Pandemic Influenza Management In Portsmouth With Particular Reference To The University Of Portsmouth


Master's Thesis, 2016

68 Pages, Grade: Merit


Excerpt

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Context
1.2 Aim
1.3 Research questions

2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Characteristics of a pandemic influenza
2.2 Analysis of the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan
2.2.1 Response
2.2.1.1 Initial phase response
2.2.1.2 Low impact response
2.2.1.3 Moderate impact response
2.2.1.4 High impact response
2.2.1.5 Post-pandemic recovery phase
2.2.2 Communication
2.2.2.1 Spokespeople
2.2.2.2 Key messages and communication tools
2.2.3 Adult care
2.2.3.1 Residential care homes
2.2.3.2 Social care and care management
2.2.4 Education
2.2.5 Management of excess deaths
2.3 Analysis of the University of Portsmouth Pandemic Contingency Plan
2.3.1 Response
2.3.1.1 Response during WHO phases 1 and 2
2.3.1.2 Response during WHO phase 3
2.3.1.3 Response during WHO phase 4
2.3.1.4 Response during WHO phase 5
2.3.1.5 Response during WHO phase 6
2.3.1.6 Post-pandemic recovery phase
2.3.2 Communication
2.3.3 Education

3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study design
3.2 Study subjects
3.3 Sampling technique and data analysis

4 RESULTS
4.1 Socio-demographic characteristics
4.2 General knowledge about pandemic influenza
4.3 Risk perception
4.4 Behaviour during a pandemic influenza
4.5 Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine

5 DISCUSSION
5.1 Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan
5.2 University of Portsmouth Pandemic Contingency Plan
5.3 Survey
5.4 Limitations

6 CONCLUSION

7 REFERENCES

8 APPENDICES
8.1 Questionnaire
8.2 Ethical Review Application Form
8.3 Health and Safety Form

List of Figures

Fig. 1: Alert process for a pandemic influenza outbreak

Fig. 2: General knowledge about pandemic influenza (survey question #1)

Fig. 3: General knowledge about pandemic influenza (survey question #2)

Fig. 4: General knowledge about pandemic influenza (survey question #3)

Fig. 5: General knowledge about pandemic influenza (survey question #4)

Fig. 6: Risk perception (survey question #5)

Fig. 7: Risk perception (survey question #6)

Fig. 8: Risk perception (survey question #7)

Fig. 9: Risk perception (survey question #8)

Fig. 10: Behaviour during a pandemic influenza (survey question #10)

Fig. 11: Behaviour during a pandemic influenza (survey question #11)

Fig. 12: Behaviour during a pandemic influenza (survey question #12)

Fig. 13: Behaviour during a pandemic influenza (survey question #13)

Fig. 14: Behaviour during a pandemic influenza (survey question #14)

Fig. 15: Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine (survey question #16)

Fig. 16: Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine (survey question #17)

Fig. 17: Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine (survey question #18)

Fig. 18: Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine (survey question #19)

Fig. 19: Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine (survey question #20)

Fig. 20: Perceptions and concerns relating to the vaccine (survey question #21)

List of Tables

Table 1: Differences between seasonal and pandemic influenza

Table 2: Portsmouth City Council’s initial phase response

Table 3: Portsmouth City Council’s low impact response

Table 4: Portsmouth City Council’s moderate impact response

Table 5: Portsmouth City Council’s high impact response

Table 6: Portsmouth City Council’s post-pandemic response

Table 7: WHO phases 1 and 2 response of the University of Portsmouth

Table 8: WHO phase 3 response of the University of Portsmouth

Table 9: WHO phase 4 response of the University of Portsmouth

Table 10: WHO phase 5 response of the University of Portsmouth

Table 11: WHO phase 6 response of the University of Portsmouth

Table 12: Post-pandemic recovery phase of the University of Portsmouth

Table 13: Socio-demographic characteristics of the study sample

Table 14: Risk perception (survey question #9)

Table 15: Behaviour during a pandemic influenza (survey question #15)

List of Abbreviations

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SCHOOL OF EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES DISCLAIMER

The enclosed project is entirely the work of the postgraduate student and any opinions
expressed are not necessarily those of any member of the staff of the School of Earth
and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth. The text does not show any
corrections of fact or calculations, and significant errors and omissions are possible.
Any external reader or user of this report does so entirely at his own risk and
responsibility, and neither the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences nor the
University of Portsmouth can be held responsible for anything contained within this

student project report.

