet; they had to function as computer instructors as well as English instructors; and were limited in their use of the Internet in instruction because their insufficient access to the Internet in the classroom and lack of time available for technology training. Mubireek (2001) called for the need for further Internet diffusion research in similar language settings (e.g., EFL).

Blankenship's (1998) study was centered on 241 teachers in public schools in Carroll County, Virginia. The study employed qualitative and quantitative methods grounded in three areas of research: school change, diffusion of innovations and behavioral psychology. Blankenship used diffusion of innovations (1995) theory as a model for studying diffusion of innovations in order to understand the diffusion of the use of computers in the classroom. The selected factors—related to Rogers' theory and defined by the literature review—included attitude, access, training, support, age, grade level, gender, and number of years before retirement. The major finding of the study was that training was the most common predictor of adoption, followed by attitude, support, access, and age of teacher. The study verified Rogers' variables as determinants to the rate of adoption, and goes further by ranking them in terms of commonality.

On his part, Hoerup (2001) used qualitative research methods to investigate Virginia's Stewart County school division in Diffusion of an innovation: Computer technology integration and the role of collaboration. She used Rogers' theory as an analytical tool in looking at the integration of technology, the characteristics of adopters, and the relation of collaboration to the process. Selected factors investigated included collaboration, interaction with change agent, and innovativeness. The study revealed that the success of innovation depends mostly on the innovativeness of the individual adopter.

Jacobsen (1998) used diffusion of innovations theory by Rogers' (1995) as the framework in studying adoption patterns and characteristics of seventy-six faculty members from two large North American universities, who integrate computer technology for teaching and learning in higher education. Her study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the differences between early adopter and mainstream faculty in their patterns of computer technology use, computer experience, generalized self-efficacy, participant information, changes to teaching and learning, incentives to integrate technology, barriers to integrating technology, learning about technology, methods for using and integrating technology, and evaluating the outcomes of using technology. Jacobsen's results showed differences between the two groups in both computer expertise and total adoption. These results were expected and used to define the groups. She noted that computer expertise was the most important determinant factor of adoption. She further noted some other findings: that the groups preferred different methods for learning about technology, different types of support and training, and different motivators and impediments to integrating computer technology. Jacobsen (1998) concluded that colleague-supported training was a viable way to encourage diffusion of computer technologies.

Another study by Fusayil (2000) investigated to what extent and how faculty members of an American University use the Internet in their work. Utilizing quantitative and qualitative tools, the study found that 98.8% of faculty members use e-mail and 86.8% use Web. There were no differences in the use of the Internet for research, communication, and instruction by discipline or by years of teaching experience. There were significant differences in the use of the Internet for research. Main campus faculty used the Internet more for research than regional campus faculty. Results from interviews supported the survey results with regard to the use of the Internet by faculty members. Also, interview data revealed some benefits and barriers of using the Internet by faculty members. The benefits were divided into three categories: better communication with colleagues and students, ease of use, and ability to work anytime and anyplace. On the other hand, the barriers were: time, availability and access, and training. Technical support was not considered a problem. The researcher’s recommendations included: incentives and training for faculty members, and increased access to the Internet in classrooms.

Albejadi (2000), on his part, examined selected factors related to Internet adoption by some American public school teachers. While the results showed that there was a low level of use by the participants, significant relationships did exist between the level of use and Internet access, teachers' attitudes towards the value of the Internet for classroom activities and teachers' Internet proficiency.

Also using Rogers' (1995) model, Isleem (2003) carried out a study to determine the level of computer use for instructional purposes by technology education teachers. The study also investigated the relationships between the level of use expertise, access, attitude, support, and teacher characteristics. The findings indicated that technology education teachers had high levels of computer use in mainstream computer uses such as word processing, e-mail, Internet, and classroom management. Also, positive correlations existed between the level of computer use and teachers' perceived expertise, teachers' perceived attitude towards computers as tools, and teachers' perceived access to computers. Multiple regression analysis indicated that independent variables that explain the greatest amount of variation in the level of computer use were teachers' perceived expertise, attitude, and access. The researcher recommended that teachers need to be given more training to increase their computer use.

2.2.5.2. Previous Studies conducted in the Middle East

The Middle East is also another region where there is a growing integration and use of ICT especially the internet in instruction. Some studies have been carried out there too.

Albirini (2004) used Rogers's (1995) model and Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Model of Reasoned Action theories to investigate the attitudes of EFL teachers in Syrian high schools towards information and communication technology (ICT) in education and to explore the relationship of teachers' attitudes with variables including computer attributes, cultural perceptions, computer competence, computer access, and demographic variables. The researcher employed both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data on the population of EFL teachers in the city of Hims during the 2003-2004 school year (N=887). A random sample of 326 teachers was surveyed, and 15 teachers were interviewed. His results indicated that participants in his study had positive attitudes towards ICT in education. Although the teachers in this study had positive perceptions of the attributes of computers, they were relatively neutral about the cultural relevance of ICT to Syrian society and schools.

The teachers also reported low levels of computer competence, access, and training. He also found that significant positive correlations existed between teachers' attitudes towards ICT and five independent variables, including computer attributes, cultural perceptions, computer competence, computer access, and computer training. His results indicated that 58% of the variance in computer attitude was explained by the independent variables included in the study. The researcher recommended that Syrian policy-makers maintain teachers' positive attitudes towards ICT, offer them more training opportunities, and take steps to solve the teachers' concerns about the culturally improper material on the web. I am of the opinion that this is a serious issue and will remain so as long as African countries are dependent on those who produce the materials.

Also, based on Rogers' model for the diffusion of an innovation, Al-Fulih (2002) conducted a study to determine Rogers' attributes of the Internet as perceived by Saudi faculty members for academic purposes and how their perception can be used to predict their adoption of the Internet to enhance their scholarly work. He surveyed 453 faculty members at three selected Saudi universities. He found that only five out of the eight independent variables, namely relative advantage, image, compatibility, ease of use, and visibility were significant predictors for the adoption of the Internet. His data showed that using the Internet as a new innovation in Saudi universities is still in the stage of early majority adopters and in the period of rapid growth. The study further identified a number of barriers to adopting the Internet applications for academic purposes among Saudi faculty members. The study found that these barriers included availability of Internet access, quality of access, negative attitudes about the Internet, administrative support, age, English language, Internet and computer experience, fear and computer phobia, firewalls, cost, security, time, and insufficient infrastructure barriers. Based on these barriers, the researcher suggested that the diffusion process of the Internet among Saudi faculty can be grouped into three levels of responsibility: individual duty, organizational duty, and governmental duty.

Al-Kahtani (2001) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods to describe the state of CALL in EFL departments of four universities in Saudi Arabia. Although faculty members' attitudes towards the use of CALL in EFL instruction were positive, the study revealed that: (a) schools' instructional equipment was obsolete and of limited utility; (b) the majority of EFL faculty did not have adequate access to instructional equipment, computers, software, or the Internet; (c) institutional support for using CALL was very limited; (d) word processing, e-mail, and the World Wide Web were the three most frequently utilized technologies in EFL instruction; (e) social factors affecting the use of CALL were linked to cultural and religious attitudes held by EFL faculty, administrators, and students. The study concluded that the use of computer resources by EFL faculty at the four universities was very limited and superficial, and the computing and networking facilities that were available were insufficient for supporting state-of-the-art CALL software.

Similarly, Allehaibi (2001) conducted a study attempting to determine the pattern of Internet use by faculty members, answer specific questions about attributes that were associated with the Internet diffusion in Saudi Arabian universities, and identify faculty members' concerns about the Internet technology. He found that the majority of respondents (74.6%) were using Internet technology. Later adopters of the Internet (within two years or less from the data collection date) represented 68.6% compared to 31.4% of the respondents reported using the Internet for more than two years. Confirming Al-Kahtani (2001) and Al-Fulih's (2002) results above, Allehaibi (2001) also indicated that the diffusion of Internet technology among faculty members in Saudi universities is at an early stage.

Another study (Amaraee, 2003) was conducted to describe the level of computer and Internet integration into mathematics teachers' programs in colleges of education in Saudi Arabia and to investigate the need for such integration in those programs. Amaraee's (2003) data was gathered from students and professors at three colleges of education in Saudi Arabia via a questionnaire and interviews. Results of the study indicated that student-teachers use the computer and the Internet for preparatory and administrative tasks, for communication, to be able to assign their students work, to integrate the computer and the Internet into their teaching in the future, and to overcome barriers that may hinder them from accessing and using computers and the Internet in instruction. In addition, all participants acknowledged the need for technology courses to prepare teachers to use it in their classes all over the Kingdom.

As to Almogbel (2002), he carried out a study to explore the attitudes and perceived contributions of faculty, students, and administrators in the colleges of technology in Saudi Arabia about distance education. The researcher surveyed all faculty, students and administrators in various departments of Abha Technical College. The study concluded that the faculty, along with students and administrators, agreed that an investment in distance education would benefit the College. About three- fourths of faculty agreed that there was a need for distance education for some courses offered at the technical colleges. They also showed a greater comfort level with technology than the other students and administrators, but they all showed no fear of technology. All participants agreed that the Internet was the best way to deliver distance education to students.

Similarly, Almusalam (2001) used Rogers' diffusion theory in his study of the use of computer technologies for professional tasks by business and administration teachers in Saudi Arabian technical colleges. His study examined the level of computer use and the relationship between the level of computer use and teachers' perceptions of computer technologies, teachers' perceived proficiency with computer technologies, administrative support for teachers using computer technologies, colleague support for teachers using computer technologies, and perceived access to computer technologies. He found that there was a low level of use of computer technologies within professional tasks by the participants. Also, he found that proficiency with computer technologies, administrative support for teachers wanting to use computer technologies, and the teachers' previous experience with computers were influential factors in the low level of technology integration.

Al-Abdulmenem (2000) conducted a study on the effects of using the Internet as an educational tool in the colleges of technology in Saudi Arabia. The study intended to find out what are the uses of the Internet for instruction in colleges of technology and the barriers that limit the use of the Internet in these settings. Participants included faculty members, administrators, and students at three main colleges Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam. All participants agreed that the Internet is useful as a tool for learning and research, for communication, for increasing their knowledge and learning skills, and for exchanging information and culture from all over the world easily and quickly. Also, participants identified the following limitations to the use of the Internet in instruction: (1) Internet cost; (2) slow connection; (3) unorganized and unreasonable management of content by the government; (4) inappropriate content; (5) insufficient Internet infrastructures; (6) insufficient number of computers, computer labs, and access to the Internet; (7) time limitation; (8) insufficient number of techno-experts; (9) inappropriate use of the Internet; (10) and lack of resources and support. The researcher suggested the need for further research in this dynamic setting to explore and solve such limitations from hindering the use of the Internet for instruction.

2.2.5.3. Previous Studies conducted in Developing Countries

Developing countries (also called Third World, Least Developed Countries, etc.) are those countries that are economically underdeveloped (Perkins, 2003). They are characterized by high birth rates, poverty and reliance on worthy countries. Developing countries comprise countries of Asia, Africa, Oceania and Latin America. These countries generally have weak human resources, low per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and low economic diversification levels among other things (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2001). Of the 49 least developed countries, about 35 are African countries among which Benin.

Developing countries such as Benin are struggling to get their people out of poverty (Arias & Clark, 2004). Education is considered as the best way to solve the problems related to poverty. Even so, developing countries are facing immense problems in areas of education and training. This is against the backdrop of monumental world population growth placing a lot of pressure on teacher training demands as well as infrastructure (Arias & Clark, 2004). According to Arias and Clark (2004), the implementation of instructional technology initiatives seems to respond to some of these problems.

Despite possibilities of benefiting from the technology advancement, many developing countries have not derived the necessary gains from these information and communications technologies (ICTs). Many developing countries lack the economy, infrastructure, and expertise needed to introduce and to take advantage of ICT (Adeya, 2001). Schachter, Pence, Zuckernick and Roberts (2005), concur with Adeya (2001) and other researchers (Wood et.al., 2008. Yates, 2004; Surry, Ensminger and Haab, 2005; Surry, Ensminger and Jones, 2003; Yi, Fiedler and Park, 2006) by remarking that the main hindrances facing African education system are lack of infrastructure, lack of networking, high telephone and internet costs, limited expertise and skills, lack of enabling national policies and dishonesty of many political leaders and/or senior civil servants supposed to bring about the changes needed.

Statistics show that developing countries are still lagging far behind in terms of accessibility to computers and the Internet (Donner, 2007). In 2002, the number of people with Internet facilities was close to a world total of 99 per 1000. In developed countries, 450 people per 1000 had access to the Internet but in developing countries only 2.8 persons per 1000 had internet access (Arias & Clark, 2004). Although introducing and implementing technology initiatives in a developing country is difficult (Arias & Clark, 2007; Donner,2007; Obuobi, Adrion, & Watts; 2006; Rajesh, 2003), education leaders and practitioners throughout the developing world are increasingly integrating Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) into the process of teaching and learning to improve access to education (Arias & Dickelman, 2005; Fowler, 2002; Greenhalgh et al., 2005;), or to implement educational reform (Farrell, Isaacs and Trucano, 2007; Brush et al., 2003; Ensminger et al., 2004; Farrell and Isaacs, 2007).

Among the challenges associated with the implementation of technology in developing countries, social factors (Kadzera, 2006; Fichman, 2000; Jensen, 2007), economic factors (Nisan-Nelson, 2001; Sandholtz et al., 2000; Schachter et al., 2005; Schnitman, 2008; Sherry et al., 2000; Surry, 2002; Surry and Ely, 2002; Surry and Ensminger, 2001 and 2002), cultural factors as well as technological factors stand out (Arias & Clark, 2007; Rajesh, 2003; ). These challenges are felt by policy makers as well as the implementers (Rajesh, 2003; Zayim, Yildirim and Saka, 2006; Gulbahar, 2007; Intaganok et al., 2008; Nawawi et al., 2005; Obuobi, Adrion and Watts, 2006; Russ-Eft and Preskill, 2001; Sahin and Thompson, 2007; Schibeci et al., 2008; Sultan and Chan, 2000). Rajesh (2003) identifies three major categories of the challenges in the application of new information and communication technology: people, software and hardware. Of these three factors, the human aspect is deemed the most difficult to address. Surry and Farquhar (1996) concur with this notion when they write: “the design, development, adoption, utilization, and diffusion of technology are inherently social processes” (p. 61). Therefore, social factors influence the development, implementation, and spread of technology (Segal, 1994; Surry & Farquhar, 1996).

Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations theory highlights the significance of social factors in technology adoption.

2.2.6. Literature in relation to Variables used in the Current Study

The only dependent variable of the present study was the perceived level of Internet use for instructional purposes among secondary school EFL teachers. The literature shows that the following variables have some correlations with the internet use by EFL teachers in Benin context.

2.2.6.1. Teachers' Perceived Access to the Internet

Access to the Internet has been found to be systematically related to the Internet use. The importance of having convenient access to the Internet was supported by a number of studies. Blankenship (1998) found that access was the second most significant factor related to the use of computers in the classroom. Albejadi (2000), Almusalam (2001), and Porter (1997) found access to have a significant relationship with the low level of use of the Internet. Similarly, Fusayil (2000) reported that access was one of the barriers that affected faculty members' use of the Internet and computer technologies. Also, Mubireek (2001) found a statistically significant moderate, positive relationship between access to the Internet at home and use of the Internet by ESL teachers.

In his discussion of important characteristics, Rogers (1995) went beyond access to an innovation and discussed trialability and observability. For an innovation to be readily adopted, it must afford experimental use and observable results. The cost of buying, maintaining and updating computer equipment and computer programs presents significant problems in the field of education where budgets are often restricted (Fusayil, 2000). In the United States, for example, providing access to computer technologies in education has received numerous initiatives from the federal government during the last two administrations. The U.S. Department of Education (2002b:487) reported:

There has been widespread introduction of computers into the schools in recent years. In 2000, the average public school contained 110 computers... The proportion of instructional rooms with Internet access increased from 51 percent in 1998 to 77 percent in 2000. About 98 percent of schools had access to the Internet in 2000.

However, access was more than the simple availability of computers. Access also involved connectivity and up-to-date software, as well as classroom layouts that allow for wiring and computer desks (Almusalam, 2001). According to Heaviside, Riggins & Farris (1997); proper access requires that computers and peripherals are located where everyone has access to them as needed. They also noted that limited locations from which teachers can access the technologies are a barrier to teacher use and they limit the ways Internet can be used for instructional purposes. This factor, teachers' perceived access to computers, includes information on EFL teachers' view of access to the Internet for instructional purposes, which will be analyzed in relation to their level of adoption.

2.2.6.2. Teachers' Perceived Expertise in Internet Use

According to Rogers (1995), the knowledge stage of the innovation-decision process occurs when the potential adopter not only learns of the innovation's existence, but also understands how it functions. Almusalam (2001) and Mubireek (2001) termed this understanding of how an innovation functions as "proficiency". Technology has redefined and expanded the knowledge and proficiencies needed by teachers today— educators must not only master the concepts and principles of their specific subject areas, but also acquire the experiences and proficiencies necessary to utilize modern technology (Hoyt, 1997): this necessity ranks among the main components of their professional growth.

Blankenship (1998) included expertise in his exploration of training by asking the participants in the survey to classify their computer expertise. His study revealed that training was the selected factor most significantly related to the use of computers in the classroom by primary school teachers. Almusalam's (2001) study supported the importance of proficiency or expertise; it showed the highest correlation to computer adoption by Saudi Arabian business education teachers. Also, Mubireek (2001) found that Internet proficiency was an important factor related to ESL teachers' adoption of the Internet.

Jacobsen's (1998) study revealed:

EAs (early adopters) report higher levels of expertise than MF (mainstream faculty) for 38 (86%) of the 44 types of computer software and tools, and earlier use in teaching for 27 of the 44 measured types of instructional technology (p. 163).

