Smart healthcare. A general encyclopaedia for healthcare problems

An overview


Scientific Study, 2017

52 Pages, Grade: 1.5


Excerpt

Table of contents

Table of figures

Table of tables

List of abbreviations

Smart healthcare: an overview

Abstract

1. Introduction

2. System analysis
2.1 Scope of computerization
2.2 Objectives of computerization
2.3 Initial investigation

3. Materials and Methods
3.1 Existing system
3.2 Proposed system
3.3 Feasibility of the study

4. System analysis
4.1 Requirement and specifications
4.2 About Microsoft visual studio 2012

5. System design
5.1 Characteristics of design
5.2 Design of the proposed system
5.3 Input design
5.4 Modules in use and their functions
5.5 Output design
5.6 Database design
5.7 Tables

6. Software testing
6.1 Testing objectives
6.2 Testing principles
6.3 Testing strategies
6.4 Testing techniques

7. System implementation and maintenance
7.1 Implementation concept
7.2 Implementation procedures
7.3 Implementation plan
7.4 Post implementation review
7.5 System maintenance
7.6 System security measures
7.7 Future scope

8. Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Table of figures

Figure 1. Contex level diagram; Level_0 DFD

Figure 2. Level 1 DFD for admin

Figure 3. Level_1 DFD for clinic.

Figure 4. Level_1 DFD for doctor.

Figure 5. Level_1 DFD for patient.

Table of tables

Table 1. Table details (tblMedicalHistory) and creation parameters.

Table 2. Table details (Login) and creation parameters.

Table 3. Table details (tblDoctor) and creation parameters.

Table 4. Table details (District) and creation parameters.

Table 5. Table details (Debitcard) and creation parameters.

Table 6. Table details (Patientregis) and creation parameters.

Table 7. Table details (State) and creation parameters.

Table 8. Table details (Tbl_Prescription) and creation parameters.

Table 9. Table details (Tbl_Visitingtime) and creation parameters.

Table 10. Table details (Tbl_Place) and creation parameters.

Table 11. Table details (Tbl_Clinic) and creation parameters.

Table 12. Table details (Tbl_Appointment) and creation parameters.

Table 13. Table details (Tbl_Article) and creation parameters.

Table 14. Table details (Tbl_Quest) and creation parameters.

Table 15. Table details (Tbl_Reply) and creation parameters.

Table 16. Table details (Tbl_Sugest) and creation parameters.

List of abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Smart healthcare: an overview

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal1, Sunil K Joseph2, Harikrishnan Mohan2, Arnold Babu2, Amal Mathew2, Abin Baby2 and Geethu Thomas3

1Department of Biotechnology, Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram, Kerala, India-686576

2Department of Computer Science, Mar Augusthinose College, Ramapuram, Kerala, India-686576

3Higher Secondary Division, Sacred Heart English Medium Higher Secondary, Moolamattom, Kerala, India-685589

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly we thank God Almighty whose blessing were always with us and helped us to complete this research work successfully.

We are extremely grateful to Prakash Joseph (Head of the Department, Computer Science) for the valuable suggestions, support and encouragements. We wish to thank our beloved Manager Rev. Fr. Dr. George Njarakunnel, Respected Principal Dr. Joseph V. J, Bursar Shaji Augustine, Vice Principal Fr. Joseph Allencheril, and the Management for providing all the necessary facilities in carrying out the study.

We lovingly and gratefully indebted to our teachers, parents, siblings and friends who were there always for helping us in this project.

Prem Jose Vazhacharickal, Sunil K Joseph and Geethu Thomas

Abstract

Health helpline is meant for interaction between users and doctors. A user can see various tips and precautions posted by the doctors related to various diseases and health related problems. Registered members can ask their questions and our related doctors post their reply through this helpline. In this system there are mainly four modules a) The Administrator b) The doctors c) Clinic d) Patients. The ordinary persons can register either as doctor or users. If the doctor post the answer the admin check and allow or reject it. The admin and the doctor has the power to add disease and its symptoms. They can also add precautions for this disease. The user can view disease, its symptom and precautions for it. They can also view the detail of doctors and their photo, contact details etc. It help the doctor’s publicity. Using this site the doctors can share the files (treatment information/or any scanning/X-ray result etc) of patient or any other to the other doctors. The system acts as an online encyclopaedia of health care. Clients can view the details of a specialist. Search and find the symptoms of a disease and their precautions. Find the latest health care tips. Clarify their doubts by asking related doctors.

