An Archaeological Study of Abandoned Settlement “Cluster C” in Ddai Daffo, Bokkos L.G.A of Plateau State


Diplomarbeit, 2017
64 Seiten

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TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF PLATES

LIST OF MAP

LIST OF FIGURES

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.3 AIMS AND OBBJECTIVES
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
1.6 METHOD OF STUDY
1.7 LIMITATION

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 DAFFO SETTLEMENT
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.3 GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND
2.3.1 CLIMATE
2.3.2 VEGETATION

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SETTLEMENT PATTERN OF DDAI ABANDON SETTTLEMENTS
3.1 SOME DETERMINANT OF SETTLEMENT PATTERN
3.2 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
3.3 FEATURES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
3.4 EXCAVATION
3.4.1 PROCESS OF EXCAVATION
3.4 .2 STRATIGRAPHY

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS
4.1 SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS
4.2 INTERPRETATION
4.3 FACTORS THAT AFFECTTED THE SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN DDAI

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY, RECCOMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
5.3 CONCLUSIONS

BIBLOGRAPHY

DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to my parents Mr and Mrs Gold of blessed memory. My siblings Mr Timothy Gold, Mr Jeremiah Gold, Mrs Sarah Osunnuga and Rachel Gold. To my wonderful kids Daniel and OlohitareEzomo for their love and understanding.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my creator, Jehovah God who in His Infinite Mercy made this academic programed a huge success.

A special thanks go to the National Commission for Museums and Monuments for giving me the opportunity to attend this training at the Institute of Archaeology and Museum Studies Jos. A big thank you to the Director of the Institute of Archaeology and Museums Studies, Jos.

Am also indebted to my H.O.D Mr James Ameje who has been supportive and of great encouragement during this training. I will also like to express my gratitude to Mr. BanjiOjo (of blessed memory) my curator who was greatly supportive during the course of this training.

Similarly, am thankful to a number of friends and colleagues both within and outside the commission. They include Mr Sunday Ogunseyin, MrOgungbile, MrOnaolapo, MrKazeem, MrsIlori, Aunty Nike, Mr and MrsFolahanmi, Mr and MrsAkinola, Mr and MrsAdeyemo as well as Mr and MrsBalogun for their exceptional prayers.

Am sincerely grateful to my sweetheart, Duyilemi for his unfailing and immeasurable love and support.

Special thanks to all my lecturers both within and outside the department of Archaeology and most especially to MS Anna Adamu (aunty Ann) Mr Gerald Odechukwu (geo-jay) MrObinna (Obi-Obi -o).

Finally, to the beautiful and wonderful 2017 trainees of Archaeology class (100 percent archaeologist), MrAribidoAdeniyi (superb class rep.) Samson Kas (Leveque), MrsAlabiNnena (iyeJemila), MrsObayiChioma (chiomzy), MrsIdowuBamigbade (oyinbo). You guys are great! And to the Museology class, it was amazing having you around.

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1: Vegetation

Plate 2: House foundation

Plate 3: Rock Boulder

Plate 4: Mareah

Plate 5: Elliptical Rock Hollows

Plate 6: The first layer at 10cm

Plate 7: Extension Area

Plate 8: Second Layer of the Extension

Plate 9: The sterile Layer

Plate 10: Rock hollows probably used for grinding snuffs

Plate 11: Several House Foundation

LIST OF MAPS

- Map of Nigeria showing Plateau State
- Map of Plateau State showing Bokkos Local Government Area
- Map of Daffo and surrounding villages

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Analysis of General Finds from the Field Work

Figure 2: Stratigraphy of the North Wall

Figure 3: Stratigraphy of the South Wall

Figure 4: Stratigraphy of the West Wall

Figure 5: Table Showing Classification of Pottery Based on Vessel Part

Figure 6: Chart of Decoration Motifs

Figure 7: Table Showing Decorative Motif

Figure 8: Table Showing Vessel Parts

Figure 9: Sketch of the House Foundation

Figure 10: Sketch of Reconstructed House Foundation

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Archaeology is a highly encyclopedic and/or tentacular subject whose primary goal is the reconstruction and explanation of the past lifeways of a people or peoples both at one or several time-periods and at one or more locations. In other words, the heart and soul of archaeological research rest in an explanation of how past human population lived within their environments- both natural and social.