In addition,

Findings comparing faculty expertise with the year that faculty first used the software or tool in their teaching indicate that faculty tend to develop a level of personal expertise with a particular computer technology before attempting to integrate it into their teaching (p. 69).

This factor, EFL teachers' perceived expertise in Internet use, included information on teachers' view of the relative advantage, compatibility and complexity of Internet for instructional purposes, which will be analyzed in relation to their level of adoption.

2.2.6.3. Teachers' Perceptions towards the Internet as Tool for Instructional Purposes

Rogers (1995) wrote that if innovation diffusion is to occur, the innovation must be perceived as having a relative advantage, that is, of being better than the practice it replaces. For example, if Internet use is to be adopted by EFL teachers, then the teachers must have perceived the innovation as having some relative advantage. Exposure to an innovation will have little effect if an individual does not perceive the innovation as relevant to the individual's needs and as being consistent with the individual's attitudes and beliefs (Jacobsen, 1998). Thus, the exposure of EFL teachers to the Internet for instructional purposes would be of little value if teachers themselves did not perceive the technologies as being of value in teaching (Almusalam, 2001).

Blankenship (1998) revealed perceptions to be the factor second most related to computer use in the classroom as did Albejadi (2000), who found teachers' perceptions towards the value of the Internet for classroom activities to have a significant relationship with the low level of use. Also, Mubireek (2001) found that ESL teachers' perceptions towards using the Internet to be positive and was the second factor to affect ESL teachers' use of the Internet. This factor, EFL teachers' perceptions towards the Internet for instructional purposes, includes information on EFL teachers' view of the relative advantage and compatibility of computers for instructional purposes, which will be analyzed in relation to their level of adoption.

2.2.6.4. Selected Characteristics of EFL Teachers

As mentioned earlier, Rogers (1995) identified common characteristics of individuals and related them to adopter categories. Blankenship (1998) included age in his selected characteristics of teachers and found that it was the most significant characteristic. Al-Fulih (2002) reported that his study's quantitative and qualitative data showed age as an influential factor in Internet adoption for instruction. He reported that Internet users tended to be younger; older faculty members usually face serious difficulties in integrating the Internet in instruction than younger ones.

Jacobsen (1998) confirmed the existence of adopter categories in the use of computer technology in education and then stratified her analysis to further examine participant information (characteristics) in relation to all other variables. Hoerup's (2001) major finding that successful adoption of an innovation depends mostly on the innovativeness (determined by adopter category) of individual adopters provided further evidence that insight into innovativeness of adopters is needed. Almusalam (2001) found that the most positive characteristics of business education teachers were highest academic degree attained and experience using computers. This factor, selected characteristics of EFL teachers, includes information on teachers' demographics, and provides the opportunity to study the relationships between the teachers' characteristics and their perceptions of using the Internet.

In summary, this chapter grounded the current study within the related literature to address the need for this study. The purpose of the study was to understand the use of the Internet by secondary school EFL teachers in Benin, especially for instructional purposes. In addition, the study explored the relationships between secondary school EFL teachers' use of the Internet and selected factors regarded by research to influence that use. This chapter started by presenting the framework of the study through a summary of Rogers' model. It is followed by related literature. This encompasses an attempt to define the concept of the Internet, information about its history and spread. After that, the impact and influence of the Internet innovation in education was discussed. Last but not the least were presented previous studies in relation to the theoretical framework, adoption of technologies and variables employed in the present study.

The major limitation of the literature is that it presents studies carried out in ESL contexts at university level in developed countries only. In Africa, especially in Benin, there is a dearth of studies related to the use of internet. In addition, the review shows that there are but a few studies carried out to investigate the use of the internet

in secondary school EFL teaching and learning. Up to date, there has been no study aiming at exploring teachers’ perceptions on the use of the internet in classrooms. All these are some of the gaps that the present study will contribute to fill.

In the following chapter, I present the methodology used for data collection.

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter outlines the overall research design employed in this study. It includes a discussion of the basic research design, participants, data collection methods, validation issues, data analysis strategy, and ethical consideration.

3.1. Research Design

For White (2002), Research design is the set of procedures for conducting a study, including when, from whom, and under what conditions the data will be obtained. In other words, research design indicates how the research is set up: what will happen to the subjects and what methods of data collection are used. In the same trend, Leedy and Ormrod (2001) describe research design as the complete strategy of attack on the central research problem. It provides the overall structure for the procedures that the researcher follows, the data that the researcher collects, and the data analyses that the researcher conducts. Simply put, research design is research planning (p. 12).

They add that researchers are more efficient and effective if they identify their resources, procedures and data with the central goal of solving the research problem in mind, particularly at the beginning of the research problem.

Basically, two broad designs underpin research methodology, namely quantitative and qualitative research methods. Qualitative research is descriptive in contrast to the experimental or correlative designs used in quantitative research. For Merriam (1998:3), qualitative research is an effort to understand situations in their uniqueness as part of a particular context and the interactions there. It is not necessarily attempting to predict what may happen in the future, but to understand the nature of that setting, what it means for participants to be in that setting, what their lives are like, what is going on for them, what their meanings are, what the world looks like in that particular setting - and in the analysis, to be able to communicate that faithfully to others who are interested in that setting.

Merriam claims that a qualitative research is “often used interchangeably with naturalistic enquiry, interpretative research, field study, participant observation, inductive research, ethnography, and case study” (p.4).

For the purpose of the present research, a case study is employed.

- What is a case study?

Gillham (2002) points out that a case may be the smallest part of human activity embedded in the real world; which can only be studied or understood in a context; which exists here and now; that merges in with its context so that precise boundaries are difficult to draw. As for Welman and Kruger (2002), in a case study, a limited number of units of analysis, often only one, such as an individual, a group/a country (family, class, EFL students, EFL teachers, Benin), an institution (a school or a community) are studied intensively. A case study seeks to answer specific research questions.

Yin (1989) states that in a case study the researcher explores a single entity or phenomenon, which is the case, bound by time and activity, that is process, teachers, students or social groups and collects detailed information by using a variety of data- collection processes over a defined period of time. For Leedy and Ormrod (2001), in a case study, “a particular place, individual, program, or event is studied in depth for a

defined period of time” (p. 45). For Swanepoel et al. (2000), the choice of methods and data sources depend partly on the nature of the problem and the purpose of the investigation. To maximise richness and accuracy of data, I have studied the case of EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools.

To sum up, case studies are then an excellent method to use when endeavouring to understand a phenomenon being studied in depth. They allow the researcher to become familiar with the data in its natural setting and fully appreciate the context.

In this study, I have used a descriptive qualitative research method to accomplish the objectives of the study and to predict the level of Internet use by EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools. Descriptive research is appropriate when a problem does not lend itself to controlled inquiry and experimentation (Best and Kahn, 1993), as was the case at the beginning of this study in Benin. Hence, because the Internet as a teaching tool is in an early stage as an innovation in the context of Benin, descriptive data are particularly appropriate. Descriptive statistical techniques (frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation) are used to describe the level of Internet use with respect to two major selected factors: attitudes and perceptions, which will bring me to consider factors such as access, expertise, perceptions, and teacher characteristics. Multiple regression analysis is used to explain the degree to which the variables are predictive of the level of Internet use.

3.2. Type of Research

I have decided to conduct primary research which, as defined by Brown (1988:2), derives from the primary source of information. In the case of my study, this source is made of the group of 500 EFL teachers working in Beninese secondary schools. However, I have to admit that I have consulted and referred to secondary research (research based on sources removed from the original source, such as books or other studies on the issue at stake). These constitute the core of the previous chapter.

In addition, the primary research conducted falls into the category of the ‘statistical studies’ which mainly deal with group phenomena or individual behavior in an effort to focus on the specified group’s opinion and attitudes concerning the research question. This further distinction of research is called a ‘survey study’.

3.3. Research Population

The present study makes use of 500 EFL teachers chosen randomly from 24 secondary schools selected throughout the country (See the list of Schools in Appendix 4). Two schools were selected per department. All the schools possessed the institutional characteristics necessary for this study, such as the size of the available research population (EFL teachers) and the geographical distribution. Regarding the size of the research population, the schools selected are among the largest in their respective areas. Thus, they constitute the largest concentration of the desired population. Another important reason for their selection was that these schools represent different geographical zones in Benin as mentioned before. This helped to ensure that the conditions present in one location did not dominate the study and limit the effectiveness of the results. An updated list of all EFL teachers within each secondary school during the 2012-2013 academic year was obtained from the authorities in each selected school. Selection error was controlled by avoiding duplication of names on the list.

3.4. Research Instruments

As described earlier, a questionnaire (for quantitative data) and interviews (for qualitative data) were used to gather data to investigate the purpose of the study.

3.4.1. Questionnaire

A questionnaire is an instrument with open-ended and/or closed questions or statements to which a respondent must respond. White (2002) states that the questionnaire is the most widely used technique for data collection because it

- is relatively economical,
- has the same questions for all subjects,
- can ensure anonymity,
- contains questions written for specific purposes and
- allows participants to respond to something written.

Babbie (1995) (in McMillan, 2004) provides the following guidelines for writing effective questions or statements:

(a) Make items clear. An item achieves clarity when all participants can interpret it the same way.
(b) Avoid double-barrel questions. A question should be limited to a single idea or concept.
(c) Participants must be competent to answer the questions. It is important that participants are able to provide reliable information.
(d) Questions should be relevant. Irrelevant questions make participants respond carelessly and the result could be misleading.
(e) Simple items are best. Long and complicated items should be avoided because they are difficult to understand, and participants may be unwilling to try to understand them.
(f) Avoid negative items. Negatively stated items are easy to misinterpret.
(g) Avoid biased items or terms. The way in which items are worded, or the inclusion of certain terms, may encourage particular responses more than others.

3.4.1.1. Close Questions

Close questions permit only certain responses and data analysis can be carried out easily and effectively (White, 2002). I used close questions where the answer categories were expected to be discrete, distinct, and relatively few.

According to White (2002) closed questions have both advantages and disadvantages. As far as advantages are concerned:

-The answers are standard, and can be compared from person to person.
-The answers are much easier to code and to analyse.
-The respondent is often clearer about the meaning of the question.
-The chances of irrelevant answers are limited to the minimum.
-It is easier for participants to answer because they only have to choose a category. As to disadvantages:
-It is easier for participants who do not know the answer to respond randomly, or to choose the ‘Don’t know’ category.
-Participants may feel frustrated because the appropriate category for their answer is not provided.
-There are greater chances for clerical error as participants may circle a three when they meant a two.

3.4.1.2. Open-ended Questions

Open-ended questions allow the respondent to express feelings and to expand on ideas. They are used for complex questions that cannot be answered in a few simple categories but require more details. In open-ended questions, participants respond as they wish in their own words. White (2002) outlines the following advantages of open-ended questions:

-They are used when the researcher would like to see what the participants view as appropriate.
-They allow the respondent to answer adequately, in all the detail they like, and to clarify their answers.
- They allow more opportunity for creativity or self-expression by the participants.

White (2002) also lists the following disadvantages of open-ended questions:
- They may lead to the collection of worthless and irrelevant information.
- Data is not standardized from person to person, making comparison difficult.
- Open-ended questions require good writing skills, better ability to express one’s feelings verbally, and generally a higher educational level than do close-ended questions.
- Open-ended questions generally require much more of a respondent’s time.
- They require more paper and let the questionnaire look longer, possibly discouraging participants who do not wish to answer a lengthy questionnaire.

In short, questionnaires are interesting for their ability to gather a large amount of information about the target population in a timely and processable manner (Dornyei, 2003). The suggestions from White (2002) were observed when compiling the questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire were based on the theoretical framework and the literature review (presented in Chapter 2).

The questionnaire used in this study consisted of five sections:

- Section one (with 03 questions) examined EFL teachers' use of the Internet under three domains of use, namely for instructional, professional and personal purposes by asking the participants the same questions under each domain of use. The questions represented the Internet services which are most likely essential to properly use the Internet, and they were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Very Often).
- Section two (including 03 questions) had two sub-sections to measure the level of access to the Internet. Section one had five items representing the places where most likely participants would have access to the Internet (home, office, classroom, computer lab, and Cybercafé). The second section consisted of items that represented factors that were believed to limit teachers' Internet access. All twelve questions were also measured on a five-point Likert-type scale from 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Very Often).
- Section three (with 02 questions) required participants to provide information about their perceived computer and Internet expertise. It contained questions that were designed to gather data about the participants' level of Internet expertise, including computers, using a five-point Likert- type scale also from 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Expert).
- Section four included 24 statements designed to determine participants' perceptions of the Internet as a tool for instructional purposes. Also, here a fivepoint Likert-type scale was employed ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree).
- The last is Section five (with 10 questions) which focused on gathering personal information about the participants, such as age, income, and level of education. Each participant was given a questionnaire and requested to be open, frank and honest when responding to the questions.

3.4.2. Interviews

An interview is an interaction between an interviewer and a respondent in which the interview has a general plan of inquiry but not a specific set of questions that must be asked in particular words and in a particular order (Babbie and Mouton, 2002). It is essentially a conversation in which the interviewer establishes a general direction for the conversation and peruses specific topics raised by the participants. Ideally, the respondent does most of the talking.

Interviews can yield a great deal of useful information. For Leedy and Ormrod (2001), the researcher can use the interview to ask questions related to facts, people’s beliefs, feelings, motives, present and past behaviors, standards for behaviors and conscious reasons for actions or feelings. According to Tuckman (1972), an interview provides access to what is inside a person ’ s head, makes it possible to measure what a person knows, i.e. his/her knowledge or information, what a person likes or dislikes, i.e. his/her values and preferences, and what a person thinks, that is his/her attitudes and beliefs (p56).

To reach the purposes assigned to the present study, a standardized open-ended interview strategy was used in which participants were asked the same guided interview questions. This type of interview, as explained by Fraenkel & Wallen (2000:511), was appropriate for this study because generally it assists the researcher to compare responses of participants, retrieves complete data about each participant, reduces interviewer effects and bias, and facilitates organization and analysis of the data. For the present study, interviews were conducted with a subset of 40 participants randomly selected from those who answered the questionnaire. Interviewees were asked three questions to gather qualitative data about their positive perceptions of the use of the Internet in instruction and the barriers that limit such use.

3.5. Data Collection and Ethical Considerations

This section presents data collection procedures as well as ethical considerations.

3.5.1. Data Collection

This study used quantitative as well as qualitative data collection methods. As some researchers (Rudestam & Newton, 1992) recommend, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies is sometimes better than using either methodology alone. Data collection procedures took place during the 2012-2013 academic years.

Before data collection, the researcher established prior contacts with authorities in the different schools. In addition, a main contact person (a close friend, a teacher or administrator who worked at the same school or area) was assigned to be in charge of all communications between people of authority and participants on the one hand and the researcher on the other hand. Furthermore, information was gathered via personal contacts about EFL teachers including names, phone numbers, and e-mails (when available). A cover letter (See Appendix 5) was sent to school authorities in each school where participants were selected.

The data were collected in two stages. In stage one, the questionnaire was administered to the 500 participants following Dillman's (1978, in Cresswell, 1994) recommendations: a cover letter, two letters of informed consent, and a return envelope accompanied the questionnaire.

The combination of these strategies resulted into a response rate of 99% (495 questionnaires were returned). That response rate (99%) is consistent since a response rate in the nineties percentage range is considered an excellent rate (Altschuld et al, 1992). Further support for the value of the response rate in this study can be found in

Borg and Gall (1989), Katona (1999), and Kerlinger (1979), who also note the value of a study with a response rate as high as the one achieved in this study. Furthermore, Standard 4-4-1 of the US National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) states that only surveys with a response rate of less than 85 percent must be evaluated for the impact of non-response bias before any data analysis conducted (NCES, 2005). Since the overall return rate for this study was 99%, it is likely that the results of the study may be, to some extent, generalized to the population of all EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools.

In stage two, a random sample of 40 teachers were interviewed. During the first contact (from 23rd April to 10th May 2013), the researcher reintroduced himself and his research topic, explained the purpose of the interview, requested participation in the interview, and set up appointments for the interviews (Glesne & Peshkin, 1992). The second contact (from 20th May to 30th June) was dedicated to the interviews themselves. All interviews lasted between 15-20 minutes, and all were audiotaped and coded later. The interviewees were asked three basic questions:

1. Do you advocate the use of the Internet for educational purposes?
2. Which factors, if any, do you think limit your adoption/use of the Internet in EFL instruction?
3. How do you think EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools can make appropriate adoption of the Internet for EFL instruction?

3.5.2. Ethical Considerations

In this part, I indicate the ethical considerations on which my field work was based. These include:

- Confidentiality

Confidentiality was assured to all participants. Names of participants were disguised wherever necessary to be disclosed.

- Access

The researcher sought to find school authorities in order to facilitate access. When the principals have consented, permission has been sought to address a staff meeting or any other official gathering to explain the research.

- Consent

Consent has been obtained from all selected participants in writing (see Consent form in Appendix 6). Each participant received a letter outlining the research and two consent forms: one for their records and the other that the researcher will keep.

- Validation of the study

Yin (1989) described the necessity for the creation of case study designs which provide construct validity and reliability. Construct validity deals with the use of instruments and measures that accurately operationalize the constructs of interest in a study. Because most instruments and measures are not necessarily as accurate as desired, common strategy is to use multiple measures of the same construct as part of the same study.

As far as White (2002) is concerned, validity means that the researcher’s conclusion is true or correct - that it corresponds to reality. Irrespective of the form research takes or the ends to which it is directed, the researcher wants the research to be valid - that is, to possess validity. He goes further by specifying that validity involves two concepts simultaneously, namely internal and external validity. Internal validity is the extent to which the results can be accurately interpreted and external validity is the extent to which the results can be generalized to populations. White (2002) describes internal validity as “the degree to which the design of an experiment controls irrelevant variables” (p. 51), and external validity concerns whether the results of the research can be generalized to another situation: population, different subjects, settings, times, and occasions.