Abstract

Aim: The overall goal of this dissertation consists in analysing the status quo of pandemic influenza preparedness in Portsmouth and the University of Portsmouth, respectively. In addition, it is intended to gain an impression of the level of awareness towards pandemic influenza among students of the University of Portsmouth.

Literature review: Both the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan and the University of Portsmouth Pandemic Contingency Plan are well-thought and comprehensive. They cover not only alert stages and response but also communication and education. The Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan, additionally, considers adult care and the management of excess deaths.

Methodology: An online survey among students of the University of Portsmouth was conducted between 22 April 2016 and 15 July 2016. The link to the survey was advertised on the “Students Projects” website of the University of Portsmouth.

Results: The survey among University of Portsmouth students indicated that half of the participants were aware of pandemic influenza. The majority of participants reported accurate information about the mode of transmission and agreed that vaccination (70.4%), hand washing (74.1%), and covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing (81.5%) represented an efficient prevention method. If cases of a global pandemic influenza were reported in the UK, most of the respondents would seek guidance from their GP (70.4%) and get a vaccination (86.7%). In general, however, only 44.4% of all participants were concerned about pandemic influenza.

Conclusion: The University of Portsmouth Pandemic Contingency Plan might benefit from the inclusion of templates for key messages that can be used in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak as it is already the case in the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan. Above all, however, it is regarded necessary to raise the University of Portsmouth students’ awareness towards pandemic influenza, for example through information campaigns about the risk of infection and appropriate behaviour in case of an outbreak.

1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Context

Influenza pandemics represent natural phenomena that occur at irregular intervals throughout the centuries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a pandemic is triggered when “an influenza virus which was not previously circulating among humans and to which most people don't have immunity emerges and transmits among humans” (WHO, 2014, p. 1). Since the outbreak of a pandemic influenza is considered to be both highly likely and severely disruptive (PORTSMOUTH CITY COUNCIL, 2012), the National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 estimates pandemic influenza as the highest civil emergency risk in the UK (HM GOVERNMENT, 2015). In most cases, the health response required for a pandemic is accompanied by several issues, such as (NHS, 2012):

Uncertainty - there may be little or no information available initially, so rapid gathering and sharing of reliable data will be important to arrange the necessary response Speed - in local areas the increase in demand on services can develop very quickly, requiring an agile and coordinated response Profile - media pressure and public demand for information will be intense, requiring frequent, consistent, and coherent communication Cross-sector approach - the response will span different sectors and organisations, requiring close working and mutual support Local hotspots - different geographic areas may be under pressure at different times, requiring good information exchange and flexibility of local plans.

In general, each pandemic is unique and, until the virus begins to circulate, it is extremely difficult to precisely determine characteristics, spread, and aftermath of a new influenza virus strain. Considering historical information and scientific evidence, the possible consequences can, however, be predicted (CABINET OFFICE, DEPARTMENT FOR COMMUNITIES AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, HOME OFFICE, MINISTRY OF JUSTICE, 2013):

Millions of people across the world would contract pandemic influenza, up to 50% would suffer from symptoms, and an indeterminate proportion would die from the disease itself or from complications accompanied by it, for example pneumonia.

In the UK, about half of the population might fall ill. Moreover, between 20,000 and 750,000 additional deaths compared to the number of casualties that would have happened under normal circumstances over the same period of time could have taken place by the end of the pandemic.

In case of a lack of early and efficient countermeasures, society would also be likely to face social and economic disruption far beyond the affected countries and disproportionate to the number of cases and deaths. Furthermore, considerable perils to the stability of crucial services and delays in delivery of vital goods might occur. Apart from that, the economic sector would also suffer from the impact of the pandemic influenza on businesses and services due to labour shortages and, with that, lower production levels.

In essence, a pandemic influenza could lead to numerous contemporaneous epidemics all over the world with high amounts of cases and deaths. Due to increasing global transport and urbanisation, pandemics triggered by a new influenza virus would spread rapidly around the world (WHO, 2005). Therefore, it is important that authorities are prepared to recognise and manage pandemic influenza and, in this way, minimise its destructive potential on economy and society. Thus, it might be within the bounds of possibility to limit the spread of the pandemic influenza virus strain, which would lead to a reduction of the number of hospitalisations and fatalities.

