Solving of issues with an ITIL framework, which occur during the shakedown phase in a software implementation

Seminar Paper, 2017
10 Pages, Grade: 2,3




The research goal is to create a survey or a model, which addresses the problems andrestrictions that occur during software launch projects. Especially critical success factorswhich occur in the shakedown phase. With that we want to test, if an implemented ITSM(Service Desk, Incident management process an problem management process) in a companycan solve these issues.


To achieve the objectives stated before we created a survey (quantitative questionnaire). The results will be analyzed with a regression analysis or similar methods.

Expected Findings

Expected findings are whether or not an implemented ITSM can sufficient solve critical success factors or problems that occur during the shake down phase of a software implementation.

Research implications

One research implication is to enlarge the body of knowledge in the research field of software implementations in German middle-sized business companies.

Practical implications

Problems which have been identified in an IS launch can be addressed through keyperformance indicators (KPI) to monitor these problems in other similar software launches.


The value of the paper is that we will ensure that such problems won’t occur again in future software project launches.

1. Purpose

The research goal is to create a survey or a model, which addresses the problems and restrictionsthat occur during software launch projects. Especially critical success factors which occur in theshakedown phase. With that we want to test, if an implemented ITSM in a company can solvethese problems. The purpose of this work is to use a research methodology, respectively aquantitative research method. Main goal is the creation of a standardized survey which tries toanswer the research question if an framework, which consists out of an implemented Service deskand a management process and an implemented problem management process can solve criticalsuccess factors, which occur after a software implementation during the shakedown phase in amiddle sized company. These two processes are part of the front-end (Lahtela, Jäntti, & Kaukola,2010). Out of this we can distinguish between two research questions, which have to be analyzed.The first research question would be to ask which critical success factors or working issues occurafter a software implementation. A second research question is, if a given implemented ITILframework can solve or defuse such critical factors. Referring to my literature review, a lot ofresearch has done relating to critical success factors in software or ERP implementations(Yingjie, 2005; Markus M. L., 2004; Summer, 1999).

2. Theoretical background

Referring to (Markus M. L., 2004) implementing new software in a business company is almostlike changing tires while a car is driving. Referring to (Häkkinen & Hilmola, 2007) a softwareimplementation is a very complex project in which different stakeholders are included. Also a lotof issues must have taken into account. These issues can be e.g. that new procedures are notoperating as expected (Markus M. L., 2004). Restoring business performances, which droppedduring the software implementation is one major activity of the shakedown phase. This involvesprocess problems, the managing of negative reactions and maintaining daily and normaloperations (Ward, Hemingway, & Daniel, 2005; Markus & Tanis, 2000). As a newimplemented software, no incident reports and just a few reported bugs are present (Peters & Li ,2016). To challenge these occurring problems one key activity can be referring to (Peters & Li ,2016) engaging users of the existing company. As well as the risk that a complex softwareimplementation is failing is very high an integrated framework can solve these problems. Isuggest an implemented ITIL framework, to solve these occurring problems, which occur duringa shakedown phase of a software implementation. Furthermore in terms of a softwareimplementation premature disbanding of the project team and training can be inadequate. Alsooperations can be disrupted and the termination of the techno change can be a snag. Deducing tothese issues the main activities in a shakedown phase is the identification and analysis of thesejust mentioned problems and cleaning up data (Ivert & Jonsson, 2011; Ward, Hemingway, &Daniel, 2005). Furthermore operations are the rework of theses activities, which includestechnical fixes and additional training for employees and top management (Ivert & Jonsson,2011). Furthermore an ERP attempts to integrate all divisions in a company. (Somers & Nelson,2001). In the ERP implementation research it is important to distinguish between critical factors,which hinder a software implementation project and which factors are not critical for a softwareimplementation. Critical factors, which can for example hinder or delaying a softwareimplementation are e.g. “ top management support ” , “ project management ” , “ use of

consultants ” , “ project team competence ” . (Somers & Nelson, 2001; Summer, 1999; Yingjie,2005) Referring to (Markus M. L., 2004; Fui-Hoon Nah, Lee-Shang Lau, & Kuang, 2001; Ward,Hemingway, & Daniel, 2005) a software implementation consists out of the four phasesChartering, Project, Shakedown and benefit capture (Ward, Hemingway, & Daniel, 2005).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1 The technochange life cycle (Markus M. L., 2004; Fui-Hoon Nah, Lee-Shang Lau, & Kuang, 2001;Ward, Hemingway, & Daniel, 2005)