In this study, validity was respected by the constitution of a panel of experts. This panel was selected to establish face and content validity of the instruments of this study. It consisted of eleven (11) individuals (Statisticians, IT Experts and TEFL Specialists) who had experience in various fields related to the instruments. Feedback from the panel of experts was used to make modifications and clarifications where necessary and appropriate.

In addition, due to the technical computer and Internet terminology used in the questionnaire, face and content validity of different items were field-tested (pilot study) by 50 secondary school EFL teachers to measure appropriate readability, comprehensibility, and clarity of the instrument for non-technical individuals. A few minor changes were made to account for novice participants before conducting the pilot study.

Based on the results of this study, a number of other changes were made to the different sections of the questionnaire in order to increase their reliability in the main study. The changes included adding five items to the Use of the Internet Scale, adding four to the Access Scale, deleting five from the Expertise Scale, and modifying three items in the Perceptions Scale.

Validity was also respected through the findings which ensured that the meaning and interpretations of events or experiences were sound and valid i.e. the conclusion was true and correct, and corresponded to the reality.

Here, my first concern was the factual accuracy of the data report. This means that I made sure I was not making up or distorting what I heard and gathered. I was concerned with providing a valid compilation of the data collected through my instruments. Validity deals with questions like: “do I really get what I think I should get?” and “do I really derive the meanings and implications that I think I should derive?” Validity, then, is the degree to which the interpretations and concepts had mutual meanings between the participants and the researcher.

- Avoidance of Duplication of Other Works

I have taken all care to ensure that this study is not an exact duplicate of any other. Literature searches have been carried out during the course of the research and constantly compared to this study to determine any occurrences of duplication. It is thought that this would be highly unlikely, given the Beninese context of this study and its development of theory only at the local level.

3.6. Data Analysis

During the data analysis process, the researcher begins with a large body of information and must, through reasoning, sort it out, categorize and gradually narrow it down to small sets of abstract, underlying themes.

For White (2002), data analysis is primarily a process of organizing the data into categories and identifying patterns and relationships among the categories.

Analysis is a systematic process of selecting, categorizing, comparing, synthesizing and interpreting data to provide explanations of the phenomenon of interest.

3.6.1. Quantitative Data Analysis

In this study, quantitative data (derived from the questionnaire) were analyzed using PASW 12.0 for Windows 7 and reported using appropriate measures and procedures. The following table shows the research questions in relation to statistical methods that were used to answer them.

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Tableau 1: Research Questions and Analysis Procedures

Means, standard deviations, range, frequency counts, and percentages were used to describe teachers' level of use of the Internet, personal characteristics, teachers' access to the Internet and factors limiting that access, computer and Internet expertise, teacher's perceptions. To describe relationships, Gay and Airasian's (2000) recommendations were followed, in which correlations (using Pearson, Point bi-serial, and Eta) were first performed to identify independent variables that individually correlate with the level of use of the Internet. These variables were used in the multiple regression equation to make a more accurate prediction of the dependent variable and to show the proportion of variance in the dependent variable explained by the selected independent variables.

3.6.2. Qualitative Data Analysis

Leedy and Ormrod (2001) emphasize that there is usually no single “right” way to analyze the data in a qualitative study. On his part, Cresswell (1994) describes data analysis as a spiral that is equally applicable to a variety of studies:

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Figure 1: Data Analysis Spiral (Creswell, 1994)

In this study, using the spiral approach, I went through the data several times, taking the following steps:

(a) Organize data. I broke large bodies of data down to small units and individual elements.
(b) Read through to gain an overall picture. I perused the entire data several times to get a sense of the whole. In the process, I jotted down notes that suggested possible interpretations.
(c) Identify categories or themes. I identified general categories or themes, and then classified data accordingly.
(d) Summarize the data. At this stage, all interviews were examined. Relevant quotations were grouped with their related codes. To ensure the anonymity of the respondents, pseudonyms were used to identify individual respondents.

In conclusion, this chapter dealt with the methodological framework. Data collection involved two procedures: questionnaire and interviews. The data analysis employed descriptive statistics for quantitative data and appropriate qualitative analysis methods for interviews.

The following chapter deals with the presentation of the results of the investigation and subsequent analyses.

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS OF THE STUDY

To make an orderly presentation of results, the present chapter is divided into three sections: Section one deals with the presentation of both the quantitative and qualitative results of this study while section two encompasses the analyses of these results in relation to the research questions. Section three presents the different implications that have been derived from the two preceding sections.

4.1. Presentation of the Results

This section is divided into two sub-sections: Section one is about the results of the questionnaire while section two outlines a summary of the answers to the interview questions.

4.1.1. Results from Questionnaire

Part one of this section begins with information about the teachers' personal characteristics. The second part presents descriptive statistics concerning the teachers' perceived level of use of the Internet. The third part presents descriptive statistics regarding teachers' perceived access to the Internet. The fourth part presents descriptive statistics related to teachers' perceived expertise in the use of computers and the Internet. The fifth part presents descriptive statistics with respect to teachers' perceptions of the use of the Internet. The sixth section employs Pearson and Eta correlations (these are statistical operations embedded in the PASW statistical software used) to explore the relationship between the level of use of the Internet and the study's independent variables. The seventh section uses multiple regression analysis to examine the proportion of variance in the dependent variable relative to the independent variables. Finally, the eighth and last part presents a synthesis of open- ended written responses provided in the questionnaire.

4.1.1.1. Secondary School EFL Teachers' Personal Characteristics

Secondary school EFL teachers' characteristics are presented in terms of personal information, including age; income; level of education; citizenship; amount of teaching, computer and Internet experience; preferred teaching method; and background in Internet training. These results are presented in the following table:

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Tableau 2: Secondary School EFL Teachers’ Characteristics

Summarizing some key results in the table above, the majority of teachers (89%) were between 20 and 39 years old, while teachers' monthly income in francs CFA was in the range of 36,000 to 50,000 francs CFA a month (68. 5%; n=339). Most (79.4%; n=393) of the respondents held a bachelor's degrees; 12.7% (n=63) had Masters' degrees, and only 6.1% (n=30) held a Doctorate degree. More than two thirds of the respondents (72.7%; n=360) obtained their degrees in Benin. The vast majority of the respondents (89.1%; n=441) were Beninese.

Participants' responses in the experience domains (teaching, computer, and internet) were particularly interesting. More than half, 51.5% (n=255), of them were in their first five years of teaching, 25.5% (n=126) had 6 to 10 years of experience, 15.8% (n=78) had 11 to 15 years, and only 7.3% (n=36) had 16 and more years of teaching experience. In general, then, this was a moderately experienced population with respect to teaching. As for computer experience, it was found that just more than half of them (50.9%; n=252) had two to five years of such experience, while 30.9% (n=153) had six to nine years of computer experience. Also worth noting is that only 6.7% (n=33) had virtually no computer experience, i.e., a year or less. As to experience related to the domain of the Internet, most of the respondents (66.1%; n=327) had two to five years of such experience, and a little less than one quarter (21.2%; n=105) had between six to nine years of Internet experience. With just 10.3% (n=51) reporting a year or less of Internet experience, this could be said to be a group of experienced users of the Internet. Interestingly, though, most (70.9%; n=351) reported that they had had no Internet training, while 29.1% (n=144) of the teachers had between two hours to two months of such training. In other words, a significant portion of the participants had taken the initiative to teach themselves how to use the Internet.

Regarding other noteworthy teacher information, traditional teaching methods such as grammar translation and drills were preferred by only sixty-six (13.3%) of the participants, while the majority (86.7%; n=429) opted for new methods of language teaching (e.g., interactive, communicative, and social).

4.1.1.2. Use of the Internet by Secondary School EFL Teachers

Participants were asked to respond to 21 Likert-type items measuring their perceived level of use of the Internet within three main domains (seven items per domain): for instructional purposes, for professional purposes, and for personal purposes. Level of use of the Internet by these EFL teachers is represented by a mean score based on a 5- point response scale ranging from 4 (Very Often) to 0 (Never Use). Thus, the higher the mean score, the more use there was of the Internet. As shown in the following table, the summated mean was 1.6, indicating that, on the whole, the EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools reported limited use of the Internet.

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Tableau 3: Level of Use of the Internet

As for the use of the Internet under each of the three domains, as shown in the above table, the lowest summated mean (1.0) was for teaching, indicating that the teachers rarely used the Internet for instructional purposes. The summated mean for professional development purposes, 1.7, shows a slight increase over instructional use, but it also signifies that the teachers were not much inclined to turn to the Internet to achieve such development. The highest summated mean, 2.0, was for personal purposes. This reveals, on the one hand, that the Internet was of greater personal than professional appeal to the participants, but, on the other hand, that the appeal was still somewhat limited.

Looking further at Internet use among the participants, the next table shows percentages of frequencies and mean scores for Internet services used by secondary school EFL teachers for instructional, professional, and personal purposes. As shown in the table, the most often used Internet services on all domains were the World Wide Web and e-mail. The least used Internet resources were Newsgroups and File Transfer Protocol.

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Tableau 4: Frequency of Internet Resource Use for Instructional, Professional, and Personal Purposes

4.1.1.3. Level of Access of Secondary School EFL Teachers to the

Internet and Factors Limiting their Internet Access

Here, I present the results related to the level of access of secondary school EFL teachers to the internet and the different barriers to their internet access.

4.1.1.3. 1. Place of Access to the Internet

Access to the Internet was measured by participants' response to questionnaire items asking about the extent to which they could connect to the Internet in several settings: home, office, classroom, computer lab, and Internet café. Table 5 below shows teachers' level of Internet access as represented by a mean score on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 (Never) to 4 (Very Often).

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Tableau 5: Mean Scores on the Internet Place of Access Scale

As seen in the above table 5, by far the most frequent access to the Internet was at home, with the mean of 2.8 suggesting that access hovered between sometimes and often. Access at office was second (1.9), indicating that this access was infrequent. Most striking, though, is the complete lack of Internet access in the classroom (0.2) and the computer lab (0.6) The low overall mean score on the Internet Access Scale of 1.3 (S.D. = 0.68) is also noteworthy, as it indicates that a typical teacher generally had very little access to the Internet in the school setting.

4.1.1.3. 2. Factors Limiting the Use of the Internet

Because Benin is in the midst of a transformation in terms of the degree to which teachers and others are able to make use of technology such as the Internet, and because the Internet is emerging, worldwide, as an important pedagogical tool in English language teaching, it was deemed important to investigate factors which might limit teachers' access to the Internet. To gain a deeper understanding of factors shaping the participants' Internet access, EFL teachers were asked to report how often certain factors limited such access. Responses were based on a 5-point Likert-type scale which ranged from never (0) to very often (4). As shown in Table 6, the summated mean for all of the factors limiting participants' access to the Internet was 1.9, indicating that, collectively, these factors sometimes limit EFL teachers' access to the Internet.

Furthermore, Table 6 shows information about factors that may have limited the participants' access to the Internet at home, office, classroom, computer lab, and Cybercafé. The mean scores for the various factors reported are distributed pretty evenly, with the exception of "slow connection/debit" (2.5) and "High user ratio" (1.6). In general, the mean scores suggest that no specific factor had a particularly strong effect in terms of preventing access to the Internet.

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Tableau 6: Barriers to Access to the Internet

4.1.1.4. Level of Expertise of EFL Teachers

The level of expertise of teachers comprises two major aspects: computer expertise and internet expertise.

4.1.1.4. 1. Computer Expertise

EFL teachers were asked to report their level of expertise with selected computer applications on a 5-point Likert-scale of 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Expert). The summated mean for computer expertise of the participants was 1.9, indicating that, in general, they had an intermediate level of expertise with applications needed to use computers (Table 7 below). This fairly low mean score raises important questions about the extent to which they would be equipped or inclined to incorporate computerbased pedagogy into their classes.

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Tableau 7: Computer Expertise of Secondary School EFL Teachers

Also, as shown in Table 7, which provides a breakdown of participants' level of self-reported expertise in several types of computer applications, their highest level of ability was in the domain of word processing (60% "advanced" or "expert"), followed by integrated software (40.6% "advanced" or "expert"), and presentation software (38.2% "advanced" or "expert"). Their lowest level of self-reported expertise was in spreadsheets (69.1% "beginner" or "intermediate"), databases management (62.5% "beginner" or "intermediate"), and graphics (61.3% "beginner" or "intermediate"). Also worth noting is the fact that between 3% and 25.5% of the respondents reported never using some of the selected computer applications. Collectively, these results also raise questions about the extent to which the teachers were able to use computer-based technology for teaching purposes, regardless of how much interest they may have had in doing so.

4.1.1.4. 2. Internet expertise

Given the rapidly growing importance of the Internet in second and/or foreign language instruction (especially in the teaching of English), the participants were asked to report their level of expertise with selected Internet services on a 5-point Likert-scale of 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Expert). The summated mean for Internet expertise of EFL teachers was 2.1, indicating that the participants had achieved only an intermediate level of expertise with services needed to use the Internet (Table 8 on the following page). This is a particularly noteworthy result in the light of the afore- mentioned spread of the Internet as a second language teaching and learning tool. While the participants were not ill-equipped to take advantage of the Internet for teaching purposes, their ability to do so was somewhat clearly limited.

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Tableau 8: Internet Expertise of Secondary School EFL Teachers

In terms of level of expertise in the use of Internet applications, as shown in Table 8 above, the participants reported themselves to be best at sending and receiving e-mail messages (76.4% "advanced" or "expert"), browsing the World Wide Web (69.1% "advanced" or "expert"), and using search engines (67.9% "advanced" or "expert"). On the other end of the scale, they reported the lowest levels of expertise in creating a web page (75.8% "never use" or "beginner"), remote login (75.7% "never use" or "beginner"), and participating in forums (47.3% "beginner" or "intermediate"). In general, these results suggest that the teachers would be able to make some use of Internet applications for pedagogical purposes. For example, one of the more popular instructional uses of the Internet is e-mail exchanges between students, such as through course listservs or web formats (e.g., Warschauer, 1995b). Some of the results reported in the following section (see Table 9 below) shed light on this issue.

4.1.1.5. Secondary School EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Internet

In further recognition of the importance of the Internet in language teaching, the participants were then asked to report their level of agreement/disagreement on 24 statements measuring their perception of the Internet in general and as a tool for EFL instruction in particular. As shown in Table 9 below, the summated mean on a five- point Likert scale for participants' views about the Internet was 3.9, indicating that the participants had, on the whole, a relatively positive perception of the Internet.

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Tableau 9: Secondary School EFL Teachers' Perception of the Internet

In the breakdown of these perceptions (Table 10), the participants reported the most positive attitude (combination of 'agree' or 'strongly agree') towards the statement, "use of the Internet increases their access to information" (91.5%); high levels of agreement were also shown towards the statements "using the Internet saves time and effort" (90.9%) and "the Internet has the potential to enhance EFL instruction" (83.6%). The latter result is particularly noteworthy, as it indicates that the teachers were positively inclined towards pedagogical use of the Internet, thus creating what would seem to be a valuable opening for the inclusion of this form of Internet- based instruction. When juxtaposed against two of the items where a notable level of disagreement was reported, however, this positive attitude towards Internet-based teaching takes on a different shape. For instance, the most negative level of agreement was recorded for the item, "job provided opportunities for them to teach about the Internet" (49.7% "strongly disagree" or "disagree"), followed fairly closely by "job provided opportunities for them to learn about the Internet" (42.4% "strongly disagree" or "disagree").

These results suggest a significant gap between teachers' level of interest in the Internet and their opportunity to learn about or implement Internet-based instruction. Addressing this gap may be one of the most significant tasks to be undertaken by those in Benin who wish to see the Internet incorporated into English language instruction. Noteworthy in this context is the high level of agreement (81.8%) with the statement, "EFL teachers should be trained/educated to use the Internet."

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Note: SD=Strongly Disagree, D=Disagree, A=Agree, SA=Strongly Agree, N=Neutral.

Tableau 10: Reported Secondary School EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Internet

Other especially interesting results in this table are the level of agreement with the statement, "Internet can make English learning more interesting and efficient" (75.8%) and "Using the Internet makes teaching more interesting" (81.9%). It seems clear that these teachers were favorably inclined towards pedagogical use of the Internet, on the one hand, and at least somewhat frustrated by the lack of opportunities to learn about or explore Internet uses on the other. In general, the table's (10 above) results can be read as a ringing support for Internet use in the English as a foreign language classroom.

4.1.1.6. Relationships between Secondary School EFL Teachers' Use of the Internet and Independent Variables

This section addresses the relationship between teachers' use of the Internet and the main independent variables of this study: access to the Internet, expertise, perceptions, and personal characteristics. The principles used to determine the strength of correlations were based on Davis (1971), who suggests that a coefficient of 1.00 signifies a perfect relationship. A coefficient of .70 > indicates a very strong relationship. A coefficient between .50 and .69 shows a substantial relationship, between .30 and .49 a moderate relationship, between .10 and .29 a low relationship, and between .01 and .09 a negligible relationship.

Specific relationships were reported by Pearson's Product Moment, Point bi- serial, and Eta correlation coefficients. Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients were computed for the relationships between the variables measured on an interval level, which were access, expertise, and perceptions. Point bi-serial correlation coefficients were calculated for variables measured on a nominal level, which were citizenship, Internet training, and teaching method preference. Eta correlation coefficients were calculated for other demographic variables measured on an ordinal level, which were age, income, level of education, teaching experience, computer experience, and Internet experience and training. Table 11 below shows the relationships between the independent variables and the use of the Internet:

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Tableau 11: Relationships between Independent Variables and Use of the Internet

As shown in Table 11, there was a substantial positive relationship (r =.559) between teachers' use of the Internet and their expertise in using computers and the Internet. A moderate positive relationship (r=.473) existed between a participant's place of access to the Internet and his level of use of the Internet. In addition, there was a low positive association between teachers' perceptions (r =.236), computer experience (Eta=.131), and Internet experience (Eta=.170) and their use of the Internet. All other variables had shown negligible relationships with the use of the Internet.