1.2 Aim

This dissertation aims at analysing the status quo of pandemic influenza preparedness in Portsmouth and the University of Portsmouth, respectively. Beyond that, it intends to gain an impression of the level of awareness towards pandemic influenza among students of the University of Portsmouth.

1.3 Research questions

The dissertation focuses on the following aspects:

(1) What characterises a pandemic influenza?
(2) What has already been done in terms of planning for a pandemic influenza in Portsmouth?
(3) What has already been done in terms of planning for a pandemic influenza at the University of Portsmouth?
(4) In what way are students aware of the pandemic influenza threat?

While questions (1), (2), and (3) are dealt with in the following literature survey, question (4) is approached in the results section since it requires an empirical approach, which is explained in the methodology section.

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Characteristics of a pandemic influenza

As already mentioned, the risk for a pandemic influenza outbreak is high, even though its timing and severity still remain unforeseeable as it is not possible to predict the particular consequences of a future pandemic influenza virus (WHO, 2005). In general, however, influenza pandemics are relatively rare events in comparison with seasonal influenza, which affects human health at regular intervals (VAN-TAM & SELLWOOD, 2010). Annual outbreaks and epidemics of influenza result from minimal variations in the influenza A and B viruses, which allow them to overcome the immunity that has been built up in response to previous infections with the virus or as a result of vaccinations. In contrast, a pandemic influenza represents the outcome of a major change in the influenza A virus, which makes it markedly different from already existing circulating strains (CABINET OFFICE ET AL., 2013; WHO, 2005). A pandemic influenza may occur, if the virus, additionally, can be passed on from human to human (WHO, 2005). Further characteristics of a pandemic influenza include (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, 2009):

A rapid worldwide spread, inducing governments to seal their frontiers and restrict travel in order to delay the arrival of the pandemic influenza Overloaded health care systems since most people will have little or no immunity to the pandemic virus, resulting in rising infection and illness rates. Hence, a substantial percentage of the world population will require some form of medical care.

An inadequate medical supply as the need for vaccines is likely to be larger than the supply. Thus, nations are unlikely to have the staff, facilities, equipment, and hospital beds needed to cope with the number of people who will contract pandemic influenza. As a consequence, those at highest risk will likely get the vaccine or rather antiviral medications first. Rising death tolls that depend on (i) the number of people who become infected, (ii) the strength of the virus, (iii) underlying characteristics and vulnerabilities of the affected populations, and (iv) the effectiveness of preventive measures.

Disrupted economies and societies, leading to travel bans, event cancellations, and school and business closures. Beyond that, caring for sick family members and fear of exposure could result in significant employee absenteeism.

Some aspects of influenza pandemics can appear similar to seasonal influenza while other characteristics differ from it. Table 1 provides a summary of the differences between seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza.

Table 1: Differences between seasonal and pandemic influenza (U.S. D EPARTMENT OF H EALTH AND H UMAN S ERVICES , 2009; WHO, 2010).

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2.2 Analysis of the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan

2.2.1 Response

In the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak, Portsmouth City Council will rely on an alert process, which is founded on cascade alerting based on the following steps (Fig. 1):

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Fig. 1: Alert process for a pandemic influenza outbreak (P ORTSMOUTH C ITY C OUNCIL , 2012).

2.2.1.1 Initial phase response

The response to a pandemic influenza in Hampshire will be coordinated by the LRF, with the NHS taking the lead. In the initial response phases, the multi-agency strategic and tactical level will be chaired by the police, with those roles passing to the health service for the sustained period of the response. Furthermore, the decision to activate multi-agency response arrangements will be taken by the Chief Constable or nominated deputy, in consultation with the NHS. In order to support the multi-agency response, Portsmouth City Council will provide senior officers and specialists to the following groups, if necessary:

Multi-agency strategic coordinating group

Multi-agency tactical command group in each local authority area Information cell

Media cell

Pandemic Excess Deaths Advisory Group (PEDAG)

Task and finish groups, such as health and social care, childcare and education, vaccination, and critical care

In general, the initial phase response is characterised by sporadic cases that might be reported by the community, possible limited local outbreaks, for example in schools and care homes, and a possibly increased proportion of critical care cases with influenza. Even though an influenza information line might be activated, Portsmouth City Council will advise to continue normal health services (PORTSMOUTH CITY COUNCIL, 2012). Table 2 provides an overview of the procedures that will be activated during the initial phase response.