In my research I address the third of the four phases, which is the shakedown phase. Softwareimplementations need a lot of reengineering like adapting new processes to old processes so acompany can act in their old successful way. (Amoako-Gyampah & Salam, 2004) Softwareimplementation studies show, that critical impediments are likely to occur on reengineering andchange management (Kim, Lee, & Gosain, 2005). Because of that, Information technologyservices should be delivered in an efficient cost manner, respectively at the most sustainable andefficient way to reduce waste and cut costs (Eikebrokk & Iden, 2012). Because of that, ITorganizations, respectively IT divisions of business companies need a structured approach of howto implement and organize IT service management processes (Lahtela, Jäntti, & Kaukola, 2010).In this field one of the most used frameworks is the Information technology infrastructure library(ITIL) (Lahtela, Jäntti, & Kaukola, 2010; Cannon, Wheeldon, & Taylor , 2007). ITIL hasbecome a very often used IT service management standard (Hochstein, Tamm, & Brenner,Service oriented IT Management: Benefit, Cost and Sucess Factors, 2005) the category, which ismost important for this research work is the service operation category. The Service operationprocesses are dealing with the daily operations of an IT department to handle user requests,discover and recover errors. Supplemental the service operation processes are mandatory toensure the level of service which had been bargained with the customers referring to performanceor service level of an IT service (Suhairi & Gaol, 2013) As shown by (Eikebrokk & Iden, 2012)service operation processes are most developed in business companies (Steel & Tan, 2005). Twoof the most important ITIL processes for this research are the incident management process andthe problem management process. The incident management process is mandatory for capturinguser requests and solving these requests very quickly (Zarnekow, 2007; Hochstein, Zarnekow, &Brenner, Service-orientiertes IT- Management nach ITIL - Möglichkeiten und Grenzen, 2004). Aservice desk, a help desk or a call center, usually captures these requests. Mostly with a ticketsystem, which classifies user requests with a digital number and mandatory information referringto that user request to easily identify this request in the future. After capturing the user request, itwill be classified. Either it is a minor incident or a major incident. (Cannon, Wheeldon, &Taylor , 2007) This refers to the complexity of the reported problem. As figure 2 is showing, theincident management process is classified into the first level support. In the first level support auser request will be analyzed. The IT-department tries to figure out, if the incident is a knownincident and the solution is present and had been solved in the past or if it is a more complexincident, which has to be analyzed from the second or third level support (Cannon, Wheeldon, &Taylor , 2007). The first level support team tries to collect all information referring to the incident(Suhairi & Gaol, 2013). The information can be collected through the asking of users or byanalyzing information of monitoring or observation systems.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2 Important Service operation processes (Zarnekow, 2007)

If the first level is not able to solve an incident all information referring to the incident will bedelivered to the second level support team. The same procedure will happen, if the secondsupport level is not able to solve the incident (Zarnekow, 2007). The end of an incidentmanagement process is achieved, if an incident is solved and all details have been documentedand the user who requested the incident is informed. Conclusively the incident managementprocess is just for the curing of the symptoms of an IT error, which occurred during dailyoperations. On the other hand we have the problem management process, which has as a mainactivity the breakdown and analysis of the origin of an incident (Cannon, Wheeldon, & Taylor ,2007). Furthermore the problem management process manages all problems in the lifecycle.Additionally it has the task to minimize the impact of the incidents (Steel, Toleman, & Tan,2006).