This project aims at understanding the house pattern through the arrangement of the house foundations on Ddai abandoned settlement, cluster “C”. These includes the reconstruction of the people’s history using archaeological evidence found on the site and to determine their settlement pattern of this hill top settlement. As well as factors that influenced their settlement on the cluster. It will also explain the method adopted for the retrieval of information, the aims and objective of the study an over view of the geographical location and historical background of the site. Apart from that, the cultural materials recovered from the site will be addressed and recommendations proffered in reconstructing the settlement pattern of Ddai cluster ‘C’.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

This research work is designed to answer questions like:

i. What are the factors that influence their choice of settlement pattern?
ii. Was there any form of intrusion or diffusion in Ddai settlement?
iii. What is the dimension of the houses?
iv. Why the dimension of passage around the clusters are so small?

1.3 AIMS AND OBBJECTIVES

i. To carry out a survey of the site in order to understand the settlement pattern.
ii.To document the cultural features on the site in other to produce a site plan.
iii. To determine historical chronology of the cluster.
v. To access the factors that influence the settlement pattern through time.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The research work carried out at Ddai abandoned settlement is to have a deeper understanding of the settlement pattern and the layout and also what influence their choice of hill top.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

There arevarious scattered hill top abandoned settlement in the Daffo area but this study is focus on Ddai hill top abandon settlement which will be referred to as settlement “C”.

1.6 METHOD OF STUDY

The methods to be used in this project for realizing or actualizing the aim and objectives of the project are;

-Oral tradition
-Archaeological survey

Oral tradition: oral tradition research was conducted at Ddai in Daffo area of Bokkos local government of Plateau state. This is a kind of history passed down from one generation to another by word of mouth. It is a very important research methodology where written records are very scanty or there are none. We are however aware of the fact that have some inherent weakness. These includes errors of omission and commission. Local people tends to gloss over certain elements of their oral traditions for political, economic and social reasons. Similarly, some issues are blown out of proportion. But their weakness can be reduced to the barest minimum in the face of thorough and representative methodology.

Oral historiography in Africa is much more than a haphazard way of asking questions from local hunters and other people of a community in general it is, indeed a systematic research that must necessarily involve different categories of local people Reconnaissance survey: an archaeological survey of the site will be carried out and this involves walking round the area to survey and to note the general layout and distribution of feature and the extension of the site. Archaeological remains on the surface of a site are capable of providing sound information about the lifeways of the people who settled there in the past. The following features were observed at the Ddai abandoned settlement while carrying out the reconnaissance survey. These includes; House foundations, rock over hang, foot paths, rock hollows, stone clusters called ‘Marie’ (court yard), grounding stone mills and potsherds.

1.7 LIMITATION

The problems that archaeologists of settlement studies would have to grapple with as far West Africa is concerned includes paucity of written data (of considerable time-depth) as well as monumental remains due to unfavorable environmental factors.

However, there was inadequate time frame to complete thisproject. Issue of funding was also prominent as there was no fund to execute the project. There was also the issue of insecurity as there was aggression from the Fulani herdsmen who go about killing people in Bokkos area and this affected the collection of more information from the local people by oral tradition.

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Figure 1 : Map of Nigeria

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Figure 2 : Map of Bokkos Local Government Area

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Figure 3 : Map of Daffo and surrounding villages

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

2.1 DAFFO SETTLEMENT

The Daffo people trace their descent to a man called MangaiDass . Tradition says he and his brother Shagau came from a faraway place and settled at Manguna a village that is about 8Km North of Daffo from Manguna, Mangai and his followers move to Daffo area and settled on Hurum hill. The place they left before getting to Manguna and when the movement took place is not known for certain, from Oral interview of two elders (MarnaMariom and SimanMambayat) mangut (2006b) suggested the area around the Dass hills in the present-day Bauchi State as a probable route of migration to the Ron area.

Another version says the Daffo people came from the same place with the Bokkospeople.The tradition says they altogether migrated from Mupunland in the Present-day Mangu L.G.A of Plateau State to a rocky hill called’’ fai a run ’’ in Bokkos , the headquarters of Bokkos Local Government Area. Those that were under the leadership of a man recognized as Mangai moved to Manguna While Shagau and his followers remained at Manguna, Mangai and his followers moved to Daffo area and settled on Hurum hill.

Apart from Hurum that was founded by the descendant of Mangaiare: - Farum,Manduna, Hottom, Mallul, Ddai, Hottom, Mayi and Wandereng. Nothing is known about those that settled on Balan, Kar and Tambur, a version says, the people that occupied Hurum,Mallul and Faran came together via ‘ ’ Fai a Run ’’ while the others came separately.