4.1.1.7. Proportion of Variance in Teachers' Use of the Internet Explained by the Independent Variables

Multiple regression was used to determine the variance in the level of use of the Internet explained by personal characteristics, access to the Internet, computer and Internet expertise, and perception of the Internet. Fifteen variables associated with an individual's decision to use the Internet were entered step-wise. Only three variables (expertise, place of access, and Internet experience) were able to explain approximately 39% of the total variance in the dependent variable “the use of the Internet” (See tables below).

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Tableau 13: Relationships of the three Variables and the Use of the Internet

Table 14 (below) shows the results of multiple regressions indicating that three variables affected the teachers' use of the Internet. The following are the absolute values of the standardized estimate (Beta) of these factors from largest to smallest: expertise (Beta = .374), place of access (Beta= .253), and Internet experience (Beta = .167).

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Tableau 14: Regression of Level of Use of the Internet on Related Independent Variables

4.1.1.8. Summary of Responses provided to Open-ended Questions of the Questionnaire

The numerical results reported in this part provided general outlines of participants' beliefs concerning the Internet. Because, as explained earlier, the Internet is now a significant factor in the field of English language teaching, it was deemed useful to offer the study's participants an opportunity to express, in discursive form, their feelings about the Internet. In this way they would be able to provide thoughts and attitudes that were perhaps not reflected, or not reflected enough, in the questionnaire items or the ways in which responses were elicited (e.g., Likert scale). Hence, the participants were requested to provide, at the end of the questionnaire, written comments on their use of the Internet for instructional purposes and the limitations that might hinder such use. 80% of the study's participants provided such responses, most of which were in the form of short phrases and lists.

Responses were grouped into general themes. Respondents' comments were afterward categorized by the researcher into more specific themes based on the patterns of responses. The themes which emerged eventually were:

1. The uses of the Internet and importance of knowledge of the Internet for teachers;
2. Advantages of using the Internet; and
3. Limitations of using the Internet.

Representative responses that illustrate the above themes/areas are provided below. For ethical reasons, names have been changed.

4.1.1.8.1. Importance and Uses of the Internet

Responses included:

a. "I used the Internet to help me with lesson plans. I found many useful materials on the Internet."
b. "I have not used the Internet in teaching, but I have seen a number of good web sites with many materials that would help for teaching listening and speaking. However, I'm not yet sure about grammar."
c. "I used e-mail to communicate with my students. It is very interesting. But not all of them have e-mail."
d. "I believe the Internet is a necessity, especially in time and age, but better not to our culture."
e. "It [the Internet] is a need that every EFL teacher should consider, but should be suited to students' levels of proficiency."
f. "I would encourage myself and my colleagues to use the Internet to locate information, knowledge, and experiences. As for students, I do not think that they are there yet."
g. "I believe that using the Internet in teaching English is very effective. As a teacher of English who is interested in graphic design, I see the Internet as an important and useful hand in acquiring English. It removes a big obstacle from the way of the acquisition process: COMMUNICATION."
h. "I think it [the Internet] is good for students to practice the language and use their English."
i. "It is very important to use the Internet."

From the above data, it emerged that the majority of respondents seemed to believe that the use of the Internet in EFL instruction is important, necessary, effective, and needed a collective response consistent with what was reported earlier in the numerical summaries of questionnaire results. However, most of the participants provided statements that were too general or abstract to offer deeper insight into specific Internet use for instruction. Among responses that did provide commentary on practical Internet applications, the following applications were noted most often: sending messages to students, answering student questions, and getting help with lesson plans. Several participants acknowledged that there were additional ways in which they could be using the Internet. These uses included locating information, searching for resources, and learning about other teachers' experiences. As far as the use of the Internet for professional purposes is concerned, few teachers addressed the possibility of retrieving resources available on the Internet, such as digital libraries, journals, and digital books.

Additionally, a number of the participants had no idea or knowledge about how the Internet could be used as an instructional tool. Furthermore, quite a few teachers were skeptical about the effectiveness of the Internet in EFL instruction. They also emphasized the need for critical examination of its compatibility with their teaching situations and students before allowing any actual pedagogical use. Meanwhile, one participant commented that the Internet is only a tool, and one that would not or should not replace the teacher, thus emphasizing the human element in teaching which is valid.

As for future use of the Internet, a few respondents expressed their optimism, enthusiasm, and willingness to use it in the near future. They even articulated that they are planning to start using Internet-based materials in their teaching. However, they did not specifically mention what or how they are going to apply it. They also hoped to see many of their colleagues use it in their teaching.

4.1.1.8.2. Advantages of Using the Internet

Under this theme, responses of teachers were categorized into two main sections: advantages of the Internet use for EFL teachers and for students. Responses regarding the advantages of using the Internet by teachers included:

1. "Advantages of the Internet include but are not limited to: very powerful effective medium; easy accessibility to a variety of information resources; relevant specialist websites, libraries, books, journals (for learners and otherwise); and academic institutions, etc."
2. "I think the Internet is an excellent source for EFL teachers to enhance their professional knowledge and experience with the huge amounts of resources available on the Internet."
3. "For [us] EFL teachers, not like other teachers, I think the Internet helps us more. It is useful for building our teaching knowledge and sharpening our teaching experience."
4. "The Internet is very useful in teaching listening and speaking, especially since we lack that kind of communicative environment that would help even teachers, not only students, to maintain good English skills”.
5. "E-mail is a very good and efficient method in communication between teachers in the same field and also with students regarding class-related issues."
6. "I personally found the Internet very useful helping me with lesson plan."
7. "One of the main advantages of the Internet for us as EFL teachers is the huge amounts of information and resources that are available with ease of use and very little effort to get."
8. "I believe that it [the Internet] is a necessary teaching and learning tool if used properly."
9. "The Internet is advantageous in providing new and probably more effective ways of teaching the language. It also makes the teaching and learning process more attractive, active, and interesting."

As for the advantages of using the Internet for students, teachers’ responses included:

1) "It is important that the language learner should spend some time to learn the language on his/her own. Therefore, the Internet provides one of these atmospheres: students' centered learning."
2) "It is hard for our students to communicate in the target language outside the classroom. The Internet provides a good opportunity for them to use the language."
3) "The Internet is good for motivating students to learn the language. It makes their experience with language more productive."
4) "It is good for students for getting exposure to the target language culture and to how it is used in the original context."
5) "With the availability of many ESL web sites on the Internet, they provide many different opportunities (more than those available in the very limited class time) for students to learn and practice their English."
6) “The Internet is good for students in that they learn the language on their own and at their own pace. They enjoy the Internet while they learn in the same time."
7) “Students can benefit from the Internet in two ways: they learn computer and internet skills, and at the same time they learn the English language." The responses in this section, like those in the previous one, seemed to be rather general in nature. However, a number of responses presented some specific advantages of the use of the Internet, such as practicing the language and entertaining students while learning the language. Most of the participants agreed that the Internet is useful for both teachers and students to obtain interesting information, resources and experiences. They also emphasized the value of the Internet for learning about current events and keeping up with new knowledge and experiences.

Quite a few respondents drew distinctions regarding the advantages of the Internet. For instance, they thought that the Internet was useful only for teachers but not for students, because students were far behind in terms of use and knowledge of the Internet. But this is not actually true since some students seem to be using the internet more than teachers. Others also thought that because of the various constraints limiting wider use of the Internet in the classroom, it is only good for students to practice and learn the language on their own. The latter point probably means that participants think that besides the use of the internet with students in class, it also provides students with valuable opportunities to practice and learn the language individually.

4.1.1.8.3. Limitations of Using the Internet

Here, Beninese secondary school RFL teachers’ comments related to the different limitations of using the internet are mentioned.

4.1.1.8.3. Affordability-related Responses

Here, responses included:

1. "The Internet is still very expensive in Benin"
2. "I wish that the Internet is [sic] free of charge."
3. "What prevented many students from using the internet is its cost. Many students cannot afford buying a prepaid Internet connection."
4. "The prices of the Internet service are unbelievable. I do not think most of us can afford that."
5. "I do not understand why we still have to pay too much to use the Internet, while the rest of the world is getting the benefit of it."
6. "Most students and teachers cannot afford buying computers to use at home because they are still very expensive."

4.1.1.8.3. 2. Information-related Responses

They are as follows:

1) "Sometimes teachers suffer from an embarrassment of riches in terms of using the abundant materials available."
2) "I think the materials available on the Internet are often too hard for students to understand. Students' English level is too low to be able to use these materials."
3) "There is a stereotype that ALL materials on the Internet are bad. This perception of the Internet limits the use of the Internet in my context."
4) "Appropriateness of the materials available on the Internet might limit my use. I think that there is often a lot of jargon and cultural references. Many also contradict some of our social norms and religious beliefs. As teachers, we should be careful with these types of material before use" 5) "The fact that Internet is English dominated may affect students' use, especially those with low levels of proficiency."
6) "Not many newsgroups or forums for teachers to exchange information and experiences."
7) "Many ESL web sites are more commercial than educational."
8) “As teachers, we should guide students to good web sites to learn and practice English. Web sites should be reviewed and simplified for students before they go and explore on their own."
9) "Unreliable information is most often found on the internet."

4.1.1.8.3. Expertise-related Responses

These responses included:

1. "Teachers have limited skills of using computers and the Internet."
2. "Many teachers do not know how to use the Internet in instruction. We need some training and/or workshops on it."
3. “Using the Internet is not necessary to teach good English to my students.”
4. "We are afraid of using the Internet because we do not know how to use it."
5. "Some students are not yet there in terms of dealing with computers. Many of them do not know how it works. We have to train students on how to work with computers and the Internet before any use in instruction."

4.1.1.8.3. Awareness and Support-related Responses

Some of these responses are as follows:

1) "I see many teachers and students use the Internet for fun only or showing off. They have not yet acknowledged its importance in teaching and learning."
2) "Many teachers need awareness of how to use the Internet appropriately."
3) "Students are not aware of how beneficial the internet could be actually in instruction."
4) "There is no encouragement or initiative for using the Internet in EFL instruction."
5) "Computers are old, composite and not maintained. In addition, appropriate software for EFL instruction is not available."
6) “Electricity supply is inexistent in most places. Where available, it is not continuous. Frequent cut-offs damage materials.”
7) "Government and school authorities have not yet acknowledged the importance of English language learning for our graduates, and yet consider it as a secondary goal."
8) ”Classes are overcrowded with 50 to 70 students in some classes. In this case, using the internet is IMPOSSIBLE”.
9) "Authorities seem to be negative about using the Internet in teaching EFL in secondary schools, they do not care."
10)"There is most often no support from school authorities to EFL teachers interested in using the Internet."

4.1.1.8.3. Time and Curriculum-related Responses

Some of these responses are as presented below:

1. "Instruction time is too short to include the use of the Internet."
2. "Class meets once or twice a week, we do not have time to include the Internet use with all the materials we have to cover. Also, the curriculum does not support or include Internet use."
3. "The Internet speed is very slow; it is time wasting if used in the limited class schedule."
4. "I see the Internet as an add-on to the curriculum. It is not to be implemented in it."
5. "Preparing materials using the Internet is time consuming besides other tasks I do. I'm a human being, not a machine!"
6. "My busy schedule does not give space for the use of the Internet."

4.1.1.8.3. Equipment and Access-related Responses

These responses included:

1) "There are no computers available for teachers' use."
2) "Classrooms are not equipped with power supply. In most areas, there is no electricity. Therefore, there are no computers, and there are no computer labs to use the Internet for students."
3) “Can we use 10 computers for 3,500 students? The students-computers ratio makes it difficult.”
4) "We do not have networking and computers everywhere connected to the Internet for communication use."
5) "Slow and bad connection need to be improved. Internet service and equipment is still unreliable."
6) "Too many teachers must use the same computer."
7) "Lack of computers available to teachers affects their use of the Internet."
8) "We need computer labs with high speed access to the Internet."
9) "Students do not have computers at home."
10)"I think we are missing the human factor. There are no technicians to support class use."
11)"We need access to the internet in classrooms to make it easy to teach with it."

4.1.1.8.3.7 Resistance-related Responses

These answers included:

1. "Some teachers are not interested in using the Internet"
2. “Can you show me where it is written in the curriculum? If it is not the case, why use it then?”
3. "I personally like to use the Internet, but some of my colleagues resist it and prefer using traditional methods of language teaching."
4. “I don’t think the use of the internet is necessary to teach good English.”
5. "Students are not motivated to learn English; they do not want to learn or work."
6. "My instructors at the Teacher Training School did not teach me computer or internet use."

Summarizing these responses, it can be seen that, for many teachers, using the Internet is considered too costly. Also, some of them noted that students' limited budgets make it difficult for them to afford computers or Internet service, and this generally affected the use of the Internet in instruction. As for information found on the Internet, a number of the respondents stressed that it can be overwhelming and that it is difficult to assure the appropriateness and reliability of materials on the Internet. Teachers' and students' expertise in computers and Internet use was also considered as a major factor that limited their use of the Internet in instruction. Regarding awareness and support, many teachers highlighted the importance of all kinds of support, either administrative or technical, and specifically reported the lack of initiatives and encouragement they received from their peers and/or school authorities. Regarding time and curriculum, some study participants stated that they did not have enough time to incorporate Internet materials into the curriculum because of their busy schedules and the fact that the curriculum did not mention or support such use.

Concerning equipment and access, most participants mentioned overcrowdedness of classes, lack of electricity and frequent cut-offs as inhibiting factors. In addition, computers and computer programs necessary for Internet use were expensive and not available to instructors and/or students and that access to the Internet was needed in classrooms as well as home. Finally, with respect to resistance, a few respondents suggested that the teachers' reluctance or refusal to accept new innovations or new teaching methods affected their use of the Internet. Some also criticized the students for lacking the motivation to learn the language, let alone to use the Internet.

In conclusion, the teachers' open-ended responses added some flavour and reinforcement to the quantitative section. Most notably, the comments consistently supported tendencies reflected in the responses to the questionnaire items. Like those items, the comments drew attention to the teachers' frustration and dissatisfaction towards many aspects of Internet use. These ranged from the difficulties with the current Internet service providers (resulting in slow and unreliable Internet connections), the expensiveness of hardware and software and Internet service provision up to institutional restraints which restricted adoption of an Internet-based pedagogy.

4.1.2. Findings of the Interviews

This section offers analysis of interviews carried out with a subset of participants. Actually, while the written comments at the end of the questionnaires were useful, it was considered advisable to further probe into the issues motivating the study by conducting interviews with some of the participants. Such interviews would allow those participants more extended and meaningful opportunities to comment on the questions the study was designed to investigate.

For this purpose, 40 teachers were randomly selected for interviews. The interviewees were asked three basic questions:

1. Do you advocate the use of the Internet for educational purposes?
2. Which factors, if any, do you think limit your adoption of the Internet in EFL instruction?
3. How do you think EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools can make appropriate adoption of the Internet for EFL instruction?

All interviews lasted from 15 to 20 minutes, and all were recorded, transcribed, coded, and examined using procedures for analyzing qualitative data as described by Cresswell (1994). After coding the data, relevant quotations were grouped together to get a clear view of the whole data. To ensure the anonymity of different respondents, pseudonyms were used to identify individual respondents.

Key findings arising from the analysis of the interview data are presented in accordance with the following themes:

Teachers' attitudes towards the use of the Internet for educational purposes, Reasons for using the Internet in EFL instruction, Factors limiting the use of the Internet in EFL instruction, and Future uses of the Internet by teachers in EFL instruction.

Representative quotations are also provided to better illustrate these themes and the participants' beliefs and attitudes relative to them.

4.1.2.1 Teachers' Attitudes towards the Use of the Internet for Educational Purposes

When they were asked about their advocacy of the use of the Internet for educational purposes, especially in EFL instruction, all interviewees expressed their positive attitudes towards such use. Statements such as "yes, I strongly advocate its [the Internet] use" and "of course, I do" were typical comments made by most of the participants during the interviews. Alice1 answered: "I do not only advocate the use of Internet in English teaching, but also would like to call for that." Patson replied: "certainly, to a large extent." And Balie responded: "Internet has become a must, at least in my opinion." One interviewee (Rémie) expressed her positive attitudes towards using the Internet in EFL instruction with reservations. She stated that "in fact, although generally I advocate the use of the Internet in instruction, I still have some reservations related to Internet content and readiness of the teacher and student to use this technology"

4.1.2.2 Reasons for Using the Internet in EFL Instruction

In this category, the interviewees discussed reasons that account for their positive attitudes towards using the Internet in EFL instruction. Almost all of the interviewees attributed their positive attitudes to the advantages that it might bring into EFL teaching and learning. Participants consistently indicated that the Internet can benefit EFL instruction as it:

1) saves time and effort in getting information and materials needed for classes,
2) helps in abandoning some "primitive" ways of delivering instruction,
3) improves the quality and quantity of the delivered instruction,
4) adds an element of interest and joy to the teaching/learning process,
5) provides easy storage and retrieval for lesson plans and other classrelated material,
6) provides an alternative way of presenting information,
7) offers a means of self-learning,
8) offers chances to teachers to serve as facilitators,
9) allows for fast transportation of knowledge and theories of teaching/learning,
10) sustains teachers' self-development, and eventually
11) provides students with additional opportunities for practice.

Also, the majority of the participants considered that the Internet can serve as a visual aid for demonstrations, a huge library for obtaining varied types of information, a tool for research-based learning, and a means of evaluation through the possibility of quizzes.

Participants also pointed out some more specific advantages of the Internet for EFL instruction. Some of them stated that the Internet is useful for developing students' oral skills (pronunciation/speaking), vocabulary, reading, and listening skills. One interviewee, Thomas, stressed how the Internet can assist the creation and use of instant lesson plans. Paul identified online dictionaries and encyclopedias as helpful for students. Aline and Lucien stressed the value of the use of e-mail for communication with other teachers and students, particularly for class related purposes such as assignments, grades, questions, and feedback.

