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The objectives of the study included identifying the level of contact hours for practical in the construction trades and the technical colleges, factors militating against the practical training and effectiveness of the practical training in the content of the construction trades. 130 Questionnaires were administered (20) professionals in the construction industry with technical competency while 100 questionnaires were administered to master craftsmen as follows, General foreman (15), Carpenter (20), Mason (15), Steel bender (10), Electrician (10), Plumber (10), Painter (10), Cabinet Maker (10), Tiler (10). The study reveals that lack of adequate supply of training materials (consumables) had effect on skilled craftsmen needed in the construction industry lack of adequate tools/modern equipment were also identified students industrial training experience should be given priority. Major factor militating against practical training is lack of audio visual laboratory in our technical colleges, lack of provision of basic personnel protective equipment, understanding working drawing and blue prints, cross fertilization of trades among construction craftsmen should be accord due diligent. Effective training of practical’s in the technical colleges, there should be college/construction collaboration during studentship, site on job training, and practical demonstration in the technical college, internet facilities/constant supply of electricity should be available in the technical college
Keywords: Craftsmen, EffectiveTraining, WorkshopPractice
Nigeria is beset with a bunch of issues, which in spite of her oil riches, hinders her advancement. Joblessness is one of the formative issues that face each creating economy in this twenty-first century, and Nigeria isn't exempted the National Bureau of Statistics (2009, 2011). Ability is critical in the life of each person. The motivation behind why numerous experts acquires more than some college graduates is on the grounds that the specialists secure more practical abilities than the speculations, dissimilar to the graduates who were sustained with hypothetical encounters while in the colleges. It can take you to places you don't expect you will get yourself. Skill securing is the capacity to be prepared on a specific undertaking or work and wind up noticeably master in it. It is a pity that there is "gigantic" parading of joblessness in many parts of the world today particularly in Nigeria. This is giving numerous young people in various parts of the world today a restless night. It is one of the reasons for fast development in wrongdoing in many parts of the world. Be that as it may, do you think there is any connection between somebody who has procured ability on the best way to play out a specific employment and profit from it and joblessness? The appropriate response is no in light of the fact that the expertise he has procured can simply represent him/her.
Skills acquisition involves the development of a new skills practice of doing things usually impact through training by experienced professionals, emphasis should be placed towards the economic self-reliance through diversification of economy and encourage self employment with appropriate favourable policy environment that would facilitate skills acquisition, entrepreneurship and self reliance in technical and vocational education. According to the National policy on Education (2004), technical and vocational education is an aspect of learning which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge which prepares students for industry, agriculture and commerce this training also prepares learners for careers that are based on manual or practical activities related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation. Technical, vocational, education and training has made important on socio-political productivity and economic development of most nations making it an integral part of national development.
Construction industry plays a fundamental role in wealth creation improvement of quality of life real economic growth and transformation of the society because of latest design of all structural members which includes aesthetic appearance of the building. According to Eneh (2010) states Nigeria revealed a serious decrease in technical apprenticeship practice and artisans’ product and services. The early craftsmen are of ages which range from 50-60years, the younger ones are not interested in the construction trades, and our government should encourage young Nigerians to see opportunity in the construction industry.
The government should create a database that will provide skilled information for construction industry of master craftsmen technical expertise; this must be monitored from technical colleges. Producing master craftsmen for construction industry requires a lot of practical training from technical and on job training at site where the craftsmen acquires practical skills and after two years post graduation experience sit for the advance certification in construction trades. However, this paper appraises the level of workshop practice on training of qualified craftsmen in the construction industry.
2.0 Literature Review
National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) (2000) states that technical college students are trained to acquire relevant knowledge and skills in different occupations for employment in the world of work. Part of the primary aim of training at technical college level across the country is to produced or graduate students that will be enterprising and self reliant with skills in the construction trades. According to (Olaitan 1996) states that technical colleges are geared towards producing craftsmen in various disciplines, the existence of the college is to stimulate technological and industrial development by developing and utilizing technologies for industrial and economic advancement.
Eneh (2010) revealed that the acquisition of technical and vocational skills enhance the relevance and functionality of an individual, promote their economic survival and vibrancy thereby playing a crucial role in the development of a society. Salisu et al (2016) also opined that the technical knowledge which a craftsman should acquire cannot be picked up on the site alone; training of craftsmen has been redesigned from the days of informal apprenticeship. According to Kuroshi (2015) stated that deficiencies exist between the skills of vocational workers and those required to meet the needs and expectations of employers in the construction sector. Hassan was opined that construction is relatively labour-intensive in the sense that it uses a larger number of workers per unit of output than that of most other industries.
According to Obiegbu (2005) observed that Nigeria requires the services of skilled workers on construction sites, the nation is developing with a growing population and attendant housing needs, at present the demand for skilled workforce such as mason, carpenters, plumber, painters, amongst others, is far above supply. According to Odia and Omofonmwan (2007) identify lack of necessary facilities such as tools and adequate workshops to hinder indepth practical instruction in the technical colleges.