The Ddai people claim to be the earliest to come to the Daffo area. According to their own version, they did not come through Manguna. But from Mupunland, they settled at Tangur near ‘ Fai a Run ’ in Bokkos before moving to the Daffo area to settle on Ddai hill (Mangut 2014) A popular story generally held iinDaffo narrates how the Hurum people played a trik on the Ddai people who are obviously the earliest settlers.It is said that Ddai people initially settle on the Hurum abandoned settlement while the Hurumpeoplewere on the Ddai abandoned settlement. But the Hurum people saw that the Ddai people were at an advantage in terms of security and agriculture, so the Hurum people decidedto play a trick on them to change settlement.

The trick Hurum people played was by noisily scratching on the walls of the Ddai people’s houses at night and while that was going on, light twinkled around like spirits. When the strange activities went on for some time the Ddai people got frightened and asked for help from the Hurum people. The Hurum people advices them to change settlement with them to see if the strange activities will still happen, when the strange activities stopped with the change of settlement, it was agreed that was the wish of their ancestors. This version is to date being mentioned when Hurum man wants to tease a Ddai man.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Scholars in disciplines such as human geography, cultural anthropology, ecology, history and archaeology define human settlement in various ways. Except for archaeologists all these other see settlement basically as an interplay of social, economic, demographic and political factors (Grossman 1981; Thorpe 1951; Vince 1952; Udo 1966, 1982; Renfrew 1981). In fact, Perpillou (1965), a human geographer defines settlement as an agricultural workshop, which cannot be separated from the land whose use it ensures. Jone (1966), also a geographer states that settlements are the creations of people in their attempt of wrestling a living from the soil.

Udo (1966) has pointed out that settlement is a concrete expression of the workings of a society and economy over time, in a single place and in their forms are expressed ideas, feelings and attitudes of the occupantsboth past and present. Okpoko (1979) defines settlement pattern as the manner in which habitation sites and their related structure are arranged over a landscape. It depicts the social relations which form the framework of the society and is necessary for the understanding of nay society’s economy. This is to say that of all the cultural forms, architecture is one of the most persistent and conservative (Aniakor, 1980).

The socio-cultural life of people also influences to a large extend, its settlement pattern. The distribution of this settlements on the landscape is a reflection of kinship organization. Thus, for example, the nearness of one compound to another has to do with the level of closeness of kinship ties or lineage groups (Bohannan 1954; Ogundele 1990; Mbakighir 1987) Andah (1988) argues that African towns and cities are concrete expressions of people’s inner thought about nature and cosmos. In addition to this, protection from internal and/or external aggression may affect the location of settlement and the way the houses and other features within them are arranged. For example, the Ddai people lived on the top of the hill for protection from external aggression.

2.3 GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND

Ddai hill settlement “A” in Daffo of Bokkos Local Government Area of Plateau state is located approximately between latitude 09022173 North and longitude 0080.85079 East. It has an area of about 2,000km2 occupying the SouthWest part of Jos Plateau and the North-Eastern part of Bokkos.

2.3.1 CLIMATE

The climate of Ddai hill in Daffo settlement of Bokkos Local Government of Jos Plateau is generally influenced by two prevailing winds that moves North-East and South-West respectively depending on the season of the year. The South-West wind moves North-East are warm and also contains moisture. These are the winds that are responsible for bringing the rains that occurs between April and October. While the North-East winds that moves South-west wards are cold, dry and dusty. Their presence heralds the beginning of the dry season, which lasts from November to March. The region enjoys a mean annual rainfall of 1,500mm, a figure that is above those of the surrounding areas such as Makurdi, Kaduna and Benue each of which has less than 900mm per annum, during the months of July and August the raining season is at its peak. (Uzuegbu.J.O.2005). It is also because the altitude tends to make the Southern rain bearing clouds to form at the Southern parts of the Plateau thus giving rise to very high rainfall, (Uzuegbu.J.O.2005). Temperatures reduce at high level; hence the highest monthly temperature is 27.9 degrees (at an altitude of about 1,350mm, compared with 32.8 degree in the lowland areas altitude of about 675m).