Some participants pointed out more general reasons for their positive attitudes towards the Internet. For example, Martine stated that "the use of the Internet can help create a generation of educated students, especially in this time, age and area of technological advancement. We cannot stay behind while the rest of the world is already there."

Commenting on the advantages created by the Internet regarding communicating with other English teachers/learners around the world and exchanging experiences, Gabin mentioned that "the Internet allows us not only to learn from other people's experiences and knowledge from all around the world, but also to communicate with them in the target language."

To summarize, all interviewees agreed that the use of the Internet in instruction is important, especially during this period of time. They shared many similar views and reasons for their positive opinions, and in doing so corroborated attitudes expressed in the questionnaire portion of the study.

4.1.2.3 Factors Limiting the Use of the Internet in EFL Instruction

The interviewees also discussed various factors that limit their use of the Internet in EFL instruction in Beninese secondary schools. These limiting factors included Internet access, Internet content, student-related limitations, teacher-related limitations, administration-related limitations, and other factors.

4.1.2.3.1. Internet Access

Access-related limitations, including availability of equipment, were, collectively, one of the most frequently mentioned categories of factors limiting the use of the Internet in EFL instruction. Internet access includes access to computers, the Internet, and computer labs. In addition, participants complained about the large numbers of students in their classrooms (50-70) and how this factor would make it difficult to accommodate to make use of computer labs, where it would be difficult, if not impossible, to find sufficient space and equipment to serve all of them.

The majority of interviewees repeated statements such as "no computer labs for Internet use", "slow Internet service", and "lack of computer machines for teachers/students." Eugénie stated: "In my opinion, two of the most difficult factors limiting my use are that classrooms are not prepared to use computers and do not have access to the Internet and Internet service is so bad, not working, and very slow..." Lazare shared a similar concern: "we need classrooms which are equipped with enough computers, good and reliable Internet service, and projectors to apply Internet in our instruction."

Availability of enough computers for use by both teachers and students was a common concern that most of the Interviewees highlighted. Interviewee # 7 confirmed: "We don't have enough computer laboratories and in many cases classrooms are not equipped with the required (equipment) to use computers, if not the Internet”. Lack of computer networking was a limitation that one interviewee (Honoré) highlighted. He stated:

I heard that English teachers in some schools are currently using the Internet in teaching, such as e- mail. But these are private schools and it is a pity we don't have networking with them or Internet connection to learn from their experiences.

In conclusion, the majority of interviewees found that using the Internet in EFL instruction was limited by a major lack of access to the Internet. Here too, they echoed concerns raised in the questionnaire responses.

4.1.2.3.2. Internet Content

In this study, Internet content was expected to be a major concern among the EFL teachers. However, only fifteen interviewees offered comments which shed some light on content-related factors. Teachers' worries mostly focused on:

a) the appropriateness of the Internet content to students' level of proficiency

and

b) compatibility with teachers and/or students cultural and social norms.

Three interviewees expressed concerns related to (a). Damien stated: "the materials available on the Internet might be a way above students’ level of English language. Therefore, it would be difficult to expect students to apply the use of the Internet." Claude added that: "the language may cause a problem for those teachers who want to use the Internet. It might not be a problem for us, as teachers, but I think it may be difficult for our students." Pola ascribed this lack of use of the Internet to students' English level by simply saying: "the weakness of students in English is the major limitation."

As for concern (b) above, "Sustaining our social manners" was a statement that was given by Bola. That was more of a general and abstract statement. When asked to elaborate on this statement of his, he added: "well, (…), the Internet is another world... I agree there are good materials, but also there are a lot of immoral content that might corrupt our students' morals and contradict with our values."

Imposing content restrictions or in other ways addressing problems with Internet content while using the Internet in EFL instruction was a topic raised by some of the participants. For example, Ella presented what she thought as a simple solution to content-related problems. She suggested: "most of the educational materials are required to be explained in classes, in the presence of student(s)." That is, teachers can help students initially examine and evaluate the material before adopting it for personal use.

4.1.2.3.3. Student-related Limitations

The majority of interviewees indicated that student-related factors created limitations in their use of the Internet in instruction. These limiting factors included student lack of computer and Internet skills and awareness, students’ lack of language skills, and variation among students' access to computers and internet. As Romain explained, "one of the obstacles I find in applying the use of the Internet in teaching is related to the lack of computer skills among students. Believe it or not, I asked the students in my class how many of them use computers. Only five students out of fifty- five in the class knew basic computer skills. How about Internet then?" Richard further stated: "contrary to my expectation, a large number of students do not know how to use the Internet or how to search for information." Emma added that: "... students' ignorance of how to use computers, not to mention their ignorance of dealing with the Internet may cause big delay in using the Internet in teaching." As a remedy to these problems, one interviewee, Nestor, suggested that "although it costs a lot of money and effort, students should get sufficient training or education on basic skills of computers and the Internet before implementing its use in instruction. The time for training will, of course, cause more delay and may slow things down."

With respect to Internet awareness, three participants drew attention to students' lack of awareness of the benefits of Internet use. Oliver insisted that a very limited number of students use the Internet; and this use, if any, was only for entertainment and pleasure, rarely for educational purposes. He mentioned that "the lack of students' awareness of the Internet’s usefulness in education is a big problem. I know many students who use the Internet only for sending e-mails to their friends or playing games." Beni expressed a similar concern regarding not only the students, but also the society for its lack of awareness of the value of the Internet in education. He explained: "Lack of awareness of the general public and specifically students of the use of the Internet causes the problem. The students come from an environment which is Internet illiterate, and thus affecting the student's perception of the Internet that it is very complex and difficult to understand."

This interviewee also criticized the educational system because it did not insist on a stronger relationship between teachers and students, one based on trust and transparency. He gave an example of this by saying: "For instance, when using email to receive assignments from my students, how can I make sure that the one who did send the assignment was the student himself and not somebody else." He then added: "This is an outcome of the gaps in our educational system."

A mixture of lack of awareness of Internet value and computer skills bothered Vivien. This appears through his following words: "Not every student can use the Internet properly. Even if they have access to the Internet, they may not know how ... (to use) it." Again, a number of interviewees attributed the lack of use of the Internet to the insufficient English skills of the students.

As for students' equality in terms of English skills and Internet-service affordability, Félix mentioned that "not all students have the same language level nor all of them have enough money to buy a prepaid Internet connection fee, not to mention affording to by a computer (in the first place) for 200,000fCFA."

In summary, a number of interviewees found that using the Internet in EFL instruction was limited by student-related factors—basically the same factors identified earlier in the study.

4.1.2.3.4. Teacher-related Limitations

Interviewees also discussed teacher-related limitations that inhibit the use of the Internet for EFL instruction. These limitations included teachers' time constraints, lack of computer or Internet expertise, and willingness to change and to try new teaching techniques. The limitation mentioned most frequently was the lack of time to examine and integrate Internet material into the curriculum. For instance, Justine said:

One of the reasons for not using the Internet in teaching is related to time availability. I really do not find enough time to finish the assigned curriculum. I need to invest a lot of time to search in the Internet and locate appropriate supplementary materials that would relate to my lessons. The Internet is huge but teachers' time is very limited.

Louis and Léa also addressed this constraint when discussing the class time issue. They mentioned that there was not enough class time available to include Internet use. For example, Habib stated: "I see time as a big problem, which is the insufficient time for using the Internet during the class period." Another element exacerbating teachers' time-related limitations was the combination of unreliable and slow Internet service, which often rendered the use of the Internet in the class period a waste of time, a point almost all interviewees mentioned.

Complementing complaints about students' lack of computer expertise was frequent reference to teachers' insufficient computer and/or Internet knowledge. Rosito drew attention to this limitation while acknowledging his own need for self- development in Internet use. He mentioned: "I am in desperate need for developing my own computer and Internet skills. I need training by professional experts on how to apply Internet in teaching." And yet he saw himself as being ahead of some other teachers when he added that "a group of my colleagues do not know how to use the Internet or even simply search for information." Mathias also emphasized the teachers' lack of computer and/or Internet skills.

The last teacher-related limitation was related to willingness and readiness of teachers to use the Internet in EFL instruction. For example, Clémence mentioned:

I use the Internet occasionally. However, I know that a number of my colleagues have not yet considered the Internet as an advantage for English teaching. Furthermore, many of them have abandoned the use of any kind of technology in teaching, and preferred to use traditional ways of delivering instruction.

In a nutshell, a number of interviewees found that using the Internet in EFL instruction was limited by a number of teacher-related factors, and here, too, they reinforced points which appeared in the questionnaire data.

4.1.2.3.5. Institutional Limitations

The interviewees discussed a number of factors that were not related to themselves or students but to school and educational authorities. In doing so, they affirmed that these factors limited their use of the Internet for EFL instruction. These factors included the necessity of following the curriculum, educational and school authorities’ lack of awareness of the value of the Internet, and lack of institutional support.

Flexibility, or the lack thereof, of the curriculum was one of the major factors preventing teachers from fully or successfully incorporating the Internet in instruction. A number of teachers complained about the strictness of the administration in this regard. As Ida pointed out: "we have to stick to the assigned curriculum without any development, changes, or additions." Justice shared the same apprehension by stating that:

Forcing the teacher to follow materials that was prepared for a specific course might hinder the use of the Internet. There is no place for technology use in the current textbooks which we teach. This problem becomes even more complicated if I am late in curriculum implementation. We, EFL teachers, teach in secondary schools and not in primary school; therefore, we need some flexibility to modify the curriculum to meet our students ’ language needs.

In this line of thoughts, Benoîte stated: "the lack of awareness on the value of the Internet for teaching by our school authorities might affect teachers' use. Also, support from the government is required to succeed in this project." Cyrille shared a similar concern as he stated:

Educational authorities have not provided English teachers with enough support to apply Internet in teaching. This support could be technical, financial or both. They could also offer free workshops for teachers to train them on using the Internet in instruction. They also could buy or reserve spaces on webservers for teacher to develop and establish their own instructional web sites or newsgroups, and store their teaching materials to be retrieved by students wherever they are and whenever they want.

Eric summed up teachers' conceptions of administration-related limitations by stating: "the lack of encouragement and support by school authorities plays a big part in the lack of use of the Internet in EFL instruction."

In sum, the interviewees were frustrated by difficulties originating from educational and school authorities and their attitudes related directly or indirectly to Internet use. When seen in combination with other limitations discussed in the interviews—Internet access, Internet content, student- related limitations, and Internet service cost as well as Internet reliability issues—their comments created a sense of an emerging tension concerning Internet use, a tension reflected in data reported earlier. That is, on the one hand, considerable enthusiasm towards the Internet among the participants and, on the other, frustration towards various difficulties involved in the successful implementation of an Internet-based pedagogy.

4.1.2.4 Future Uses of the Internet by Secondary School EFL Teachers

Since the Internet was rarely used in instruction, the majority of secondary school EFL teachers discussed how the Internet could be used in the future. Most of the uses the teachers suggested were based on treating and/or eliminating the factors limiting incorporation of the Internet in EFL instruction. These suggestions for future use focused on access and equipment, expertise, and specific uses of the Internet.

Most of the interviewees discussed ways of making proper use of the Internet. Anicet stated: "let us assume that we first solve the problem with access and availability of equipment. Also, we have computer labs and classrooms with computers that are ready to use and have reliable and fast Internet service." Zita, Gisèle and Boris made similar statements before going on to discuss how they are going to use Internet applications in their teaching. For equipment, a number of interviewees suggested using high quality projectors and multimedia centers. Gisèle stated: "It is necessary to equip classrooms with big screens and projectors to help the teachers explain materials to the whole class without going to each and every individual student." Also, Fulbert noted: "In order to apply using the Internet in teaching, this can be done via providing multi-media classroom(s) where computers, DVD and phone lines are available."

The second group of suggestions was devoted to developing both teachers' and students' awareness of the value of the Internet for educational purposes and their skills in working with computers and the Internet. Honoré indicated that "panels of Internet users comprising teachers and students should be established to develop awareness and educate teachers and students to use the Internet. This will help a lot." A couple of participants called for workshops for training both teachers and students on how to use the Internet, especially e-mail, searching the web and locating information. Eric suggested:

One English teacher with good knowledge of the Internet should work as a coordinator or web maintainer, in which he helps all English teachers in the school preparing materials for their classes and solving any related problems.

He added:

I would suggest that teachers assign some extra grades for Internet use and students who use the Internet e-mail-search engines; anything...shall be rewarded. I think this will motivate students to use the Internet more.

Alain pointed out that "all teachers should take care of their students by encouraging them to use the Internet and explaining to them all what it [the Internet] is about and its advantages in educational purposes." Inès suggested that:

Teachers could assign extra non-instructional hours to meet with classes and work with them on the Internet teaching them listening, reading, vocabulary, etc.

She further added:

Students also might be required to visit predetermined ESL web sites and get any information to share with their class or doing some quizzes online and sending results to their teachers via e-mail.

Another interviewee (Florent) also noted that

Teachers could have their own web sites hosted on some free servers on the Internet, in which they put some class materials, exercises, tests, and class newsletter or discussion groups, as well as students post their assignments to be evaluated by the whole class. Students could access this web site anytime and anywhere. This is a type of distance and self learning.

Aude mentioned:

Any one of us [English teachers] could, for example, open a newsgroup. Let us say on Yahoo to help students and their teachers to communicate with each other easily and quickly. Teachers then could post some quizzes and test of past years on that group so students can see them anytime. Not only that, but also teachers could post any necessary papers or readings for them. It is suggested that teachers use their e-mail accounts to receive students' assignments and to answer any questions about the course.

To summarize, the teachers stated that future uses of the Internet in EFL classes may include having course materials, including multimedia content, available on the Internet; employing the Internet for class assignments using e-mail, and the World Wide Web; teacher-student communication using e-mail; announcing assignments on the Internet; making schedules using the Internet; establishing electronic virtual clubs or forums for teachers and students; and employing distance education.

Overall, the qualitative data substantiate most of the findings in the questionnaire data. In general, interviewees were positive about the use of the Internet in EFL education and noted a number of particular advantages of Internet use for teachers and students in the context of Beninese secondary schools. Additionally, the interviewees identified several limitations that affected their own use (actual or desired) of the Internet in instruction. By mirroring in these comments the numerical results which emerged in the questionnaire data, they added credibility and value to those results and provided deeper insight into the issues facing Beninese secondary schools in what is emerging, globally, as the age of the Internet in English language education.

Summary of the Section

Part 1 of this section presented the analysis of the questionnaire data in eight sections, including a summary of the open-ended answers provided at the end of the questionnaire. Part 2 presented key findings of the interviews. In the following section, these quantitative and qualitative results are examined in conjunction with each other in order to generate meaningful answers to the study's research questions and to derive conclusions and implications arising from these results.

4.2. Analysis of Results

The rapid diffusion of the Internet into many aspects of life has created both promises and challenges for EFL (as well as ESL) teachers. As this study has shown, while the participants acknowledged the potential benefits of the Internet for education and generally seem interested in incorporating the Internet into their instruction, they are confronted by some significant challenges in terms of further adopting the Internet for educational purposes. While the advent of the internet seems far reaching in terms of its current as well as potential impact on various levels of instruction, there was relatively little information available about its actual use by EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools. That is why the main purposes of this study were to

a) describe the level of use of the Internet by EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools, and
b) investigate relationships between the level of use of the Internet and variables such as personal characteristics of the EFL teachers; their personal and professional access to the Internet; their level of computer and Internet expertise; and their perceptions of the Internet, especially as related to English language teaching and learning.

In this line, data was collected from 495 EFL teachers from various secondary schools throughout the country. These data were initially collected using a questionnaire. This stage was followed by interviews with a random sample of 40 teachers. The present analyses are built in the light of the seven research questions presented in chapters one and three.

4.2.1. Results of Research Question

The level of use of the Internet by EFL teachers was represented by a mean score on a 5- point scale, where '4' represents the maximum score of the scale and '0' represents the minimum score. The summated mean score was 1.6, indicating that the EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools reported rare or occasional use of the Internet. As for Internet use for each of the three domains—instructional, professional, and personal purposes—the summated mean for instructional purposes was 1.0, indicating that the participants rarely used the Internet for instructional purposes; the summated mean for professional development purposes was 1.7, indicating that they rarely or sometimes used the Internet for professional development purposes; and the summated mean for personal purposes was 2.0, indicating that the participants sometimes used the Internet for personal purposes.

That the most extensive use of the Internet was for personal purposes, while the least use was for instructional purposes, was worth noting, as was the fact that in each domain the amount of use was limited. One reason why Internet use was lower for instructional purposes than other purposes has to do probably with computer and Internet access. Both data resources showed that computer labs often were not available for classroom use, and teachers did not have enough computers to facilitate their individual use at school. The classrooms, themselves, did not have computers and Internet access.

Additionally, lack of access has led to another reason behind teachers' low level of use of the Internet: the lack of computer and Internet expertise and training. Interviews and survey data showed how participants had a low level of expertise with applications needed for computers and the Internet use. They also expressed their need for basic training to learn how to use the Internet properly in teaching.

Regarding the Internet applications most frequently used by teachers, the questionnaire given to the participants asked them to indicate their current level of use for each of the different items of Internet use under each domain (instructional, professional, and personal purposes). These items ranged from typical applications (e.g., e-mail) to more advanced ones (e.g., FTP). On all domains of Internet use (instructional, professional, and personal purposes), the most often used Internet resources were the World Wide Web (WWW), and e-mail. The least used Internet resources were Newsgroups, and FTP (File Transfer Protocol). Data from the interviews echoed these results.