Keywords: Data flow diagram, Databases, Patients, Clinic, C++.

1. Introduction

In our research work, we try to provide the public a general encyclopaedia for healthcare problems. Clients can search all disease related features under a single site. At the same time we keep a doctor directly for the clients. It includes their specialization, experience, now work at and contact details. Clients can directly search and choose the doctor they like for consulting. After consult a doctor can upload their reports to their related doctors. Clients can ask any doubts about the health problems. The doctors are ready to answer them through their site and clients get a lot of health tips. The ordinary persons can register either as doctor or users. If the doctor posts the answer the admin check and allow or reject it. The admin and the doctor have the power to add disease and its symptoms. They can also add precautions for this disease. The user can view disease, its symptom and precautions for it. They can also view the detail of doctors and their photo, contact details etc. It helps the doctor’s publicity. Using this site the doctors can share the files (treatment information/or any scanning/X-ray result etc) of patient or any other to the other doctors (Istepanian et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2010; Ash et al., 2004).

The system acts as an online encyclopaedia of health care. Clients can view the details of a specialist. Search and find the symptoms of a disease and their precautions. Find the latest health care tips. Clarify their doubts by asking related doctors.

2. System analysis

System Analysis is the application of the systems approach to problem solving using computers. The ingredients are system elements, processes and technology. This means that to do systems work, one need to understand the system concept and how organizations operate as a system, and then design appropriate computer based systems that will meet an organization’s requirements. It is actually a customized approach to the use of computer for problem solving.

2.1 Scope of computerization

The scope of computerization in any field is increasing speed, accuracy and storage capacity are the factors supporting the field. Here in this project we are implementing an environment for that enables different users can access these services who have a valid Username and Password.

2.2 Objectives of computerization

The major objective of computerization in any field is to make man’s job easier. Our system enables different functions and all users can uses these functions that have a valid Username and Password.

2.3 Initial investigation

Initial investigation is the activity that determines whether the user’s requisition is valid and feasible. The first step in Initial investigation is the problem definition. It includes the identification of the problem to be solved, for the task to be accomplished and the system goals to be achieved. As a part of existing system, we found that existing system for health care sites have not provided a co-ordination in various health activities.

3. Materials and Methods

3.1 Existing system

Nowadays there are many websites which resolves our health problems, in Wikipedia there is a facility to find out the different type of diseases, their symptoms, prevention etc. Some sites provide online consultancy, booking etc. But the client depends on each site for each purpose. Here we try to Co-ordinate the different functionality into a single website.

Disadvantages of existing system:-

- The existing system is not on-line
- No direct information for the user in the System
- Tracking of goods are done manually
- Time wasting due to lack of proper planning
- Repetition of work: if there are any changes to be made, the data will have to be entered again.
- More manpower will be wasted
- Processing delays.

3.2 Proposed system

The proposed system overcomes most of the limitations of the present system. Thus

We try to provide the public a general encyclopaedia for healthcare problems. Clients can search all disease related features under a single site. At the same time we keep a doctor directly for the clients. It includes their specialization, experience, now work at and contact details.

Clients can directly search and choose the doctor they like for consulting. After consult a doctor can upload their reports to their related doctors. Clients can ask any doubts about the health problems. The doctors are ready to answer them through their site and clients get a lot of health tips.

The advantages of proposed system are:

- Data is centralized which has overcome the Sharing problem in previous system.
- As data is maintained electronically, it’s easy for a person to update the details, which has overcome the tedious updating in previous system.
- Maintenance is easy and performance is good

3.3 Feasibility of the study

The objective of a feasibility study is to test the technical, social and economic feasibility of developing a computer system. This is done by investigating the existing system and generating ideas about a new system. The computer system must be evaluated from a technical viewpoint first, and if technically feasible, their impact on the organization and the staff must be accessed. If a compatible, social and technical system can be devised, then it must be tested for economic feasibility. The 3 important tests for feasibility are studied and described below

- Operational feasibility
- Technical feasibility
- Economic feasibility

3.3.1 Operational feasibility

Proposed projects are beneficial only if they can be turned into information systems that will meet the operating requirements of the organization. The test of feasibility asks if the system will work when it is developed and installed. Some of the important questions that are useful to test the operational feasibility of a project are given below

- Is there sufficient support for the project from the management? From users? If the present system is well liked and used to the extent that people would not be able to see reasons for a change, there may be a resistance.