3. Approach

In this seminar paper a quantitative research method is used. I use a standardized questionnaire inwhich I want to test hypotheses, which are shown in statements, which the participants of thissurvey have to rate on a scale from 1 to 5. 1 stands for ( “ ich lehne ab ” ) and 5 stands for ( “ ich stimme stark zu ” ). After that I will analyze these results with a regression analysis to analyze thisdata in a next step. Subsequently the results show, if the answers of the participants of my surveyare acceptable and representative (Naumann & Giel, 1995). A linear regression is a statisticalapproach to analyze a given data set. (Berekoven, Eckert, & Ellenrieder, 2009) My data sets arethe responses or answers to the questionnaire respectively the survey. (Raab-Steiner & Benesch,2012) Distinguish between six methods to analyze results of a quantitative survey research. Themethods are counting, judging, testing, asking, observing and physiological measuring. I use themethod of asking. Because of that I created a survey, which employees from specific middle-sized companies have to answer. (Raab, Poost, & Eichhorn, 2009). For a standardizedquestionnaire concrete questions are mandatory to measure the specific characteristics like forexample gender, age, customer satisfaction, motivation e.g. Because oft hat it is useful to usevariable which have to operationalized. Another important factor, which is mandatory in a survey research, is the sample. (Bortz & Döring, 2006; Berekoven, Eckert, & Ellenrieder, 2009) Usefulwould be a sample of at least a minimum of 500 participants. Because of that the questionnairewill be send to multiple companies in Germany. Furthermore I want to figure out if an ITILframework can solve occurring problems that emerge during the shakedown phase of an ERPimplementation. In our research an ITIL framework stands for the processes “ incidentmanagement ” and “ problem management ” , respectively a service-, helpdesk, which givesemployees and users of a specific software the possibility to ask for information technology help.

4. Data Collection

I contacted middle-sized companies from Germany, which had to answer my survey respectivelythe created questionnaire. I contacted a total of XX companies. The response rate was XX %. Iused an online questionnaire, which every employee of the participated companies had to answer.The questionnaire was done with, which is an online tool to createquestionnaires.

5. Results

Expected findings are whether or not an implemented ITSM can sufficient solve critical success factors that occur during the shakedown phase of an IS implementation. (Berekoven, Eckert, & Ellenrieder, 2009) Suggest a linear regression analysis to analyze if an implemented ITIL framework has a positive effect on solving critical success factors respectively impediments, which occur during the shakedown phase.

6. Research Implications

The aim of this research is to analyze if an implemented ITIL framework respectively anInformation technology service management (ITSM) can solve problems which occurring duringa software implementation. Future research fields in this area can be if an implemented ITSM canalso solve problems, which occur around other implementations like a new study or workingroom or for example in a merge of teams or divisions. With this, I mean if an ITSM can solve e.g.communication problems, which emerge when these people are brought together. Furthermore itis interesting if an ITIL framework implementation can be used to optimize a ChangeManagement approach, which is tremendously used in business today. Other research fields,which can be addressed through this software implementation research is for example psychologyor human resource management. An important issue that arises during a software implementationis the users resistance to change. Psychologists or human resource managers could try to figureout why this resistance to change arises and how it can be overcome. The research implication isto extend the Information technology service model (ITSM) with a learning process. Thisresearch contributes to other research field like for example software implementations in huge orsmall companies. Additionally it conduces new knowledge to the research field of softwareimplementations.

7. Practical implications

By this research, not only science can profit, also business. Identified critical issues can bemonitored through key performance indicators or similar controlling methods. Furthermore it ispossible to use this approach in other companies or business fields to analyze if an implementedITIL framework, definitely solves information technology issues of the shakedown phase insoftware implementation projects or not. One implication for the economy is that, enterpriseresource planning (ERP) software implementations cannot be initiated without occurring issues,e.g. communication problems, no top management support, poor project management, and so on.These issues mostly arise in the shake down phase of a software implementation. Also, these justmentioned issues contribute to the fact that science and economy should work closer together insuch an information technology field like software implementations in a business company toclose the knowledge gap between these two institutions. Additionally I want to show, that anITIL framework can help companies to improve transparency and communication betweenemployees and top management. Besides also the top-down and bottom-up communication canbe improved in some circumstances by implementing an ITIL framework.