The preceding finding suggests that the participants engaged in high levels of Internet use for mainstream Internet applications, while they reported low levels of Internet use for more specialized applications. This pattern of Internet use was similar to a number of studies' results, including Almusalam (2001), Isleem (2003), Mubireek (2001), and Porter (1997). Whether this pattern was due strictly to the participants' preferences or to limitations in their knowledge of computer applications was unclear, but it is worth remembering here the absence of opportunities for Internet training reported earlier. Specialized applications increase the complexity of the innovation, thus supporting Rogers' diffusion theory (1995) in terms of complexity being a barrier to adoption of an innovation. By contrast, mainstream applications are more likely to be compatible with the adopter's existing principles and thus increase the chances of diffusion in this domain (Rogers, 1995). Hence, these results lend support to Rogers' theory that compatibility improves diffusion of an innovation. It seems likely that applications of the Internet in Beninese secondary schools would remain restricted until the computer infrastructure expands and allows teachers greater access to computers and to training. While the teachers seemed balanced for at least some degree of innovation, the resources available to them prevented anything more than minimal innovation.

4.2.2. Results of Research Question

Part of the questionnaire requested participants to provide information about selected personal demographics. These included age; monthly income; level of education; citizenship; teaching experience; computer and Internet experience; training, teaching methods preference; and school location. More than 89 percent of the participants were less than 39 years old, which may mean that the majority of EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools were somewhat young teachers, with about 76 % of them having less than ten years of teaching experience. Also, about 89 percent of the participants earned nearly 50,000 francs CFA per month and none of them earned more than 100,000 francs CFA. In other words, these generally young and somewhat inexperienced (to a considerable extent) teachers were not in a position to be able to afford their own training in Internet use (71% of respondents reported that they had had no Internet training) and so had to rely on their school authorities to support their desire and efforts to upgrade their computer and especially Internet knowledge.

This finding suggests that school authorities take a more positive role in financially supporting teachers to use the Internet and to offer them free home access to the Internet, as well as free training opportunities to prop Internet use in instruction.

The fact that the majority of them (86%) preferred new methods of language teaching (e.g., interactive, communicative, and social) was also worth noting, in that this may suggest a willingness on the part of these teachers to try new computer and Internet based approaches to teaching which align with their interest in new teaching methods. Indeed, their ability to adopt these new methods could be greatly enhanced by appropriate levels of access to the Internet and Internet training.

According to Rogers (1995) theory, Homophily is the degree to which two or more individuals who interact are similar in certain attributes such as beliefs, education, and social status. The teachers' demographics support this notion of similarities among teacher, encouraging for more adoption of the Internet by the teachers. The majority, as the results showed, have many characteristics in common, such as age, level of education, income range, and citizenship. On the other hand, there was some degree of dissimilarity, although it was very small. This degree of dissimilarity is called heterophily (Rogers, 1995). According to Rogers, the very nature of diffusion demands that at least some degree of heterophily exist between the participants of the diffusion process. These two concepts of Rogers' theory were supported by the results of the teachers' demographics in this study.

4.2.3. Results of Research Question

In this study, access to the Internet was defined by how often the Internet was accessible in specific places; an accompanying issue was the factors that limited such access. The questionnaire asked the participants to indicate how often they had computer access in five contexts where Internet access would be most likely to occur: home, office, classroom, computer lab in schools, and cybercafés. The mean score on the place of access scale for all of the possible sites combined was 1.3 (on a scale of 0- 4), indicating that the participants' access to the Internet was considerably restricted. The most frequent access to the Internet was at home and office, a finding in line with several previous studies (Albirini, 2004; Almusalam, 2001; Isleem, 2003 and Porter, 1997).

The most frequent lack of access to the Internet was in the classroom and computer lab, just as Almusalam (2001) found in an earlier study. Qualitative results from other sections of the study were consistent with these quantitative results. Likely explanations for the inadequate access to the Internet would include a considerable lack of investments in providing enough electrical power and computer infrastructures to EFL teachers in schools to be able to use the Internet. This, in part, might be attributed again to the lack of attention given to English teaching, because it is seen as a minor subject. Also the fact that there are lots of secondary schools in Benin might make the government’s investment projects for technology development proceed very slowly. Hence, the educational authorities might prioritize these investments according to their own criteria.

It must be remembered, though, that restrictions in access are not only a matter of whether the relevant technology is in abundant supply. Having a sufficient number of computers available for instructional use is only part of the equation. Hence, it was necessary to look further at the factors most likely to impact on Internet access. In this context, the participants were asked in the survey to rate the extent to which they thought each of the factors would limit their access to the Internet. As reported in the previous section, slow and busy Internet connections emerged as the factors most frequently limiting the EFL teachers' access to the Internet either at home, office, classroom, computer lab, and cybercafés. Mubireek (2001) and Porter (1997) likewise found that a busy signal from the internet service provider was a common cause of difficulties in accessing the Internet, while Isleem (2003) reported that outdated/incompatible computers and/or not enough software licenses were the factors most often limiting teachers' computer (and thus Internet) access.

Differences in study settings might be considered as a likely explanation for this variation in findings. Isleem (2003), Mubireek (2001), and Porter (1997) studied populations from within the state of Ohio in the United States, where the Internet has long been available, while the population of this study was from another part of the world (Benin) in which the diffusion of the Internet is still in its initial stages. As Gnonlonfoun (2009) has reported, the Internet started being used publicly in 2000 and following years in Benin.

Findings from the open-ended section of the questionnaire and the interviews added considerable context to the quantitative findings, particularly since they identified a number of factors related to Internet affordability that were not included in the survey as well as some that were. The factors they cited included: richness of information (i.e., more information than could be reasonably handled), teachers/students lack of computer/Internet expertise, lack of authorities, teachers, and students' awareness of Internet capabilities, absence of institutional support, lack of time for teachers to direct their attention to the Internet, limitations in the curriculum, large class size (50-70 students per class), lack of electricity and equipment as well as access to it, frequent cut-offs of power, equipment breakdowns, a very high ratio between the number of people wanting to use computers and the number of computers available, and teachers' resistance to change and trying new practical and innovative teaching methods.

It was worth noting that factors related to teachers' resistance to trying new and probably better ways of delivering instruction limited teachers use of the Internet as a new medium for EFL pedagogy. This is related to Rogers' (1995) notion of innovativeness. Adopters are categorized based on innovativeness into five categories: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and slow coachers (Rogers, 1995). On one extreme of the distribution are the innovators, the risk takers and pioneers who adopt an innovation very early in the diffusion process, and on the other end are the slow coachers, those who resist adopting an innovation until rather late in the diffusion process, if ever. The results of this study showed that there were very few laggards among participants in the study. The majority of teachers were in middle of the scale with some innovators.

The findings, collectively, have confirmed that Internet access was one of the most marked barriers to Internet adoption and integration in language teaching (Albirini, 2004; Isleem, 2003; Mubireek, 2001; Rogers, 2000; Martins et al., 2004; Ross et al., 2001; McMillan, 2004; Seidman, 2006), and the results of this study lend support to this belief. Rogers (1995) went beyond access to an innovation and discussed trialability and observability. For an innovation to be readily adopted, it must afford experimental use and observable results. The cost of buying, maintaining and updating computer equipment and computer programs presents significant problems in the field of education, where budgets are often restricted (Fusayil, 2000; Knezeck and Christensen, 2002; Levin and Wadmany, 2008; Hagner and Schneebeck, 2001). The results of this study showed that teachers had poor access, which would negatively affect their Internet adoption rate. They had few opportunities to own a computer. Also, they rarely (if neither) observed computer and Internet connections in classrooms.

4.2.4. Results of Research Question

In this study, the level of expertise was defined in terms of secondary school EFL teachers' mastery of major computer and Internet applications as tools to facilitate English language instruction. The participants were asked to report their level of expertise with selected computer applications on a 5- point Likert-scale of 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Expert). The summated mean for computer expertise was 1.9, indicating that these EFL teachers had an intermediate level of expertise in computer applications. The highest levels of expertise were reported to be in word processing, integrated software (a group of applications designed to work together and share data easily), and presentation software (e.g., Microsoft PowerPoint). Teachers reported the lowest levels of expertise in use of spreadsheets (e.g., Microsoft Excel), databases management (e.g., Microsoft Access), and the use of graphics. The fact that word processing was the most frequently used computer application was consistent with a number of studies, including Almusalam (2001), Isleem (2003), Katona (1999), Mubireek (2001), and Porter (1997).

As for Internet expertise, the participants were asked to report their level of expertise with selected Internet services on the same scale. The summated mean for Internet expertise of EFL teachers was a little higher (2.0), indicating that these EFL teachers had also an intermediate level of expertise in Internet services. Although the difference in mean scores between computer (1.9) and Internet expertise (2.0) may appear negligible, this finding seemed a little contradictory because generally a person needs the computer to use the Internet. A possible explanation for this contradiction is related to the fact that mainstream Internet applications (WWW and e-mail) and interface are easier than other computer applications. For example, the skill needed to use the WWW and e-mail is considerably lower than that required for operating a database system (in Microsoft Access for instance) and the more specialized computer applications (e.g., Excel). A novice person can just click a button and go to the WWW or with one click send an e-mail, but to operate a system with hardware and software is considered more complicated and requires more specific and detailed knowledge.

Again, such mainstream Internet applications as e-mail and World Wide Web (WWW) had the highest expertise ratings, while lower levels of expertise were reported for specialized applications like creating a web page and remote login. These findings support previous research with regards to e-mail and WWW expertise (Almusalam, 2001; Isleem, 2003; Katona, 1999; Mubireek, 2001; Porter, 1997). These findings were also consistent with Rogers' theory of diffusion, cited earlier, which states that rate of adoption of an innovation is influenced by the innovation's complexity. In this case, the ability necessary to use e-mail and the WWW was considerably lower than that required for the specialized applications noted above.

Additionally, the results from the interviews mirror the questionnaire’s findings, and they add the point that lack of computer and Internet skills was one of the most highly limiting factors in teachers’ use of the Internet in EFL instruction.

4.2.5. Results of Research Question

As already suggested, according to Rogers (1995), people's acceptance or rejection of any new technology depends largely on the relative advantages provided by the technology itself. He also notes that people’s positive perceptions of an innovation accelerate its diffusion process. Findings from both the questionnaire data and the interviews suggest that the participants generally had positive perceptions of the Internet as a tool for EFL instruction. The respondents were asked to report their level of agreement/disagreement on 24 statements measuring their perceptions of the Internet in general and as a tool for EFL instruction in particular. The summated mean on a one-to-five Likert scale was 3.9, indicating that the respondents had somewhat positive perceptions of the Internet with respect to pedagogy.

In the qualitative portion of the study, the interviewees explored the reasons behind their positive perceptions of the Internet's potential value for EFL instruction. These reasons included the fact that the Internet saves time and effort in obtaining information and materials needed for classes, helps in abandoning some traditional ways of delivering instruction, improves quality of instruction, adds an element of interest and joy to the teaching/learning process, provides easy storage and retrieval for lesson plans and other class-related material, resembles an attractive alternative way of presenting information, offers a means of student-centered learning, offers teachers opportunities to serve as facilitators rather than lecturers engaging in extensive "teacher talk," allows for fast transportation of knowledge and theories of teaching/learning, sustains teachers' self-development, provide students with additional opportunities for genuine practice, serves as a huge library and research tool for obtaining various types of information, and offers alternative means of evaluation through the organization of online quizzes and exams.

Thus, teachers' positive perceptions in the current study had a special importance given the insufficient computer resources and lack of training opportunities characterizing the current status of Internet use in Beninese secondary schools. This finding supports the widely reported positive perceptions towards Information technology regardless of the limitations to implementation efforts (e.g., Albirini, 2004; Almusalam, 2001, Blankenship, 1998). The findings, however, did not support the assumption that teachers with low level of Internet use usually have negative perceptions towards technology (Summers, 1990).

There are a number of explanations to such positive perceptions, including the apparent acknowledgement by teachers of the relative advantage of the Internet for language instruction. Additionally, the mean score for teachers' personal use of the Internet although was somewhat limited (2.0) but was the highest among all other types of use (for instructional and professional purposes) and likely leading to their optimistic perceptions. In other words, teachers have experienced the Internet for personal use to the extent they acknowledged its value for instruction, and therefore were willing to use it in their classrooms.

Furthermore, findings from interviews supported the high perception of the teachers. As one interviewee emphasized, the fact that the Internet is generally dominated by the English language allows it to offer plenty of authentic materials for their students. Thus, the Internet could offer some solutions to teachers in EFL settings who wish to overcome the problem of using English only in the classroom, as was the case in Beninese secondary school EFL classes.

As was noted earlier, it has been widely reported that the Internet provides various opportunities for students to be evolved in authentic communicative language experiences with native speakers of English from around the world. For this reason, Beninese secondary school EFL teachers might have already developed such positive perceptions towards the use of the Internet for instruction because of their awareness of its prospective authenticity.

4.2.6. Results of Research Question

To disclose the associations between the level of use of the Internet and selected variables, Pearson product moment, point bi-serial, and Eta correlation coefficients were used. A moderate positive relationship (r=473) was found between an EFL teacher's place of access to the Internet and his level of use. This positive association between level of access and use of computer/Internet has been widely reported in the literature (e.g., Albejadi, 2000; Albirini, 2004; Fusayil, 2000; and Isleem, 2003). This relationship suggests that the higher level of access at home, office, classroom, and computer lab would result in a high level of use of the Internet by EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools.

A substantial positive relationship (r=.559) existed between teachers' use of the Internet and their expertise in using computers and the Internet. Also, two demographic variables had moderate positive relationships with the use of the Internet: computer experience (Eta= .131) and Internet experience (Eta= .170). These results were in compliance with Porter (1997), who found a statistically significant substantial positive relationship for computer/Internet knowledge and level of use of the Internet, and Mubireek (2001), who reported a statistically significant moderate positive relationship for Internet proficiency and Internet use. Again, a number of studies have reported similar results, including Albirini (2004), Almusalam (2001), Blankenship (1998), Isleem (2003), and Jacobsen (1998). This study's findings of the relationships that existed between teachers' use of the Internet and their expertise in computers and the Internet suggest that the higher the level of computer/Internet expertise is, the higher the level of Internet use is.

Additionally, results pointed to the existence of a low positive association (r=.236) between teachers' use of the Internet and their perceptions of the Internet. Previous research has also reported positive associations between teachers' perceptions and the use of technology (Albirini, 2003; Isleem, 2003; Porter, 1997). This low positive relationship between teachers' perception of the Internet and their use of the Internet suggests that the higher positive perceptions teachers develop towards the Internet would result in a higher level of use of the Internet in pedagogy. Therefore, school authorities should play a major role in promoting and developing EFL teachers' positive perceptions of the Internet by establishing opportunities for teachers to have sufficient training and expertise with the Internet and offering adequate access for equipment and probably reliable Internet service.

4.2.7. Results of Research Question

As mentioned in the Methodology (Cf. Chapter three), multiple regression was used to determine the variance in the level of use of the Internet explained by the independent variables in the study. The findings showed that the independent variables explaining the greatest amount of variance in EFL teachers' level of Internet use were computer/Internet expertise, place of access, and Internet experience. Nearly 39% of the total variance in Internet use was explained by these three independent variables. These results support findings in Albejadi (2000), Blankenship (1998), Isleem (2003), and Porter (1997), in which expertise and access to computers and Internet were influential factors related to Internet use. The multiple regression findings were consistent with the correlation findings, in which these three variables (expertise, place of access, and Internet experience) showed significant associations with the level of use of the Internet by secondary school EFL teachers in Benin. Again, this suggests that school authorities should have more practical initiatives towards training and educating these teachers on using the Internet and providing them with sufficient access to the Internet. This would most likely result in more pedagogical use of the Internet for language instruction.

4.3. Implications of the Results

The present study was expected, to some extent, to contribute to what was already known about internet adoption in language pedagogy in other parts of the world. Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the use of the Internet in EFL teaching in Beninese secondary schools is still in its initial stages, as has been noted. It seems that the process of innovation will probably take a long time to reach the level of Internet use seen in other parts of the world. Rogers (1995) have identified time as a characteristic of diffusion of technological innovations.

He also suggested that some innovations might take more time to diffuse than others, emphasizing the differences between cultures and societies in accepting or rejecting an innovation. The results of the current study suggest a considerable gap between teachers' level of interest in the Internet and their opportunity to learn about or implement Internet-based instruction. Addressing this gap might be one of the most significant tasks to be undertaken by Benin policy-makers and school authorities who would wish to see the Internet incorporated into English language instruction.

While the participants were not ill-equipped to take advantage of the Internet for teaching purposes, their ability to do so was clearly somewhat limited. It seemed clear that these teachers were favorably inclined towards a pedagogical use of the Internet, on the one hand, and at least somewhat frustrated by the lack of opportunities to learn about or explore Internet uses on the other. Without reasonable degrees of computer access in classrooms and for professional development purposes, and with limited (at best) opportunities for training in Internet use, the participants were essentially powerless to act on their interest in the Internet shown in other parts of the study. These results suggest that meaningful implementation of computer and Internet- based English language teaching in Beninese secondary schools could not be expected to occur, regardless of teachers' interest in such an instructional pedagogy, until the access situation changes dramatically.

It was especially interesting to note that electricity and computer access was a major problem in schools where a computer-based infrastructure might be expected to exist. This might lead to questions about the announced budgets and projects provided by the government for better computers and Internet services to all schools. Also, this might create issues concerning equal distribution of resources not only among all secondary schools throughout the country but also the assignments/courses taught within these schools since English teaching might not have been targeted by the government’s announced technology development projects. Also, these efforts might have been confined only to those schools which were considered much more worthy of support. Thus, serious efforts to evaluate these projects may be needed.

Furthermore, the findings suggest that EFL teaching and learning in Beninese secondary schools have been marginalized. Up to date, EFL courses have been perceived as grade units and their potential for communication and development ignored. At University level, the English department usually receives least amount of support and attention from authorities and administrators. This issue also has its roots in the history of English language teaching back in the 1970s and 1980s, when ESP (English for Specific Purposes) programs had been ignored simply because they were not core programs or main departments needed for the development of poor countries. Therefore, while the English language is valued by making it mandatory in curricula, its teaching and teachers have not yet been provided with the desired attention and support they needed to be successful. Hence, the teachers may have been prevented from applying computer and Internet-based instruction simply because of lack of access and skills needed for that.