Table 2: Portsmouth City Council ’ s initial phase response (P ORTSMOUTH C ITY C OUNCIL , 2012).

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2.2.1.2 Low impact response

Portsmouth City Council presumes that the number of cases during the low impact response will be similar to moderate or severe seasonal influenza outbreaks, with mild to moderate pathogeny in the majority of cases. In contrast to the initial phase response, however, primary and hospital services will need to cope with increased pressures, even though usual activities will hardly be affected by the additional workload. Furthermore, antiviral collection points (ACPs) will be considered in hotspots only. In this context, it is advisable to concentrate the supply of antiviral medicines not only on community pharmacies. Hence, Portsmouth City Council will also make use of other premises that are not a registered pharmacy in order to distribute antivirals. Further low impact response procedures are represented in Table 3.

Table 3: Portsmouth City Council ’ s low impact response

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2.2.1.3 Moderate impact response

The moderate impact response will deal with a higher number of cases than during a large seasonal epidemic, with both healthy people and at-risk groups severely affected. Thus, health services will no longer be able to continue all activity, leading to possible delays in fulfilling certain tasks. Table 4 gives an overview of the procedures during the moderate impact response.

Table 4: Portsmouth City Council ’ s moderate impact response (P ORTSMOUTH C ITY C OUNCIL , 2012).

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2.2.1.4 High impact response

A widespread disease in the UK that affects most age groups and leads to severe, debilitating illness with or without severe or frequent complications will trigger a high impact response in Portsmouth. GPs, community pharmacies, district nurses, social care, public and independent residential care homes, and the voluntary sector will be fully stretched in supporting essential care in the community with consequent pressure on secondary care. Accordingly, hospitals will only be able to provide emergency services. In view of that, Portsmouth City Council will take the following steps (Table 5):

Table 5: Portsmouth City Council ’ s high impact response (P ORTSMOUTH C ITY C OUNCIL , 2012).

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2.2.1.5 Post-pandemic recovery phase

During the post-pandemic recovery phase, illness will be on the decline towards normal seasonal levels and, thus, significantly reduced in terms of severity. Apart from that, the number of persons on sick leave will return to usual levels. The measures that will be adopted in the postpandemic recovery phase are summarised in Table 6.

Table 6: Portsmouth City Council ’ s post-pandemic recovery phase (P ORTSMOUTH C ITY C OUNCIL , 2012).

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2.2.2 Communication

The aim of the communications strategy consists in ensuring that clear, accurate, and timely information is provided to key target audiences, including Portsmouth residents, city council staff and other stakeholders before, during, and after a pandemic influenza.

Portsmouth City Council has excellently translated this requirement into practice by identifying the following objectives for its communication strategy:

Before a pandemic influenza

- Education and information of key target audiences about the potential impact a pandemic influenza could have on the city, preparation of residents and businesses for a potential reduction in services
- Encouragement of residents and businesses to make their own preparations for a pandemic influenza in order to minimise the impact on business and daily life
- Education of city council staff about the potential impact of a pandemic influenza on the organisation and their own work in order to ensure they are informed about their responsibilities to keep the essential services going

During a pandemic influenza

- Warning and reassurance of key target audiences about the city-wide response to a pandemic influenza as well as reinforcement of key national and regional health messages
- Dissemination of accurate, timely, and trusted information about the impact of the pandemic on city council services to key target audiences

After a pandemic influenza

- Reassurance of key target audiences that the pandemic is over and information of residents and businesses when non-essential services have returned to normal
- Information of key target audiences outside the city that Portsmouth is open for business again

2.2.2.1 Spokespeople

In order to provide advice, reassurance, and clear information, Portsmouth City Council spokespeople may be needed. It is essential that the city council uses a limited number of spokespeople who are well-briefed to ensure any messages remain within the city council’s scope, and are consistent with the key messages coordinated by the NHS. In this context, the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan makes clear that potential spokespeople, such as cabinet members, chief executives, and strategic directors, should be identified in the prepandemic phase. Foresightedly, it also suggests that further consideration should be given to providing media training, regardless of the individual’s previous experience.