8. Discussion

To go deeper into that research method I will also analyze whether or whether not it would makesense to use a qualitative research method. Like for example expert interviews or guidelineinterviews, which are guided by an information or question paper, which the interviewer handsout to every participant. Furthermore it is interesting to filter, if a qualitative research approachwould make more sense in this research questions. Additionally it is important to discuss if sucha research approach will be depressed in a future work or not. For the use of a qualitative researchapproach speaks, the fact, that a software release creates different emotions in the employees of acompany. Like for example anger or anxious behavior, because the employees don’t know howto handle the new software. Because of that it is maybe useful to intensify such an approach. Auseful approach could be an expert interview with such employees who are against software.These employees can be division managers or CEO’s of a middle sized company, who cannotwork with the new ERP system, because it is too complex and they do not have time to learn howto interact or use software. Furthermore because they do not even know how to use software, theywill not push that software in terms of a positive marketing image or even speak about the newproject management software. In guideline interviews such facts can also be identified. In such aqualitative research method a lot of other facts or problems can be identified which would not beidentified in a quantitative research approach, like I did in my research. These problems can befor example a not sustainable programmed software which creates a lot of waste and otherproblems like crashing servers and so on. Besides because of a qualitative research approach,other research fields could also be addressed like for example business psychology fields orpsychology in general. As a matter of fact software is used by human beings respectivelyemployees of a business company. Due to the fact that, human beings are being focused in thepsychology research field, it is very useful or important to do research with human beings, like ina standardized questionnaire or survey or in qualitative research like expert interviews orguideline interviews. Because of the fact that a qualitative research approach is often used insociology or psychology I did not use this approach. My research area is business informationsystems. For that simple reason, I used a quantitative approach to show difference between theseresearch fields. Additionally I used a quantitative approach, because in terms of software release

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1. Treten vermehrt Arbeitsprobleme auf, seitdem die Software eingeführt wurde?

a. Ja

b. Nein

c. Keine Angabe

2. In welchem Unternehmen sind sie beschäftigt?

3. Gibt es in Ihrem Unternehmen ein solch beschriebenes IT-Task-Force-Team (Service-

Desk / IT-Hilfshotline), dass sich mit auftretenden IT-Problemen befasst, die im Zuge von zuvor implementierter Software aufgetreten sind?

a. Ja

b. Nein

c. Keine Angabe

4. Welche Berufsposition haben sie in Ihrem Unternehmen inne?

5. Kann ein implementiertes ITIL Framework den Top Management Support erhöhen, sodass das Top Management die Software unterstützt, gutheißt, positiv davon spricht?

a. Stimme voll zu

b. Stimme zu

c. Neutral

d. Stimme nicht zu

e. Stimme gar nicht zu

6. Kann ein IT-Service Desk Probleme lösen, die im Umfeld von Rechtevergaben oder dem User-Account Management entstehen?

a. Stimme voll zu

b. Stimme zu

c. Neutral

d. Stimme nicht zu

e. Stimme gar nicht zu

7. Kann Ihrer Meinung nach ein implementiertes ITIL Framework wie es anfangs beschrieben wurde die Kompetenz im Umgang mit der neuen Software erhöhen?

a. Stimme voll zu

b. Stimme zu

c. Neutral

d. Stimme nicht zu

e. Stimme gar nicht zu

8. Kann ein implementiertes ITIL Framework die Top-down und Bottom-upKommunikation zwischen Organisationen und Abteilungen verbessern?

a. Stimme voll zu

b. Stimme zu

c. Neutral

d. Stimme nicht zu

e. Stimme gar nicht zu

9. Sind sie der Meinung, dass Probleme die aufgrund von neu eingeführter Software inUnternehmen entstehen durch eine IT-Servicehotline entschärft werden kann?

a. Stimme voll zu

b. Stimme zu

c. Neutral

d. Stimme nicht zu

e. Stimme gar nicht zu

10. Haben Sie noch weitere Einfälle, eventuell auch selbst erlebte Arbeitsprobleme, die durchneu eingeführte Softwares in der shakedown Phase auftreten können?


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Solving of issues with an ITIL framework, which occur during the shakedown phase in a software implementation
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Lars Büchner (Author)Mahei Manhai Li (Author), 2017, Solving of issues with an ITIL framework, which occur during the shakedown phase in a software implementation, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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