The climate of this area is generally much more pleasant than that of the surrounding plains; the most significant factor in thus respect is certainly the comparatively low relative humidity which is less than 25 percent between November and March, which is during dry season when the desiccating harmattan winds blow. The weather during this period of the year is very windy and dry; the open nature of this region also reinforces the wind speed while the dry and bare ground provides considerable dust particles, which intensify the hazy character of the hamattan. Perharps it is because of the local variation that makes Daffo one of the greatest producers of Irish potatoes solarium tuberosum on the Jos Plateau.

2.3.2 VEGETATION

The Jos Plateau has a type of vegetation that is different from the surrounding areas. It is known as the highland vegetation. Rainfall pattern influences natural vegetation but in this area it seems that altitude plays an important role (Shaw, 1978:17). It should be noted that the Plateau plains are virtually devoid of trees in comparison with the savannah woodlands; that is so, despite the fact that all the northern Guinea tree species are present on the Plateau. At the present time, only about two percent of the plateau surface has woodland cover, while a full range of savannah grasses are in evidence over much of the rest(DrJ.D.Mangut 1986). Ddai hill’s topography and geology is equivalent to what is obtainable in Jos Plateau which characterized by underlying igneous rocks and resistance granite that has given rise to massive rocky hills, rock outcrops and rock shelters.

The site is a guinea savannah and deciduous forest which is characterized by shrubs and spares trees. This type of vegetation cover results from anthropogenic actions, forest burning and clearing, animal grazing and farming. The vegetation consists mainly of grasses. The predominant cover of eucalyptus, cactus Euphorbia kamerumica For this project, the ecological setting of the Jos Plataeu has been a very important factor in the development of the human population and settlement in the area. (DrJ.D.Mangut 1986) assert that the nature of the rocky hill formations provided ideal defense possibilities, he went further to that this hill settlements became centers of agriculture that “radiated in all directions. Also in between these hills would generate and nature, we prepare to resist any invader that might threaten their way of life”. The ecological settings between these rocky hills goes far beyond defense possibilities according to Dr. J Mangut’s investigations. Within the rocky hills are wide gaps with volcanic nutrient enriched soils; these gaps support the cultivation of crops such as cocoyam Dioscareaspp and Accadigitiariaexillis. Prominent among the plants in the rocky hill is the date palm Phoenix reclinata.

The rocky hills therefore had their own attractions apart from the undue emphasyon defence, the rock boulders assisted in house constructions particularly those that had over rang and shelters. Also, it provided them an easier pounding holes, on top of these rocky hills was found several numbers of hollows.

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PLATE 1: VEGETATION

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SETTLEMENT PATTERN OF DDAI ABANDON SETTTLEMENTS

Archaeologist studying the beginning of human settlements in West Africa, whether rural or urban in character, must have a broad knowledge of the peoples’ contemporary ways of life. There is need to know how a particular human group classifies settlements. This is to say, that we need to understand and appreciate the accepted parameters for calling a settlement rural, semi-urban or urban and how far back in time this classificatory model has been in use in a particular study area. Ant theory in archaeology that does not take into cognizance the complexity of human cultural diversity through time and space runs the risk of promoting pseudo-history.

The term for a spatially ordered system of land use is “settlement pattern”. The settlement pattern represents the way in which a particular group of people utilize the landscape. The archaeological reflection of that settlement pattern is called by William Marquardt and Carol Crumley (1987:7) the “land scape signature”, defined as “the material imprints left on the earth’s surface by particular constellations of human groups”. The landscape signature of region consists of the geographical locations of cities, towns, villages fishing camps, hunting sites, quarries, transportation features and facilities, shrine, burial ground and so on as well as the use of space within such locations.

3.1 SOME DETERMINANT OF SETTLEMENT PATTERN

The location, shape and size of settlements as well as the ways and manners the house structures within them are arranged are a product of intricate interplay of factors such as ecology, level of technology, cosmology and historical traditions of the people concerned (Rouse 1968; Willey 1968; Chang 1967; Andah 1987; Ogundele 1994).

According to Bloulet (1972), Crastone (1972) and Smith (1972), the degree of influence of a particular environment on the settlement arrangement of the people depends on their technological expertise. In other words, the technology determines among other things, how best to exploit the available resources.

3.2 RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY

Surveying in archaeology is defined as an art of observing, measuring and documenting on papers or graph sheets, relics of houses among other features on a given site. Archaeological remains on the surface of the site are capable of providing sound information about lifeways of the people who settled there in the past.

An archaeological survey of the site was carried out and this involves walking round the area to survey and to note the general layout and distribution of feature and the extension of the site.