- Are current methods acceptable to the users? If they are not, users may welcome a change that will bring about a more operational and useful system.

- Have the users been involved in the planning and development of the project, and then the changes of resistance can be possibly reduced.

- Issues that appear to be quite minor at the early stage can grow into major problems after implementation.

3.3.2 Technical feasibility

The assessment of technical feasibility must be based on the outline of the system requirements in terms of inputs, outputs, files, programs, procedures and staff. This can be quantified in terms of volumes of data, trends, frequency of updating, etc. Having identified an outline system, the investigator must go on to suggest the type of equipment required, methods of developing the system and methods of running the system.

With regard to the processing facilities, the feasibility study will need to consider the possibility of using a bureau or, if in-house equipment is available, the nature of the hardware to be used for data collection, storage, output and processing.

There are number of technical issues, which are generally raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation. They are as follows

- Does a necessary technology exist to do what is suggested?

- Does the proposed equipment have the capacity to hold the data required to use the new system?

- Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and security?

3.3.3 Economic feasibility

A system that can be developed technically and that will be used if installed must still be profitable for the organization. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs. Justification for any outlay is that it will increase profit and reduce expenditure.

4. System analysis

The first step in developing the system is analyzing the problem. Before developing a system the problem should be well defined. Identifying the need for a new information system and launching an investigation and a feasible study must be done to check whether the software is visible for the organization. This unit we have done this study.

From the detailed study of the existing system we understand that, the organization needs a better system with greater ease and efficiency. The major problems are identified carefully and we find out an alternative solution by developing a new site.

Before developing the new site, a detailed analysis and a comparison between the proposed system and existing system is needed. If the new system satisfies all the requirements of the user, then we can continue the process of development.

4.1 Requirement and specifications

The software requirement specification is produced at the culmination of the analysis task. The function and performance allocated to the software as the part of the system engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description, a detailed functional description a representation of the system behaviour, an indication of the performance requirements and the design constraints, appropriate criteria, and other information pertinent to the requirements.

The introduction of the software requirements specification states the goals and objectives of the software, describing the content of the computer based system.

The Information description provides a detailed description of the problem that the software must solve. Information content, flow and structure are documented. Hardware, software and Human interfaces are described for the external system elements and internal software functions (Pressmann and Ince, 2000).

A description of each function required to solve the problem is presented in the functional description processing narrative is provided for each function, design constraints are stated and justified, performance characteristics are stated and one or more diagrams are included to graphically represent the overall structure of the software and interplay among software functions and other system elements.

The behavioural Description section of the specification examines the operation of the software as consequences of external events and internally generated control characteristics. Validation criteria are probably the most important and, ironically the most neglected section of the software requirements specification (Pressmann and Ince, 2000).

Specification of validation criteria acts as an implicit review of all other requirements.

Both the developer and the customer conduct a review of the software requirements specification .Because the specification forms the foundation of the development phase, extreme core should be taken in conducting the review. The review is first conducted at a macroscopic level; that is, reviewers attempt to ensure that the specification is complete, consistent and the accurate when the overall information, functional and the behavioural domains are considered. Once the review is complete, both the customer and the developer sign off the software requirement specification. The specification becomes a “contact” for the software development (Pressmann and Ince, 2000; Awad, 1994; Gore & Stubbe, 1988; Jalote, 2005).

4.1.1 Hardware specifications

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.1.2 Software specifications

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

4.2 About Microsoft visual studio 2012

Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It can be used to develop console and graphical user interface applications along with Windows Forms applications, web sites, web applications, and web services in both native code together with managed code for all platforms supported by Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, Windows CE, .NET Framework, .NET Compact Framework and Microsoft Silver light.

Visual Studio supports different programming languages by means of language services, which allow the code editor and debugger to support nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C/C++ (via Visual C++), VB.NET (via Visual Basic .NET), C# (via Visual C#), and F# (as of Visual Studio 2012). It also supports XML/XSLT, HTML/XHTML, JavaScript and CSS.