Thus, the government and school authorities have to take immediate active roles in equally supporting EFL teachers and programs, promoting EFL teachers' professional development and training teachers on skills required to use computers and the Internet. With respect to training, for example, teachers could be enrolled in systematic short period (one week or less) in- service workshops that would not only offer basic knowledge of various applications of computers and the Internet but also train teachers in using such applications in their teaching. Ways must also be found to enhance teachers' experiences by establishing on-duty centers with professional staff to provide technical support and help whenever needed during academic hours.

While EFL teachers showed limited use of the Internet, they held positive perceptions of the Internet as a tool for pedagogical purposes. EFL teachers were not in a position to widely implement Internet use in language instruction although they seemed ready for that. This suggests that diffusion of the internet in Beninese secondary schools may proceed slowly. As Rogers (1983) notes, innovations which are technologically-based are not always diffused and adopted rapidly even when the innovation has obvious advantages. Also, the fact that there are hundreds of secondary schools in Benin might make the government’s investment projects for technology development proceed very slowly. Despite efforts by the government to spread and promote computer and Internet infrastructures in all schools, they did not seem to meet the growing needs of these institutions, particularly those of EFL teachers. Hence, there is an urgent need for more efforts from the policy makers to help EFL teachers in secondary schools enhance their use of the Internet for English teaching. This need was supported by the results of this study, especially the finding that teachers wanted such opportunities.

Additionally, school authorities must have a major role in maintaining, promoting, and developing EFL teachers' ready-to-use positive perception of using the Internet in teaching. This would make their implementation of technology more effective and speedy. Also, teachers should be given enough opportunities to develop and sharpen their positive perceptions through Internet training and education.

EFL teachers in this study showed, on the one hand, high levels of use of mainstream computer and Internet services such as e-mail, word processing, and the World Wide Web. On the other hand, they showed low levels of use and expertise in more advanced applications. Hence, in the context of Beninese secondary schools, this was a valuable finding, as it seemed likely that applications of the Internet in those schools would remain restricted until the computer infrastructure would expand and allow teachers greater access to computers and to training in how to use them in the more complex realms of the Internet. While the teachers seemed poised for at least some degree of innovation, the resources available to them prevented anything more than minimal innovation.

However, in general, these results also suggest that EFL teachers in this study would be able to make some basic use of Internet applications for pedagogical purposes. For example, one of the more popular instructional uses of the Internet is e- mail exchanges between students, such as through course listservs or web formats (e.g., Warschauer, 1995). Language teachers in other places have experimented with exchange situations in which their students correspond by email with students at other institutions, such as students of English in France communicating with students of French in Canada. Through these exchanges, students could practice their use of the target language and could obtain information about the target language through questions posed to the native speaker students with whom they would be communicating. The World Wide Web would also provide students with access to resources which can enrich the language learning process, such as websites like the well-known Dave's ESL Café, where there would be an abundance of information about the English language as well as exercises in which students could practice their use of the language. Additionally, EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools would be able to interact online with professional peers in other countries and thus enhance their teaching knowledge and ability through these exchanges.

Implications could also be drawn from the findings of the study regarding factors limiting EFL teachers' use of the Internet. As noted earlier, for the most part these factors are practical in nature. The more practically oriented factors may be minimized or eliminated by changes in the infrastructure, especially through greater financial support that would enable the purchase of more computers and perhaps better Internet connections. However, teachers' resistance to new ways of teaching and important questions about how Internet content and access to it could violate social norms and beliefs are deeper issues that require further exploration. What was of particular interest is what falls more in the domains of attitude and appropriateness. For example, it has been noted that "teachers' resistance to change traditional ways of delivering instruction" was a factor cited as restricting Internet access. However, with so little Internet or even no access available, the teachers likely had no choice but to continue teaching English in traditional ways.

Also, Internet appropriateness and compatibility with teachers/students' cultural and social norms was noted in the findings. Fifteen interviewees expressed apprehension about the moralities and values that the Internet was bringing into the Benin culture. They were worried that immoral websites may affect students, in particular. Therefore, educational authorities should prepare awareness and sensitization programs that educate students and teachers "morally and culturally" about the improper material on the Internet. As Thomas (1987) suggests, cultural conditions of developing societies should be considered when technology transfers from industrialized societies into these societies. Also, Rogers (1995) points to the fundamental role that the social norms play in determining the rate of an innovation's adoption. The difficulty involved in capturing cultural and social aspects might be behind the lack of research in this area (Albirini, 2004). The sensitivity of this issue suggests that EFL teachers in Benin need to be informed about the potential value of the Internet and how to adjust its efficiency with students' needs and socio-cultural norms.

To overcome factors limiting Internet access among EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools, policy makers should probably offer chances for teachers to increase their professional development and allowing them more flexibility to be innovative in designing and developing EFL Internet-based materials and activities. Also, class time could be organized in such a way to allow more flexibility to the teachers to integrate and use the Internet. Additionally, policy makers need to consider hiring more EFL teachers to overcome a number of limitations including number of students in classrooms and teachers' time constraints.

The factors most influencing the low level of use of the Internet in Beninese secondary schools were teachers' perceived expertise, place of access, and Internet training. Computer and Internet expertise alone was responsible for about 30% of lack of use of the Internet by the participants. This supports the fact that lack of expertise with technology is a major limitation for its diffusion in education (Porter, 1997).

Additionally, the findings of this study suggested that personal factors limiting EFL teachers from using the Internet were of minimal weight in affecting the level of use of the Internet. External factors (e.g., availably of access, expertise), as seen above, were stronger predictors of EFL use of the Internet.

As for future use of the Internet in Beninese secondary schools, the literature shows that perceptions can often predict future decision-making behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Rogers, 1995). Thus, having developed positive perceptions towards the Internet as a tool for pedagogy, it seems reasonable to expect that EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools will attempt to use it in their classes once they are offered enough opportunities for Internet training and have more adequate access to computers and the Internet. Again, this suggests that school authorities have to take more active roles in promoting EFL teachers' professional development. EFL teachers must be offered opportunities for developing specialized skills required to use computers and the Internet in language instruction by expert teachers who can model such pedagogic usage in language activities.

With respect to the above implications, some alternatives have been suggested.

These are dealt with in the following chapter.

CHAPTER FIVE: RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

Throughout this study, an attempt has been made to understand educational change in general, and internet as a change issue in a difficult context, in particular. Subsequently, the study has assessed the degree and the nature of the Beninese EFL teachers’ attitudes to and perceptions of the use of the Internet in English instruction. Some important sources of resistance as well as some factors which hinder such a use have been identified and analyzed. In so doing, substantial findings have been pinpointed and practical solutions suggested.

To end this research work, I would like to make some recommendations and suggestions to contribute to better the teaching of English as a foreign language in Benin. I hope the government and other school authorities will help find solutions for the problems I raised in Chapter one of this work. These problems constitute a handicap to the use of the Internet in English instruction activities. My best wishes are to see the government and the school authorities find the appropriate solutions to the problem raised so that the use of the internet become a reality for a better English teaching and learning with a special reference to the learners’ communicative competence. The teachers and the students are also expected to contribute to such a noble task.

5.1. Recommendations

It is known that the educational policies of a country are determined by the state authorities and implemented and managed by the school authorities. These two entities set the scene for an efficient and effective educational system. While some people could regard them as outsiders, they actually play an important part in the success of our students as they provide the means as well as set the objectives. That is one of the reasons why the following recommendations are made to them.

5.1.1. Recommendations to the Government

In view of the findings of this study and the subsequent analyses arising from them, the following recommendations for policy and practice could be made. They are related to strategies that could be implemented by policy-makers to ensure the success of their technology initiative and by EFL teachers to obtain the best results from using the Internet for EFL instruction.

1. The substantial positive relationship between Internet use and computer/Internet expertise suggests that establishing regular programs for professional development for EFL teachers' computer and Internet knowledge and skills would help to improve their level of Internet use for instructional purposes. Also, this relationship points to a strong need for on-going, comprehensive, and well-structured Internet education courses and/or workshops that focus on the use and implementation of the Internet into EFL instruction. The government should provide sufficient funding to launch such workshops in locations and time periods which are convenient for teachers.
2. Both the quantitative and qualitative data indicate that a high percentage of the teachers feel that the use of the Internet does neither match the existing curricula nor fit in the current class-time format. Policy-makers and administrators should provide additional planning time for teachers to experiment with new Internet-based methods. This may be attained by reducing the teaching load of the teachers.
3. Consequently from the preceding point, allowing enough time to search the Internet or design and update Internet materials for EFL classes might help relieve teachers' worries about the appropriateness of Internet content. Qualitative data revealed teachers' concerns about Internet content, which may be above their students' proficiency level. Perhaps, specific times should be scheduled for EFL teachers to pursue Internet training on how to evaluate and select appropriate internet-based material which may be close to their students' level for class use. Teachers also can be assigned non-instructional hours allowing them to explore the Internet content and develop materials which will go side-by-side with their students’ needs.
4. The low level of teachers' Internet use results partially from poor access to computers and the Internet. Policy-makers and administrators should take more initiatives regarding the allocation of funds to provide enough computers for secondary schools as well as faster Internet connections inside well-built and well equipped classrooms, computer labs, and, most importantly, to provide teachers with enough resources and equipment for professional development. The last step may aid teachers in experimenting with the Internet before attempting to use it in their classrooms.
5. A number of interviewees stated that they were limited by regulations instructing them to follow the curriculum with no opportunities for amendments, thus restricting their ability to modify their curriculum to include Internet use. Policy-makers should allow more flexibility for the EFL teachers so as to include the use of the Internet in their course planning. Teachers could then be allowed to create or use ready-to-use material from the Internet. They also can be permitted to use the Internet content to create supplementary exercises for additional learning, and/or for finding new ways to evaluate students' learning. This limitation hinders EFL teachers' innovativeness and negatively affects the quality of instruction, as some interviewees noted.
6. The results from this study indicates that the teachers generally had positive perceptions towards the use of the Internet despite the different limitations regarding its implementation. It is essential for policy-makers to sustain and promote such perceptions as a prerequisite for promising future Internet use. They also can make use of teachers' positive perceptions towards the use of the Internet to better prepare them for incorporating its use in their teaching practices. Again, creating training opportunities for EFL teachers on Internet use can help them to a great deal in this regard.
7. The interviewees expressed their concerns about the need to develop awareness of the value of the Internet for education on all levels of the society. The government and school authorities should implement awareness programs in these schools for the public at large and especially for students and for teachers. The main goal for such programs would probably be to enlighten teachers and students of the Internet's potential value and simultaneously motivate them to use the Internet in their classrooms. Teachers share part of the responsibility for educating themselves about the use of the Internet to enhance EFL teaching, and these programs might encourage them to raise their own level of awareness and expertise.
8. The need for more training opportunities is one of the teachers' major demands in this study. The government is to see that all teachers receive adequate training. This measure would be part of the human resource development, which is essential for technology implementation. Training should not merely focus on computer literacy skills but also present ways to integrate the Internet in teaching and learning, including a cultural awareness aspect. Training should be led by expert teachers who can model computers' pedagogic usage in language activities. Since expertise is a positive predictor of the level of Internet use, continuing to support teachers in their professional development would increase the level of Internet use.
9. Since teachers' time constraints and overcrowded classrooms are major limitations to teachers' Internet use in this study, it is recommended that the government and school authorities employ enough EFL teachers to solve such limitations. This will release some of the load from the current teachers and will help reduce the number of students per class. Also, this alternative will not only allow teachers to have more inclass time to employ Internet-based teaching but also students to have more opportunities to learn the English language on the Internet.

5.1.2. Recommendations to the Teaching Professionals

As seen in the study, a number of constraints have made it difficult for the Internet to be integrated into English teaching in classrooms in Benin. One of the main reasons is that teachers lack the time and energy to make extensive use of it due to their heavy workload. Thus, the first implication of the study is that teachers’ heavy workload should be decreased and their work conditions should be improved.

Furthermore, this study, in accordance with the findings of other researchers, discovered that teachers in Benin need more training and understanding to know how to implement the theories they have learned at the universities, teacher training schools or during English workshops, seminars, and conferences. In addition, teachers need to observe classes in which internet use is effective so that they can see it in order to put it in action.

It has been found that Beninese EFL teachers have too many hours of classes to teach, a fact which leaves little room for creating authentic and communicative classroom materials. Despite recent improvement, teachers’ salaries in Benin are still low compared to those paid to other professions. Teachers are too much concerned with their financial problem and that is the reason why they work for extra sources of income so as to improve their living conditions. Many teachers, for instance, spend most of their free time on private tutoring to train EFL students for national examinations. All these factors oblige teachers to show no interest in the quality of work they are expected to do in their schools.

It is therefore urgent that the government address this issue of teachers’ heavy work conditions and low income in order to bring teachers’ potential into full play. Since the solution of other problems regarding the improvement of English teaching in Benin is contingent upon the betterment of teachers’ treatment in general, improvement of teachers’ work and living conditions should be prioritized in the government policy-making. In this line, it is expected that the government moves from long-lasting and unfulfilled promises and propaganda to immediate actions.

The Ministry of Education and other concerned bodies should organize successive workshops, seminars and in-service trainings so that teachers can get the chance to share experiences on how to cope with the existing problems in secondary schools. In relation to this, it may be important to quote what Lasarenko (1997:3) cautiously suggests "transition to communicative methodology is unthinkable without adequate teacher training and education".

Another implication of the study is that English teaching in Benin needs to be better planned. This study has shown that English is one of the core subjects in Benin secondary education. However, the resources available are not sufficient to meet the needs of such a huge program. Considering the fact that there are too many students who need to learn English but not enough number of teachers to teach it to them; students are packed, particularly in state-owned secondary schools, into large English classrooms. Accordingly, English instruction is mostly limited to traditional large- group instruction where grammar is given a high significance while oral/aural skills such as listening and speaking are neglected. This phenomenon prevents students from communicating effectively and efficiently with English native speakers although they have learned English for many years.

It is urgent that Benin reassess its language teaching policies. Benin’s efforts to promote the acquisition of English should be emphasized as English is now considered as the lingua franca throughout the world.

5.1.3. Recommendations to Curriculum Designers

A language program, through its curriculum, is expected to help teachers to do their job. Such a program needs to be a support for teachers. Brown (1995) states that:

such support may take the form of helping the teachers to understand their place in the curriculum vis- à -vis the students, helping them to think about their own teaching, and providing a framework of administrative and curricular support (p186).

On the basis of the findings of this study, I suggest the language program in the Metropolitan High School of Porto-Novo consider the realities of an effective and efficient program advocated by Brown (1995) and reinforced by Egounléti (2012), Hindémè (2012), Gnonlonfoun (2009) and Patinvoh-Agbayahoun (2011), to supply teachers with support in their job and provide a way for these teachers to grow in the profession. To reach these goals, the School can:

- Have a curriculum designed to make the teacher’s job easier. Provision needs to be made in the curriculum so that the teacher is in a better position to do effective teaching. This implies that all required resources (such as computer and internet availability for pre-service teachers) are available for the teacher to teach and develop himself professionally.
- Integrate in the curriculum the training on and the use of the internet, which should include a permanently scheduled monitoring to help both teachers as a group and as individuals to think about what effective teaching is with these tools, and seek new possibilities for their classroom practices. Monitoring teachers can be achieved through peer observation, self-observation, and students’ evaluations.

The different National Examination offices and departments should change the mode of examinations. Efforts should be made to make the contents of the examinations in line with the designed syllabuses. Assessment procedures should be amended to include online testing in the national examinations.

5.2. Suggestions

Apart from the above recommendations, I find it useful and very helpful to make a few suggestions to EFL teachers as well as to EFL students.

5.2.1. Suggestions to Teachers

Teachers are rightly regarded as guides. They are the ones who influence not only students’ school life but also their adult and professional life in which they are to collaborate with other colleagues. Therefore, they have to behave in ways that can be copied off by students.

People generally think that when teachers have a sound basis in their subject matter they will be effective teachers. The evidence of the extent of poor teaching existing today warrants the conclusion that though mastery of the subject-matter is a necessary condition for effective teaching, it is clearly not a sufficient condition.

First, because teachers’ attitudes towards instructional approaches highly influence classroom practice, it is necessary for the teachers to have a positive attitude towards the internet so that it can be successfully used. Second, because some teachers know little about applying internet requirements, they should be given the opportunity to educate themselves in fields about planning, implementing principles and evaluating internet infrastructures and uses. For this purpose, language-teaching programs should properly deal with the strengths and weaknesses of the internet as an instructional tool from basic principles to specific techniques. Third, when lack of confidence is one of the reasons why teachers avoid the use of the internet, it should be given consideration to overcome these impediments in the classroom. Teachers should use different and creative ways of management such as leveled tasks, peer evaluation and a diversity of task types like two-way information gap activities besides the one-way activity of questions and answers.

This study has some implications not only for secondary school EFL teachers at state-owned schools but also for teachers in private institutes. They are as follows:

1) One way to move towards learner-centeredness in language teaching is to try new approaches to language teaching proposed by theoreticians.
2) Although secondary school EFL teachers in Benin are not accustomed to using the internet in language teaching, this does not mean that one should put the internet aside and follow traditional methods and techniques of language teaching only.
3) As the attitudes of Beninese secondary school EFL teachers to the internet are rather positive as shown throughout this study, they should be encouraged to adopt this technology in their classrooms. To this end, the private school authorities should do their best to promote the use of the internet in their schools.
4) At a broader level, English teachers should take steps to integrate the internet in English instruction in their classes. This requires a change of attitude or awareness as far as decision makers at higher levels are concerned.
5) Secondary school EFL teachers should bear in mind that once they choose to teach English through the internet, they ought to evaluate their students’ performance through the internet. This is vital because teachers are the most important resources and one of the major stakeholders of schools. As such, they play a paramount role in the implementation of the teaching curriculum. Consequently, they should consider the huge possibilities and opportunities that the internet makes available to them. As such, it should be considered as a reinforcer to their teaching and a necessary add-on to their students on the job market. .