The following features were observed at the Ddai abandoned settlement while carrying out the reconnaissance survey. These includes; House foundations, rock over hang, foot paths, rock hollows, stone clusters called ‘Marie’ (court yard), grounding stone mills and potsherds.

3.3 FEATURES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE HOUSE FOUNDATION

The remains of house structures which are in circular forms in the case of Ddai abandoned settlement was obvious in the surface of the site which are capable of providing sound information about the lifeways of the people who lived there in the past. There was smaller house foundation which were used as granaries, well arranged stones for footpaths, the circular stone foundation at the ‘Marie’ was aninteresting sight to behold. Also, the clusters also indicate the closeness of the families that lived on the site. The house foundation in evidence were about 20 in number.

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Plate 2: House foundation.

FOOT TRACKS

Found on this cluster was a foot track. The foot track is made up of neatly arranged small stones of about half a meter wide that marked it out. Thesefoot tracks leads to various houses around the site.

ROCK BOULDER

This is a rock fragment with a great size or could be referred to as a detached and rounded or worn rock, especially a large one.

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Plate 3: ROCK BOULDER

MAREAH

This is place with circular cluster of stones and used by the elders in the community to hold meetings and take decisions concerning the community. It was also used as a court to pass judgments for offenders I the community.

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PLATE 4: MAREAH

ELLIPTICAL ROCK HOLLOWS

Features in this cluster include a concentration of elliptical rock hollows. They are in most cases in shape and of varying depth and width i.e 5cm and 30cm.

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Plate 5: Elliptical Rock Hollows.

GRAINERY

This is a structure for grain storage which were apparently used to keep the grain dry and to isolate from pest.

3.4 EXCAVATION

Excavation is the scientific and systematic digging of archaeological site for the purpose of collection of cultural materials, these cultural materials collected are usually taken to the Laboratory for further analysis.

At Ddai we excavated two Test Pits namely: Test Pit three which was a 2M x2M pit , it was located at the south west of the site and Test Pit four was located at the north east of the site, Test Pit three was a 2M X 1M which was later extended by 50 CM.

3.4.1 PROCESS OF EXCAVATION

At Ddai we conducted a test pit excavation in order to sample the subsurface artifacts and to gain a cross-sectional view of the site’s depositional history; we also chose an arbitrary layer of 10 cm per layer.

Level 0 - 10cm

This happens to be the first level. It was characterized by dark grayish soil which was gritty in texture. Also, there were presence of protruding rootlets and root hairs. Materials recovered from this level include 314 potsherds, bone fragments, fragments of smoking pipe and charcoal samples. However, in the course of proper analysis, we were cautioned about the charcoal samples found at this level that they may give a misleading date as they could be recent deposits.

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Plate 6 : The First layer at 10cm

Level 10-20cm

The color of the soil at this level was brown but the texture remains gritty. More potsherds (58) bone fragments and charcoal samples were recovered from this level.

LEVEL 20-30CM

The soil composition at this level was loamy with lots of rootlets. Below this the colour at the North-Westher corner of the wall was brownish while towards the North-East the colour appeared dark brown. Finds in this level include 104 potsherds, fragments of bone and charcoal samples.

Level 30-40cm

At this level, we began to encounter serious intrusion of boulders into the pit, more especially between the North-East and the South-Eastern wall. That of the South-Eastern wall prevented us from going more further on that particular side, 108 Potsherds, bone fragments and charcoal samples were recovered from this level.

Level 40-50cm

As we excavate further, work because a bit difficult for us due to the conspicuousness of the boulders. They were however recorded before being removed. They were thirty-three boulders in all 74 Potsherds, charcoal samples and fragments of bones we recovered from this level.

Level 50 - 60cm

The soil at this level appeared completely dark brown and loose. Some parts seems to be wet. It should be noted that at this level, it became completely difficult for excavation as the boulders has covered the flows leaving only a little or narrow space towards the end of the North-Eastern part of the pit. Recovered from this level include 57 potsherds, charcoal samples and fragments of bones.

A remarkable thing happened after we got to the level of 50-60cm. as we encountered difficulty in digging as a result the conspicuous boulders both on the floor and walls, we have to expand from the Northern part of the pit by 50cm to the west and another 50cm from towards the East.

These were however extended again towards the North by another 50cm, thereby giving the pit a T shape, instead of the original square shape we have. The 50cm by 2 meters added to the pit how to be excavated from the top which made us to have a level 0-10B till we got to level 4-60 B were we now have to join it to the original level of level 50-60. On joining them, we now have level 60-70 AB till we got to level 100 - 20cm which happens to be our sterile layer.