4.2.1 The .Net platform

The .NET Framework is Microsoft's comprehensive and consistent programming model for building applications that have visually stunning user experiences, seamless and secure communication, and the ability to model a range of business processes. The .NET Framework 4 works side by side with older Framework versions. Applications that are based on earlier versions of the Framework will continue to run on the version targeted by default.

The .NET Framework is a software framework that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large library and supports several programming languages which allow language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages). Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment (as contrasted to hardware environment), known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides important services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.

The .NET Framework's Base Class Library provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their own source code with the .NET Framework and other libraries. The .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces a popular integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.

The Microsoft .NET Framework 4 provides the following new features and improvements:

- Improvements in CLR and Base Class Library (BCL)
- For a comprehensive list of enhancements to CLR and BCL
- Innovations in the Visual Basic and C# languages, for example statement lambdas, implicit line continuations, dynamic dispatch, and named/optional parameters.
- Improvements in Data Access and Modelling
- Enhancements to ASP.NET

4.2.2 Features of ASP.Net

- Security: ASP.NET provides defaults authorization and authentication schemes for web applications.
- Compilation: All ASP.NET code, including scripts is compiled, which allows for performance optimizations, storing typing and early binding .Once the code has been compiled, the common language runtime further compiles ASP.NET to native code.
- Application event:ASP.NET allows us to include application level event handling code in the optical global.
- State facilities: ASP.NET also offers distributed state facilities. We can create multiple instances of the same application on one computer or on several computers.
- Deployment: ASP.NET configuration settings are stored in Xml based file, which are human readable and writable.
- Manageability: ASP.NET also supplies performance counters within the windows performance monitor. These counters can be used to monitor the performance of a single instance of an ASP.NET application.

No need to separately install the structured query language (SQL) Server 2008 while using the ASP.NET 2008.

4.2.3 Common language runtime

Common Language Runtime is the engine available in .Net Framework to compile and run the program. CLR engine does not compile the code in machine code but converts the code in a set of instructions called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL). This MSIL is one of the section of Portable Executable (PE) file, the other being Metadata. PE file automatically get generated when you compile the program code.

The conversion of the program code to MSIL by CLR engine makes .Net platform and language independent. Although at present, Microsoft does not have CLR engines for other platforms, in future you can find .Net application being compiled in UNIX or Linux operating system. After the conversion of the program code to MSIL, the code is then translated to native or machine code. Instead of compiling the program code at development time, the MSIL code gets translated ‘just in time’ (JIT) by JIT compilers.

The CLR supports component-based programming. Component development has numerous attractive benefits such as code reuse, proper maintenance of all components by allowing independent bug fixes to each.

In addition, the CLR helps developers in managing both allocation and de-allocation of memory. This removes two of the largest sources of programmer error: leaks and memory corruption.

CLR is also helpful for security purposes. CLR provide permissions to a component based on what process it runs in, validates the code based on evidence such as information about code at load time and the website from which component was obtained to assign permissions on a component-by-component basis. Moreover, CLR checks the code to see if it has been manipulated. The metadata in a CLR component can contain a digital signature that can be used to verify that the component was written by genuine person and that it has not been modified. You can verily identify if anyone has tried to modify with the code.

4.2.4 Microsoft SQL server 2008

Microsoft SQL Server 2008 provide following new features for database developers.

- Increase the precision of storing and managing DATE and TIME information.
- Store semi-structured and sparsely populated sets of data efficiently, using Sparse Columns.
- New fully integrated Full-Text Indexes enable high-performance, scalable, and manageable Full-Text Indexing.
- Create large User-Defined Types and User-Defined Aggregates greater than 8 KB.
- Pass large amounts of data easily to functions or procedures using new Table-Value Parameters.
- Perform multiple operations efficiently with the new MERGE command.
- Model hierarchical data, such as org charts, or files and folders, using the new Hierarchy Id data type.
- Build powerful location-aware applications, using SQL Server’s new standards-compliant spatial data types and spatial indexing capabilities.
- Manage files and documents efficiently with full SQL Server security and transaction support, using the powerful new FILESTREAM data type.
- Easily identify dependencies across objects and databases, using New Dependency Management.
- Experience faster queries and reporting with Grouping Sets through powerful ANSI standards-compliant extensions to the GROUP BY clause.
- Experience efficient, high-performance data access, using new Filtered Indexes for subsets of data.