Needless to add that, nowadays, it is still possible and good to teach without technology, but it is better to use technologies such as the internet in teaching EFL because it matches their goals to the students needs. It eventually contributes to both their own professional and personal development and the innovation and creativity expected from them today. They should then do their best to either pay for training or train themselves by having computer materials and internet connection at home.

5.2.2. Suggestions to Students

Students are one of the major actors of the language teaching process because the language is taught to them. As such, a teaching tool such as the internet will be useless if they do not take advantage from its use. For this to be possible, they are suggested to take computer science courses seriously. This is a way by which they can acquire the skills necessary for them to use the internet. These skills are actually a requirement in the everyday life and professional life in this twenty-first century. Thus, they should know that its use adds to their language proficiency and reinforces their confidence and pride as true graduates on the highly competitive job market. When using it, they should follow instructions appropriately and handle materials cautiously. Thus, they avoid damaging the materials.

5.2.3. Suggestions to IT Ventures

Businesses involved in the design and manufacture of hardware and software and other accessories as well as internet service providers are advised to:

- avoid excessive mercantilism by reducing the costs of materials. By so doing, they favour a greater access (both home and school access) of teachers and students to the IT materials.
- make materials and service available all over the country
- supply school users with preferential treatments by providing them with after-sale possibilities of maintenance and repair.

5.2.4. Suggestions for Future Research

Because the current study is among the first of its kind in the context of Beninese secondary schools, additional studies could build on the results of this study and provide a greater wealth of knowledge in this area. Based on the analysis of the data and results presented in Chapter 4, the following recommendations for research are offered for consideration.

1. With some modifications, the instrument developed in this study may be used as a guide to measure observed Internet use with populations similar to that of this study. Also, the methodology designed in this study may be used to repeat this study over time to thoroughly test the model presented in this context, and measure the rate of adoption of Internet use.
2. Given the potential benefit of the use of the Internet for EFL teaching and learning in Beninese secondary schools, future research may study the relationships between the use of the Internet for instructional purposes by EFL teachers and student achievement.
3. Since the current study focused only on the secondary school EFL teachers’ use of the Internet in Benin, future research may consider studying students' Internet use in the same setting. Additionally, during the interviews, participants regularly mentioned students as participants in the overall Internet adoption process. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate these issues from an EFL student perspective.
4. This study used a research methodology, in which the quantitative part was dominant, and data collected from interviews served as a validating procedure. Qualitative research aims to provide in-depth information that quantitative research might not be able to access. Future researchers may carry out the same study by considering the qualitative option that employs in-class observations and in-depth interviews with teachers and students.
5. This study examined relationships between Internet use and other independent variables themselves. Further studies may look at the relationships between the independent variables. In particular, the relationship between access, expertise, perceptions, and other demographic variables can be explored.
6. Given the significant influence of cultural perceptions in determining level of Internet use, future studies should examine the effect of this factor on EFL teachers.
7. Future research may study what and/or which teaching methods correlate with higher levels of Internet use for instructional purposes.
8. The variables examined in this study were responsible for approximately 39% of the variance in the secondary school EFL teachers' use of the Internet. Future research may study other factors such as self-efficacy, training, colleagues and school support, and incentives as well as their influence on Internet use.
9. Because this study found that there is still a shortage of infrastructures in Beninese secondary schools regardless of all the announced projects (in terms of ICT integration in the curriculum), there exists a need for an evaluative study to assess the effectiveness of these projects. Further studies may also focus on assessing the equal distribution of technology projects among schools in Benin, employing both quantitative as well as qualitative research methods.

The following chapter, Chapter VI, is the conclusion. It marks the end of the present study.

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION

The major purpose of this work was to explore the level of use of the Internet by secondary school EFL teachers in Benin. Additionally, this study investigated the relationships between the level of the Internet use and access to the Internet, expertise in the Internet use, teachers' perceptions and attitudes towards the Internet as a tool for instructional purposes, and selected characteristics of EFL teachers in secondary schools in Benin. While attempting to provide a much needed look at how these teachers feel about and use the Internet for instructional purposes, the study also aimed, at a broader level, to enlarge understanding of the use of the Internet in the EFL context rather than the more commonly studied ESL context. More specifically, the current study intended to explore the following questions:

1. What is the level of the internet use among EFL teachers in Beninese secondary schools?
2. What are selected personal characteristics of EFL teachers related to internet use in Beninese secondary schools?
3. What is the level of EFL teachers’ perceived access to the internet?
4. What are the limitations to EFL teachers’ access to the internet?
5. What is the level of teachers’ perceived expertise in computer and internet use?
6. What are EFL teachers’ perceptions towards the internet as a tool for instruction?
7. What is the relationship between teachers’ level of the internet use on the one hand and their access to the internet, expertise in the internet use, perceptions of the internet as well as their personal characteristics on the other hand?
8. Which variables explain the amount of variance in the level of the internet use by secondary school EFL teachers in Benin?

500 EFL teachers were chosen randomly from 24 secondary schools selected throughout the country. Two schools were selected per department. A questionnaire (quantitative data) and interviews (qualitative data) were used to gather data to investigate the purpose and objectives of the study. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of five sections:

- Section one examined EFL teachers' use of the Internet under three domains of use, namely for instructional, professional development, and personal purposes by asking the participants the same questions under each domain of use. The questions represented the Internet services which are most likely essential to properly use the Internet, and they were measured on a five-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Very Often).
- Section two had two sub-sections to measure the level of access to the Internet. Section one had items representing the places where most likely participant would have access to the Internet (home, office, classroom, computer lab, and Cybercafé). The second section consisted of items that represented factors that were believed to limit teachers' Internet access. All questions were also measured on a five-point Likert-type scale from 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Very Often).
- Section three required participants to provide information about their perceived computer and Internet expertise. It contained questions that were designed to gather data about the participants' level of Internet expertise, including computers, using a five-point Likert- type scale also from 0 (Never Use) to 4 (Expert).
- Section four included questions to determine participants' perceptions of the Internet as a tool for instructional purposes. Also, here a five-point Likert-type scale was employed ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree).
- The last is Section five which focused on gathering personal information about the participants such as age, income, and level of education.

The response rate to this questionnaire was 99% (N=495) which is consistent since a response rate in the nineties percentage range is considered an excellent rate (Altschuld et al, 1992).

In the present study, interviews were also conducted with a subset of 40 participants randomly selected. Interviewees were asked three questions to gather qualitative data about their positive perceptions of the use of the Internet in instruction and the barriers that limit such use.

I have, then, used a descriptive qualitative research method to accomplish the objectives of the study and to predict the level of Internet use by secondary school EFL teachers in Benin. Descriptive statistical techniques (frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation) were used to describe the level of Internet use with respect to several selected factors: access, expertise, perceptions, and teacher characteristics. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain the degree to which the variables were predictive of the level of Internet use.

Both the quantitative and qualitative results of the study indicated that the participants had rarely used the Internet, particularly for instructional purposes.

Indeed, they reported more use of the Internet for personal than for instructional purposes. Participants had high levels of Internet use in mainstream Internet services such as e-mail and the Web. While they had positive perceptions of the use of the Internet as a pedagogical tool, they had relatively limited levels of access to and expertise with computers and the Internet.

Positive correlations existed between teachers' level of use of the Internet and five independent variables, including computer and Internet expertise, place of access to the Internet, perceptions of the Internet, computer experience, and Internet experience. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only expertise, place of access, and Internet experience had a significant predictive value of teachers' use of the Internet. The analyses of the results further indicated that approximately 39% of the variance in Internet use is explained by the independent variables included in this study.

To address these issues, appropriate recommendations and suggestions have been made. Actually, a major conclusion was that to increase Internet use, EFL teachers need to be given more Internet training. In-service training needs to be the first priority, with a primary focus on using the Internet as a tool for teaching and learning. Also, based on the findings, it is recommended that policy-makers maintain EFL teachers' positive perceptions of the pedagogical use of the Internet by spending more money on increasing the electric and computer infrastructures in Beninese secondary schools, on improving Internet access and services, and on educating both teachers and students with respect to issues concerning the appropriateness of materials available on the web. It has been suggested that Teachers undertake self- training or pay for it without waiting necessarily for educational authorities. On their part, students are advised to take seriously computer science courses and avoid damaging materials. To round off with this study, it has been suggested that Internet Service Providers and other related businesses lower the costs of materials to make them affordable to everybody.

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230. Valdez, G., M. McNabb, M., Foertsch, M., Anderson, M., Hawkes, M., & Raack, L. (2000). “Computer-based technology and learning: Evolving uses and expectations”. Available at http://www.ncrel.org/tplan/cbtl/toc.htm
231. Zakon, R. (1996). “Hobbes' Internet timeline”. Available at www.pbs.org/internet/history.

Appendices

Appendix 1: QUESTIONNAIRE

Questionnaire

This questionnaire is designed for EFL teachers teaching in state and/or private secondary schools in Benin, in the framework of a research which aims at exploring EFL Teachers’ Attitudes to and Perceptions of Using the Internet in English Language Teaching and Learning in Benin Secondary Schools.

This survey is composed of five sections. Section one examines EFL teachers' use of the Internet under three domains of use, namely for instructional, professional development, and personal purposes by asking the participants the same questions under each domain of use. Section two has two sub-sections to measure the level of access to the Internet. Section three requires participants to provide information about their perceived computer and Internet expertise. Section four includes questions to determine participants' perceptions of the Internet as a tool for instructional purposes. The last is Section five which focuses on gathering personal information about the participants, such as age, income, and level of education.

It will take you 20-30 minutes to complete the questionnaire. There is no correct or best response to the questions. Please answer them as best you can based on your thinking at this time. Your answers will be kept confidential.

SECTION I - INTERNET USE

Please express your perceived use of the internet by marking an X in the appropriate box.

1. How often do you use the following internet services for instructional purposes?

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2. How often do you use the following internet services for professional development purposes?

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3. How often do you use the following internet services for personal purposes?

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SECTION II - INTERNET ACCESS

1. Do you have access to the internet?

a- If Yes:_______, please answer other questions in this section.
b- If No:_______ , please skip this section and go to section three.

Please identify your access to the internet by marking an X in the appropriate box.

2. How often do you have access to the internet at these places?

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3. How often do the following factors bar your access to the internet at these places?

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SECTION III - EXPERTISE IN COMPUTER AND INTERNET USE

Please indicate your level of proficiency in using each of the following computer and internet applications/programs by marking an X in the appropriate box.

1. Level of proficiency in using Computer programs

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2. Level of proficiency in using Internet Services

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SECTION IV - ATTITUDES TO AND PERCEPTIONS OF THE INTERNET

Please indicate your agreement with each of the following statements by marking an X in the appropriate box.

Note: SD=Strongly Disagree, D=Disagree, N=Neutral, A=Agree, SA=Strongly Agree

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SECTION V - PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHERS

Please answer all of the following questions by marking an X where applicable to you.

1. How old are you?

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2. What is your monthly average income (francs CFA)?

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3. What is the highest academic degree you have earned?

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4. Are you a Beninese citizen? Yes:_______ No:_______

5. How long have you been teaching English?

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6. How long have you been using computers?

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7. How long have you been using the internet?

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8. Have you ever attended any training course, workshop, or seminar on using the internet?

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9. Do you prefer using old teaching methods over new ones?

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10. Comment on the use of the internet in EFL instruction and the limitations to such use in Benin secondary schools

Appendix 2: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Interview Questions

General Instructions

For the purpose of a research on the Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School EFL Teachers ’ towards the Use of the Internet in English Language Teaching and Learning in Benin, you are invited to answer the following questions. You are kindly requested to elaborate on your answer.

The interviewer can ask some additional questions based on the responses given by the particular interviewee. Moreover, some further questions may emerge in the course of the interview depending on the interviewee ’ s responses to the interview questions. It will be made clear to all participants that they have all the rights not to answer any question(s) that they feel uncomfortable with.

Sample Questions

1. a- Do you advocate the use of the Internet for instructional purposes?

b-Why or why not?

2. According to you, what are the factors, if any, that prevent or limit your use of the internet in English instruction?

3. What are your suggestions for an appropriate adoption of the internet by EFL teachers in English instruction in Benin secondary schools?

Appendix 3: A completed questionnaire

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Appendix 4: LIST OF SCHOOLS SELECTED

LIST OF SCHOOLS SELECTED

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Appendix 5: COVER LETTERS

COVER LETTER TO SCHOOL AUTHORITIES

Cotonou, November 21st, 2012

Dear School Authorities:

Thank you so much for agreeing to participate in my study.

The proposed study is a descriptive study that will use both quantitative (questionnaire administration) and qualitative (interviews) methods to explore the Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School EFL Teachers ’ towards the Use of the Internet in English Language Teaching and Learning in Benin. Some of the participants have been selected in your school. Voluntary participation which involves the ethical issues of confidentiality, anonymity, and privacy, are emphasized.

The data are being collected for the purposes of a Doctoral dissertation and may be used for subsequent research articles. Your NAME will not be associated with any publications or presentations from the research. The study will be carried out under the supervision of Prof. Taofiki KOUMAKPAI and Dr. M é terwa Akayaou OURSO.

Thank you again,

Jean Marc F.A.F.E. GNONLONFOUN Doctorate Candidate, Didactics (TEFL)

COVER LETTER TO PARTICIPANT

Cotonou, November 21st, 2012

Dear Participant:

Thank you so much for agreeing to participate in my study.

The proposed study is a descriptive study that will use both quantitative (questionnaire administration) and qualitative (interviews) methods to explore the Attitudes and Perceptions of Secondary School EFL Teachers ’ towards the Use of the Internet in English Language Teaching and Learning in Benin. You are one of the participants selected in your school. Voluntary participation which involves the ethical issues of confidentiality, anonymity, and privacy, are emphasized.

The data are being collected for the purposes of a Doctoral dissertation and may be used for subsequent research articles. Your NAME will not be associated with any publications or presentations from the research. The study will be carried out under the supervision of Prof. Taofiki KOUMAKPAI and Dr. M é terwa Akayaou OURSO.

It would help my data collection methods if you would please read and sign the consent form, complete the questionnaire, and please return it with the consent form.

Thank you again,

Jean Marc F.A.F.E. GNONLONFOUN Doctorate Candidate, Didactics (TEFL)

APPENDIX 6: CONSENT FORM

CONSENT FORM

THEME: The Use of Internet for the Teaching and Learning of English as a Foreign Language in Beninese Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Teachers ’ Attitudes and Perceptions

RESEARCHER: Jean Marc F.A.F.E. GNONLONFOUN, Doctorate Candidate, at the Department of English Studies, EDP/FLASH.

SUPERVISOR (S): Prof. Taofiki KOUMAKPAI & Dr. Méterwa Akayaou OURSO

1. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this research is to explore EFL Teachers’ Attitudes to and Perceptions of Using the Internet in English Instruction in Benin Secondary Schools.

2. Procedures to be followed: You will be asked to do two items to participate in the study: first, complete a questionnaire, which will take a maximum of thirty minutes to complete. Second, if selected, you’ll be asked to participate in an interview.

3. Discomforts and Risks: There are no foreseeable risks for your participation in this research beyond those experienced in everyday life.

4. Benefits: You might learn more about yourself by participating in this study. You will also have the opportunity to reflect on some of the diverse factors that impact the use of the Internet in EFL instruction in Benin secondary schools.

This research might provide a better understanding of these influences faced by teachers. This information could help scholars, curriculum designers and school authorities develop appropriate alternatives that would benefit all the actors of Benin educational system.

5. Duration: The first phase of the study (filling the questionnaire) will take approximately thirty minutes. If selected, you’ll take part in an interview that will last 10 to 30 minutes.

6. Statement of Confidentiality: Unless you give permission for your name to be associated with your responses, only the principal investigator, Jean-Marc F.A.F.E. GNONLONFOUN, will know your identity and have access to the information obtained with your permission. The data will be stored and secured in a locked file and on a password-protected computer. All recorded data will be destroyed by as soon as the research is over. In the event of a publication or presentation resulting from the research, no personally identifiable information will be shared.

7. Right to Ask Questions: You can ask questions about this research. Please feel free to contact the researcher, Jean-Marc F.A.F.E. GNONLONFOUN.

8. Voluntary Participation: Your decision to be in this research is voluntary. You can stop at any time. You do not have to answer any questions you do not want to answer.

If you agree to take part in this research study and the information outlined above, please sign your name and indicate the date below. You will be given a copy of this signed and dated consent for your own records.

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APPENDIX 7: PROPOSED TIMELINE AND BUDGET

Proposed Timeline and Budget

1- Proposed Timeline

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2. Proposed Budget

The projected cost for this study is 2.000.000fcfa. It is anticipated that I will meet these costs through personal activities. They are as follows:

a) Photocopying and Internet Resources - 500.000fcfa
b) Computer and Related Expenses - 500.000fcfa
c) Travel Expenses - 500.000 fcfa
d) Extra: 500.000fcfa

[...]


1 Names have been changed

234 of 234 pages

Details

Title
Exploring secondary school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' attitudes to and perceptions of using the internet in English language teaching in Benin
College
Université d'Abomey-Calavi
Course
Didactics - EFL
Author
Year
2014
Pages
234
Catalog Number
V352329
ISBN (Book)
9783668387249
File size
3069 KB
Language
English
Tags
EFL, ICTs, language teaching and learning, Benin secondary school context, didactic
Quote paper
Jean-Marc Gnonlonfoun (Author), 2014, Exploring secondary school English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers' attitudes to and perceptions of using the internet in English language teaching in Benin, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/352329

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