Level 0-10cm B

This was characterized with grayish soil and the soil was loose. 16 potsherds, charcoal samples and fragments of bones where recovered from this level.

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Plate 7: Extension area

Level 10 - 20Cm B

The soil was loamy and appear brownish in colour with lot of rootless we recovered 21 potsherds, and bone fragments.

Level20 - 30cm B

The soil here is loamy with the colour being brownish. There was also lots of rootless. Only 27 potsherds where recovered from here and no other cultural material.

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Plate 8: Second layer of the extension

Level 30 - 40 cm B

We still encountered the obstruction of boulder into the pit, however 43, potsherds, fragment of smoking pipe, charcoal sample, Bone fragments, a seed and metal fragments where all recovered here.

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Level 40 - 60cm B

We have to do 20cm at a time because of the situation of parts of the walls that were about collapsing. We were able to recover fragments of smoking pipe, fragment of bones, 23 potsherds and charcoal samples.

Level 60 - 70 AB

We now have to join both the extension and the forms here to have level AB.

The soil changes to dark brown and was loose, cultural materials recovered include 46 potsherds, fragments of bones and charcoal samples.

Level 70 - 80 cm AB

There was no apparent change in soil color or texture. 48 Potsherds, charcoal samples bone fragments and for the first time 2 pieces of iron slag appear in this pit.

Level 80 - 90cm AB

The same soil situation continued in this level 88 potsherds, charcoal samples, bone fragments, pieces of smoking pipe and for the first time a stone tool appeared.

Level 90 - 100 cm AB

The same soil situation also continued. 39 Potsherds, charcoal samples and bone fragments were recovered from this level.

Level 100 - 120cm AB

We have to go 20cm at once at this layer which incidentally happens to be our sterile layer, this was due to the fragility of the pit. The color of the soil changed slightly to dark red. Finds in this level include 56 potsherds and charcoal samples.

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Plate 9: The sterile layer

See table below

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Table 1: Analysis of General finds from the field work

3.4 .2 STRATIGRAPHY

Stratigraphy is a model extremely cherished by geologists and archaeologists among other professionals. Stratification simply puts, means the act of positioning of different strata or layers in relation to one another. It is an arrangement of one layer on top of another.

However, stratigraphy is the scientific description of those layers based on the observation of such phenomena as texture and color. This is the basis of contextualizing archaeological artifacts and other relevant specimen both from the point of view of association and chronology. Indeed, the law of superposition says that artifacts and other material remains inside the top layer are younger in age than those belonging to the lower layer or level. By this token, the upper layer is younger than the unit that lies below it. This is based on the assumption that the deposits or the layers in question are not disturbed in any way. However, the stratigraphy from the excavation conducted at Ddai are shown in the plates below;

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Table 2: Stratigraphy of the North wall

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Table3 : Stratigraphy of the South wall

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Table4 : Stratigraphy of the West wall

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Table 5: showing classification of pottery based on vessel parts.

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Table 6: Chart of decorative motifs.

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Table 7: Showing Decorative Motif

Motif 1

These are potsherds with carved roulette. They are 273 in numbers they constitute 65.8% of the decorated pottery

Motif 2

These are potsherds with carved Chevron roulette decoration on them. They are 121 in number and constitute 29.1%

Motif 3

These are potsherds with twisted fiber cord roulette decoration on them. They are 21 in number and constitute 5.1% motifs

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Table 8: showing vessel parts.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 CLASSIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

Classification is the process of ordering or arranging objects into groups on the basis of shared characteristics, these characteristics are termed attributes. All classification serves a variety of purposes. Their first and most fundamental purpose is to create order from apparent chaos by dividing a mass of undifferentiated data into groups. Classification allows the researcher to summarise the characteristics of many individual objects by listing only their shared attributes. Most archaeological classifications result in definition of types.Types represent a cluster of attributes that occur together repeatedly in the same artefact( Sharer and Ashmore 1987).

In the course of our archaeological excavation at Ddai , some cultural materials were collected on the sites among such cultural materials were: - pot sherds, fragments of smoking pipes, charcoal samples, iron slags, stone ball, bone fragments., the pot sherds were grouped based on decorations, surface finish, vessel parts. The three types of decorative motifs found on the pottery from Ddai are: carved roulette of grain-like motif, carved chevron motif with groves, plaited fiber and roulettes.