4.2.5 C# language

C# is a general purpose programming object oriented language invented around 1999 or 2000 by Anders Hejlsberg at Microsoft. It is very similar to Java in its syntax with a major difference being that all variable types are descended from a common ancestor class.

The purpose of C# is to precisely define a series of operations that a computer can perform to accomplish a task. Most of these operations involve manipulating numbers and text, but anything that the computer can physically do can be programmed in C#. Computers have no intelligence- they have to be told exactly what to do and this is defined by the programming language you use. Once programmed, they can repeat the steps as many times as you wish at very high speeds. Modern PCs are so fast they can count to a billion in a second or two.

Features

- It has no global variables or functions. All methods and members must be declared within classes. Static members of public classes can substitute for global variables and functions.

- Local variables cannot shadow variables of the enclosing block, unlike C and C++. Variable shadowing is often considered confusing by C++ texts.

- C# supports a strict Boolean data type.

- Managed memory cannot be explicitly freed; instead, it is automatically garbage collected. Garbage collection addresses the problem of memory leaks by freeing the programmer of responsibility for releasing memory that is no longer needed.

- In addition to the try...catch construct to handle exceptions, C# has a try...finally construct to guarantee execution of the code in the finally block.

- Multiple in-heritance is not supported, although a class can implement any number of interfaces. This was a design decision by the language's lead architect to avoid complication and simplify architectural requirements throughout command line interface (CLI).

- C#, like C++ (but unlike Java), supports operator overloading.

- C# currently (as of version 4.0) has 77 reserved words

4.3 Selection of operating system

4.3.1 Windows 7 an overview

Windows 7 includes improved network, application and Web services. It provides increased reliability and scalability, lowers your cost of computing with powerful, flexible management services, and provides the best foundation for running business application.

4.3.2 Network data security

Network data can be protected on the wire or at the network interface. Securing data at the network requires a firewall to proxy services and mediate connections between the internal network, (local area net work; LAN) and external network (Internet). This is the purpose of Proxy Server.

4.3.3 Internet protocol security

Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a framework of open standards for ensuring secure private communications over Internet Protocol networks, using cryptographic security services.

4.3.4 Internet explorer as web browser

Internet explorer (IE) makes it easier to get the most from the world wide web, whether we are searching for new information or browsing your favourite website. and built in intelligence technology can save us time completing web tasks, such as automatically completing web addresses and form for, and automatically detecting your network and connection status.

4.3.5 Advantages of Internet explorer

- When we start typing a frequently used web address in the address bar, a list of similar appears that you can choose from. And if a web page address is wrong, IE can search for similar addresses to try to find a match.

- Search for websites by clicking the search button on the toolbar.

- In the search bar type a word or phrase that describes what you are looking for.

- Go to other web pages similar to the one you are viewing without even doing a search. Just use the show related sites feature.

- Browse through the list of web pages you recently visited by clicking the history button on the tool bar.

5. System design

System design provides an understanding of the procedural details, necessary for implementing the system recommended in the feasibility study. Basically it is all about the creation of a new system. This is a critical phase since it decides the quality of the system and has a major impact on the testing and implementation phases.

System design consists of three major steps

- Drawing of the expanded system data flow charts to identify all the processing functions required.

- The allocation of the equipment and the software to be used.

- The identification of the test requirements for the system.

5.1 Characteristics of design

- A design should exhibit a hierarchical organization that makes intelligent use of control among components of the software.

- A design should be modular that is, the software should be logical.

- A design should contain distinct and separable representation of data and procedure.

- A design should lead to interface that reduce the complexity of the connections between modules and with the external environment

5.2 Design of the proposed system

In design phase, detailed design of the system is carried out and a user oriented performance specification is convenient for a technical design specification. Principle activities performed during design phase include the allocation of functions between computer programs, equipment and manual task, and database design and test requirements definition.

Design phase begins with system design. This step involves allocation of function. Effective input design minimizes errors made by data entry operators. Output designs have been ongoing activity almost from the beginning of the project. Here the, layout for all the system outputs are prepared.

5.3 Input design

Input design is a part of overall system design, which requires very careful attention. If data going into the system is correct, then the processing and output will magnify these errors. Thus the designer has a number of clear objectives in the different stages of input design

- To produce a cost effective method of input.

- To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.

- To ensure that input is acceptable to and understand by the user.