2.2.2.2 Key messages and communication tools

Portsmouth City Council has already prepared templates for key messages for the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and post-pandemic phase that are included in its Pandemic Response Plan. This approach will save valuable time when a pandemic influenza strikes.

With regard to communication tools for internal and external communication, Portsmouth City Council intends to make use of its intranet, leaflets, posters, and email distribution lists as well as articles in magazines, such as Flagship, Housetalk, Take Care, and Care Times.

2.2.3 Adult Care

Overall communication, dissemination of information, and reporting arrangements for social care and, in particular, adult care during a pandemic influenza are intended to be coordinated by the Head of Service or rather assistant heads based at the civic offices. Since regular updates of the current situation will be decisive, Portsmouth City Council will encourage team and unit managers to provide a situation report to the relevant senior manager or rather assistant heads each day.

Some services will be non-essential during a pandemic influenza whereas others are of vital importance. Portsmouth City Council has identified residential care as well as social care and care management as priority services.

2.2.3.1 Residential care homes

In order to mitigate staff shortages, it may be necessary for staff from other parts of the city council to be temporarily deployed to different social care services. In order to facilitate both a smooth and quick transition, Portsmouth City Council will give the Senior Manager or assistant head the authority to suspend the requirement for DBS checks following a risk assessment. In addition, private sector homes will be encouraged to make contact with other care homes in the area to agree staff sharing arrangements in order to deal with staff shortages.

2.2.3.2 Social care and care management

Given the additional pressures on both hospitals and residential care homes, more people are likely to be dependent on support at home, leading to an increasing demand for domiciliary care services. With over 6,000 active cases in Portsmouth (PORTSMOUTH CITY COUNCIL, 2012), it will, thus, be necessary for social care to prioritise services for those most in need. In this event, the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan suggests referring to the “critical client” lists held by Social Work and Care Management Teams to ensure that the most vulnerable service users continue to receive support.

Above all, however, consideration needs to be given to contacting clients before undertaking home visits to determine whether people within the household have influenza-like symptoms. The Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan has made provisions for service users suffering from pandemic influenza inasmuch as it encourages social work and care managers to (i) discuss the postponing of non-essential services with the affected service users, (ii) assign staff who have already contracted and recovered from the influenza, and (iii) designate staff to care for either influenza or non-influenza individuals wherever possible.

2.2.4 Education

There is evidence from seasonal influenza that children secrete larger quantities of the virus for a longer period than adults (PORTSMOUTH CITY COUNCIL, 2012). This can lead to a rapid spread of the infection in schools or other group settings. Under some circumstances, head teachers may, therefore, take the decision to close certain establishments temporarily. For that case, Portsmouth City Council has determined the following principles:

Using a precautionary approach in the early stages of a pandemic influenza and depending on the public health risk assessment, Directors of Public Health may advise local school closures. The purpose consists in reducing the initial spread of infection while gathering information about the spread of the virus.

Once the virus has established in the country, the general policy will aim at preventing schools closures, unless there are specific local business continuity reasons such as staff shortages or particularly vulnerable children. This policy will be reviewed as the nature of the pandemic influenza becomes more understood.

The impact of closures of schools and other educational settings would have substantial economic and social consequences, with a disproportionately large effect on health and social care because of the demographic profile of those employed in those sectors. Hence, such a step would only be taken during a pandemic influenza with a very high impact. Therefore, the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan emphasises that school closures, even though they cannot be ruled out, should not be the primary focus of planning. Correspondingly, the Portsmouth City Council Pandemic Response Plan calls for schools, and childcare institutions in general, to provide the following:

Communication strategy for passing guidance, updates, and information about school closures and re-openings to the community Plans to support remote learning

2.2.5 Management of excess deaths

The additional predicted natural deaths occurring as a result of an influenza pandemic in a potentially short period of time will place significant pressure on local service providers. As a result, the LRF has produced a Managing Excess Deaths Plan. The plan is a strategic framework outlining multi-agency command, control and co-ordination structures, processes, and mitigation measures. The decision to activate the Managing Excess Deaths Plan will be taken by the Strategic Coordinating Group (SCG). The SCG will inform the Hampshire County Council Emergency Planning Unit, who in turn will advise the Pandemic Excess Deaths Advisory Group (PEDAG).