Archaeological settlement is referred to as the locale or cluster of locales within a specific environment where members of a community live and carry out economic, social and political activities in a delineable time - period. This chapter will look at the entire layout of Ddai abandoned settlement (cluster “c) as well as the analysis and interpretation of these data as it relates to their settlement.

An understanding of the factors (environmental, technological and socio-historical) that interact to bring about a particular settlement form or forms in the present-day context is central to the analysis and interpretation of archaeological spatial configurations within a given contiguous geographical region. It is going to be extremely difficult to analyze and interpret the cluster identified from the maps of settlements if one has no deep understanding and appreciation of the present-day settlement pattern.

The circular pattern of house foundation and narrow way according to oral information is to economize and manage space in the old Ddai settlement. This type of circular house is traditional, while the present day Ddai people that lives at the bottom of the hill have their houses built in rectangular shapes with corrugated roots due to modernization.

4.1 SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS

The organization of Ddai abandoned settlement cluster “C” on the ground (that is, how they use the space) is studied at the individual, family and inter-family levels. In this area, the researcher took the diameters of the house foundations as follows:

a. 2.25m and 1.75m
b. 2.4m and 2.5m
c. 2.46m and 1.9m
d. 2.5m and 2.5m
e. 1.3m and 1.5m
f. 2.1m and 2.6m
g. 1.8m and 2.5m
h. 2.2m and 2.3m
i. 1.6m and 1.7m
j. 1.6m and 1.4m
k. 1.24m and 1.2m
l. 1.5m and 1.1m
m. 3.5m and 2.8m
n. 50cm and 70cm
o. 50cm and 80cm
p. 40cm and 70cm

4.2 INTERPRETATION

After determining the diameters of the house foundations, three house categories were identified as follows:

House ranging from 40-70cm (small)

House ranging from 1.1m - 2.6m (medium)

House ranging from 2.8m -3.5m (common or central meeting place)

The medium-sized houses are more in number than the remaining two categories on Ddai cluster “C”. The “Mareh” which is the central meeting place of the elders where decisions are taken concerning the community. The “Mareh” was represented by ten (10) big stones which were used as seats. This ten (10) could probably represent the number of clan in community. Also, on the northern part of the “Mareh” is located small rock hollows which could probably be used by the elders for grinding snuffs during the meetings. The nearest house to each of these foundations was about 2meters away. The “small” houses as described above were situated very close to the “medium” houses were the granaries used for the storage and preservation of their grains as investigated

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Plate 10: rock hollows probably used for grinding snuffs.

SOURCES OF RAW MATERIALS

Due to the security reasons of choosing the hill top, the settlers of Ddai abandoned settlement found a way of getting water for their usage by digging under the rock for water even though there was a stream at the bottom of the hill where theysometimes get water from whenever there is relative peace in the society.

Farming was done down the hill and sometimes carried out on some part of the hill top where the settlers believes its good enough for farming.

Raw materials for pottery making was also gotten from the hill top.

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Plate11: showing several house foundations.

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Table 9: Sketch of House Foundation

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Table 10: Sketch of Reconstructed House Foundation

4.3 FACTORS THAT AFFECTTED THE SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN DDAI.

The Jos plateau itself is a clearly defined highland region that rises to altitude of over 1,350 meters above the sea level . It comprises of an area of approximately 6,400 square kilometers of high plan and is bounded by broken scarp some 500m to 1000m in height. The plains of the plateau are therefore interrupted byflat-topped hills, cluster of small recently extinct volcanoes and precariously balanced rocksthat top many of the hills scattered on the plateau level. From the above description of the relief of the Jos plateau one can see that the old settlers of Jos choose the hill tops before coming down to settle on the plains and some factors were responsible for this. Amongst them are environment, vegetation, climate, topography and soils all this play significant roles in selection of site for settlement.