5.4 Modules in use and their functions

5.4.1 Administrator

- Add diseases.

- Add symptoms.

- Add prescription.

- View & Accept Doctors List.

- Add News & Events.

- View Health Tips.

5.4.2 Doctor

- Upload Photo.

- Add Health tips.

- View Client Details & Reports.

- Share Documents.

- View Questions & Replay.

- View Shared Documents.

5.4.3 Client

- View Doctors directory.

- Consult a Doctor.

- Search Disease details.

- Upload Reports.

- Ask Questions.

- Check Answers.

5.5 Output design

At the beginning of the output design various types of outputs such as external, internal, operational, and interactive and turnaround are defined. Then the format, content, location, frequency, volume and sequence of the outputs are specified. The content of the output must be defined in detail. The system analysis has two specific objectives at this stage.

- To interpret and communicate the results of the computer part of a system to the users in a form, which they can understand, and which meets their requirements.

- To communicate the output design specifications to programmers in a way in which it is unambiguous, comprehensive and capable of being translated into a programming language.

Figure 1. Contex level diagram; Level_0 DFD

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2. Level 1 DFD for admin

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 3. Level_1 DFD for clinic.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 4. Level_1 DFD for doctor.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 5. Level_1 DFD for patient.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

5.6 Database design

Database design is an important activity in design. The efficiency of the system lies in the efficiency of database. The database design consists of predetermining number of tables that are to be used and fields that are to be used in each table. The efficiency of the system to retrieve the appropriate data depends on how the fields are specified and the coding mostly depends on format of the database.

5.7 Tables

A table is designed as a collection of rows and columns, which are in turn called as tuples and attributes. Tuple is nothing but a record in the table. A record is a collection of one or more interrelated fields. The table is an object of Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), which is used to store and retrieve the data much easier and faster.

5.8 Data flow diagrams

A Graphical representation is used to describe and analyze the movement of data through a system manual or automated including the processes, storing of data and delays in the system. Data flow diagrams (DFD) are the central tool and the basis from which other components are developed.

The transformation of data, from input to output through process may be described logically and independently of the physical components associated with the system. They are termed logical dataflow diagrams, showing the actual implementation and the movement of data between people, departments and workstations. DFD is one of the most important modelling tools used in system design. DFD shows the flow of data through different process in the system.

5.8.1 Purpose

The purpose of the design is to create architecture for the evolving implementation and to establish the common tactical policies that must be used by desperate elements of the system. We begin the design process as soon as we have some reasonably completed model of the behaviour of the system. It is important to avoid premature designs, wherein develop designs before analysis reaches closer. It is important to avoid delayed designing where in the organization crashes while trying to complete an unachievable analysis model.

Throughout the project, the context flow diagrams, data flow diagrams and flow charts have been extensively used to achieve the successful design of the system. In my opinion," efficient design of the data flow and context flow diagram helps to design the system successfully without much major flaws within the scheduled time". This is the most complicated part in a project. In the designing process, my project took more than the activities in the software life cycle. If we design a system efficiently with all the future enhancements the project will never become junk and it will be operational.

The data flow diagrams were first developed by Larry Constantine as a way of expressing system requirements in graphical form. A data flow diagram also known as "bubble chare' has the purpose of clarifying system requirements and identifying major transformations that will become programs in system design. It functionally decomposes the requirement specification down to the lowest level. Data Flow Diagram depicts the information flow, the transformation flow and the transformations that are applied as data move from input to output. Thus DFD describes what data flows rather than how they are processed.

Data Flow Diagram is quite effective, especially when the required design is unclear and the user and analyst need a notational language for communication. It is one of the most important tools used during system analysis. It is used to model the system components such as the system process, the data used by the process, any external entities that interact with the system and information flows in the system.

[...]

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Details

Title
Smart healthcare. A general encyclopaedia for healthcare problems
Subtitle
An overview
College
Mar Augusthinose College
Grade
1.5
Authors
Year
2017
Pages
52
Catalog Number
V367320
ISBN (eBook)
9783668459120
ISBN (Book)
9783668459137
File size
1279 KB
Language
English
Tags
smart
Quote paper
Dr. Prem Jose Vazhacharickal (Author)Sunil K. Joseph (Author)Geethu Thomas (Author), 2017, Smart healthcare. A general encyclopaedia for healthcare problems, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/367320

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