If the fatality rate is high, mortuary facilities may be overwhelmed and a temporary facility may be required. It is the responsibility of the local authority to arrange and fund a temporary mortuary, if requested. In order to meet that demand, Portsmouth City Council will employ a Major Incident Support Team as well as other specialist staff to provide support at an established or temporary mortuary. The scope of tasks might include the following:

- Working with Police Family Liaison Officers
- Arranging transport for bereaved relatives
- Assessing religious and faith support
- Supporting cultural requirements as far as possible
- Providing psychological support
- Arranging visits, for instance to funeral directors and florists
- Facilitating financial support
- Coordinating and managing voluntary sector support
- 24-hour helpline

2.3 Analysis of the University of Portsmouth Pandemic Contingency Plan

2.3.1 Response

The Pandemic Contingency Plan of the University of Portsmouth is based on the WHO phases that describe the development of a pandemic influenza (TURNER, 2009). These phases are combined into the following periods:

Interpandemic period

- WHO Phase 1 implies that no viruses circulating among animals have been reported to cause infections in humans.
- WHO Phase 2 indicates that an influenza virus circulating among domesticated or wild animals is known to have caused infection in humans and is, therefore, considered a potential pandemic threat.

Pandemic alert period

- WHO Phase 3 suggests that an animal or human-animal influenza virus has caused sporadic cases or small clusters of disease in humans but has not resulted in human-to-human transmission sufficient to sustain community-level outbreaks. In other words, the virus has not gained the level of transmissibility among humans necessary to cause a pandemic.
- WHO Phase 4 is characterised by verified human-to-human transmissions of an animal or human-animal influenza virus able to cause community-level outbreaks. Thus, phase 4 indicates a significant increase in risk of a pandemic outbreak.
- WHO Phase 5 is announced in case of a human-to-human spread of the virus in at least two countries in a WHO region. While most countries will not be affected at this stage, the declaration of Phase 5 is a strong signal that a pandemic is imminent and that the time to finalise mitigation measures, including organisation, communication, and implementation, is short.

Pandemic period

- WHO Phase 6, the pandemic phase, is characterised by community level outbreaks in at least one other country in a different WHO region, in addition to the criteria defined in phase 5. Hence, phase 6 indicates that a global pandemic is under way.

Since the Pandemic Contingency Plan of the University of Portsmouth is structured according to the WHO phases laid out above, much of the preparatory work for a potential pandemic will take place during phases 3 and 4. In contrast, phases 5 and 6 focus on the implementation of previously met arrangements.

2.3.1.1 Response during WHO phases 1 and 2

The priorities during the interpandemic period consist in (i) improving preparedness and awareness across the university as well as (ii) monitoring and risk assessment. These issues are adequately taken into consideration as Table 7, which provides an overview of the processes that will take place during the interpandemic period, indicates:

Table 7: WHO phases 1 and 2 response of the University of Portsmouth (T URNER , 2009).

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2.3.1.2 Response during WHO phase 3

The pandemic alert period, beginning with WHO phase 3, indicates that a new virus has resulted in human infections with no human-to-human spread or, at most, rare instances of spread due to close contact. Hence, the priorities for this phase have to comprise (i) maintaining close liaison with the local CCDC and with local animal health contacts, (ii) close monitoring of the developing situation, and (iii) reassessing the pandemic preparedness and identifying actions needed to fill possible gaps in order to supplement existing policies and procedures as required. Again, the University of Portsmouth Pandemic Contingency Plan meets the demands by implementing the following procedures (Table 8):

Table 8: WHO phase 3 response of the University of Portsmouth (T URNER , 2009).

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[...]

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Details

Title
Pandemic Influenza Management In Portsmouth With Particular Reference To The University Of Portsmouth
College
University of Portsmouth
Grade
Merit
Author
Year
2016
Pages
68
Catalog Number
V369410
ISBN (eBook)
9783668507241
ISBN (Book)
9783668507258
File size
1768 KB
Language
English
Tags
pandemic, influenza, management, university
Quote paper
Kathrin Schindler (Author), 2016, Pandemic Influenza Management In Portsmouth With Particular Reference To The University Of Portsmouth, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/369410

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