Environment provides advantages for the choice of a site and defense so defense was uppermost in what influenced their choice of hilltops and settlements pattern. Defense is defined as any action that constitutes resistance against attack. [Opadeji,1990]. This is limited to the influence that cultural responses to aggressive behavior by human agencies have on settlements patterns. The need to protect themselves against possible external aggression gave rise to live in clusters, that is why their houses are built closely to another, this area is surrounded by hills and inselbergs that made the Ddai hills settlements an inevitable defense system; the boulders although natural are arranged round the settlements to remove or reduce the incidence of surprise attacks. The subsistence economy also contributed to the choice of hill tops, because they belonged to an agricultural society hence they could not move on impulse because of the fertile land, the boulders also provided weaponry for them and stone implements were used to fight them enemies as against bows and arrows. Culturally, they were influenced, the circular stone foundations of the houses affected the size and shape and this was due to limited land space although it cuts across the whole of Jos Plateau [ the shape of their house foundations]. The way the house foundations are, also brings to limelight an emotional attachment which can be said that it binds them together and they lived a communal life in spite of counter attacks.

Finally, the climatic factor had a great influence in their settlement patterns excessively and during the harmattan season had a great impact on the choice of the housing arrangements. To adapt to this situation, they built their houses in clusters which helped them to ward off cold and conserve heat.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, RECCOMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 SUMMARY

The archeological research carried out at Ddai abandoned settlement cluster “C” was aimed at clarifying our understanding of the character and scope of settlement patterns among the people. It has helped in identifying cluster of locales within a specific environment where members of a community live and carry out economic, social and political activities in a delineable time - period.

The material found on this site in form of house foundations, pottery, rock hollows, iron slags as well as rock shelters are all indications that Ddai is an abandoned settlement.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

In carrying out the reconstruction of the past way of life of the Ddai people, it is important to carry out further archaeological investigation of the site. However, the institute should make it as a matter of urgency to equip the center for field archaeology with adequate equipment to carry out further archaeological research work as this was lacked during this field work.

This work should also be made available to the public by publishing it in order for people to be knowledgeable about the past way of life of the Ddai people and to help future researcher in this site to know what has been previously donein this site in order to have less difficulty in limiting the scope of future studies.

5.3 CONCLUSIONS

The archeological research carried out at Ddai abandoned settlement cluster “C” has helped in identifying cluster of locales within a specific environment where members of a community live and carry out economic, social and political activities in a delineable time - period.

However, the arrangement of the house foundation which is in clusters suggested their communal living as well as need to protect themselves from attacks from enemies by their choosing the hill top.

Therefore, modernization has played a great impact of the people of Ddai has they have abandoned their settlement pattern of circular house foundation to the rectangular pattern of house foundation.

BIBLOGRAPHY

Aniakor, C.C 1980 House-types and Decorations in Southern Nigeria; Wisdom Publisher Limited, Ibadan, Owerri Nigeria.

Chang, K.C 1968 Settlements Archaeology. California, National Press

Mangunt B.N. (2008) “An Archaeological Investigations of the Historical Settlements of the Kulere People on the South-western Jos Plateau Escarpment.” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University Ibadan.

Mangut, J. (2006) “Aspect of Historical Archaeology of the Ron People on the South-western Jos Plateau of Nigeria” Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Ogundele, S.O 1995. Ungwai Building Methods: Past and Present. The Nigerian Field Vol.25.

Okpoko, A.I 1979 Settlement Archaeology In Anambra Rives Valley. A Short Note. West African Journal of Archaeology (WAJA) Edited by AndahVol 9. pp.164-171.

Opadeji A.O 1990 Defend: A factor that influenced Hill Top settlement in IffeIjumu (Unpublished Thesis IAMS Jos)

Shaw, T. (1970) Igbo-Ukwu: An Account of Archaeological Discovery in Eastern Nigeria. Vols. I&II. Faber and Faber, London.

Smith, A.B (1972) Preliminary Report of Excavations atKarkarichinkat Nord and KarkarichinkatSudTilemsi Valley, Mali, Spring 1972. West Africcan Journal of Archaeoloy. Vol. 4.

Uzuegbu J.O 2005 Settlement Archaeology and Excavation at Atura (Unpublished P.G.D Thesis IAMS Jos).

64 von 64 Seiten

Details

Titel
An Archaeological Study of Abandoned Settlement “Cluster C” in Ddai Daffo, Bokkos L.G.A of Plateau State
Autor
Jahr
2017
Seiten
64
Katalognummer
V385362
ISBN (Buch)
9783668691810
Dateigröße
2857 KB
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
Archaelogic, Abandoned, Settlement, Cluster C, Ddai Daffo, Bokkos, Plateau, Nigeria
Arbeit zitieren
MERCY EZOMO (Autor), 2017, An Archaeological Study of Abandoned Settlement “Cluster C” in Ddai Daffo, Bokkos L.G.A of Plateau State, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/385362

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