Technical education is a facet of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. It is the scientific knowledge acquired by craftsmen and technicians that are used in untying hard knots during operations. Craftsmanship and technical education is a pivot to any economic development of a nation. Technical education must therefore be given full priorities it deserves to make Nigeria economically buoyant and technologically sound to pay back for the lost period during the pre-colonial and colonial era.
3.0 Research Method
Construction industry skilled shortage present challenges for industry employer, it provides an opportunity for workers to develop the necessary skills and for employers, who can help workers develop the talents they require. One hundred and thirty (130) questionnaires were administered, which has two parts. The first part entreated contextual data about the respondents.
The second part of the questionnaire engrossed on the appraisal of workshop practice on training of master craftsmen for construction industry. A four point likert-scale ranging from 1 (not important) to 4 (very important) was adopted to capture the causes while for the effects 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agreed) was used. The likert-scale adopted was transformed into mean score and relative important index.
RII = ΣPi U i
4.0 Data Analysis
Characteristics of Respondents
Table 1, shows the demographic of the respondents. One hundred and thirty (130) respondents were involved in the survey that cut across various professionals with technical competency in the construction industry. The construction professionals involved were Builders (7.7%), Civil Structural Engineers (3.8%), Mechanical and Electrical Engineers (3.8%), General foreman (11.5%), Carpenter (15.4%), Mason (11.5%), Steel bender (7.7%), Electrician (7.7%), Plumber (7.7%), Painter (7.7%), Cabinet Maker (7.7%), Tiler (7.7%).
Table 1: Characteristic of Respondents
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: Field Survey 2017
Professional with technical competency (Builder, Civil / Structural Engineers, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers (15.3%), general foreman (11.5%), carpenter (15.4%), mason (11.5%), steel bender / electrician, plumber, painter, cabinet maker and tiler with (7.7%) respectively.
Table 2: Causes of Master Craft Training in Construction Industry
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: Field Survey 2017
The respondents agreed that insufficient state of technical and vocational education (RII = 1.00), lack of commitment by government policies (RII = 0.98), rapid change in technology (RII = 0.92), lack of qualified and lack of physical fitness (RII = 0.86), decline in the new entrants into skilled trade (RII = 0.84), lack of motivation of craftsmen (RII = 0.82), training/retraining system (RII = 0.82), investment in skilled opposed to production (RII = 0.78), lack of appeal to young potential skill worker (RII = 0.71), potential qualified manpower and poor enumerator of skilled manpower (RII = 0.68).
Table 3: Factors Militating Against Training of Master Craftsmen in Construction Industry
S/N Variables Mean Score RII Rank
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Source: Field Survey 2017
The respondents agreed that lack of investment on training of skilled craftsmen in audio visual (RII = 090), lack of planning and implementation of trained policies by government (RII = 0.86), poor management of training funds by construction firms (RII = 0.82), lack of experienced technical instructor and government negligence to training of construction craftsmen (RII = 0.80), contractor reluctance to embark on craftsmen training (RII = 0.48), lack of standard training adopted for construction craftsmen (RII = 0.34)
5.0 Discussion of Findings
The finding of the study is in agreement with other previous studies on the issue of training of master craftsmen. The study identified lack of investment on training of skilled craftsmen in audio visual as the main affect against training of master craftsmen in construction industry. This is confirmed by Olaitan (1996). Other factors are lack of planning and implementation of training policies by government, poor management of training fund by construction firms, lack of experienced technical instructor, government negligence of training of construction craftsmen, contractor reluctance to embark on craftsmen training, lack of standard training adopted for construction craftsmen.
The causes of master craft training in construction industry as identified from the study were ineffective state of technical and vocational education, lack of commitment by government policies, rapid change in technology, lack of physical fitness, lack of qualified instructor, decline in the new entrants into skilled trade, lack of motivation of craftsmen, training/retraining system, investment in skilled opposed to production, lack of appeal to young potential skill workers, potential qualified manpower, and poor enumerator of skilled manpower.
The government should encourage young people to consider the construction trades, educate the youth about the opportunity that exists and make the potent that skilled in construction trades offers the potential for good paying jobs.
6.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
The study focuses on the training of master craftsmen for construction industry. The study identified ineffective state of technical and vocational education, lack of commitment by government policies, rapid change in technology, lack of physical fitness, lack of qualified instructor, decline in the new entrants into skilled trade, lack of motivation of craftsmen were the most six important causes of workshop practice in training of master craftsmen for construction industry.
This paper highlighted the factors militating against of master craftsmen in the construction industry, lack of investment on training of skilled craftsmen in audio visual, lack of planning and implementation of training policies by government, poor management of training fund by construction.
1. We recommend that the Location of the centers be more central to aid accessibility. For instances, the skills acquisition center in all Local government of the federation.
2. Directly following the above, we also recommend that more NDE training centers should be located in the 744plus local government areas of the state. This will give many indigenes if the state the opportunity of benefiting from NDE trainings. To achieve this, NDE can partner with private individuals and all the local authorities.
3. Sometimes because the instructors of the programmes are not well remunerated, the studies found out that if accommodations can be provided close to the training centers for them, it could improve the efficiency of the programmes, and so recommended. Some centers are located in an Estate where the flats were left unoccupied and the vicinity bushy. The local authority in collaboration with NDE operators can fashion out this Option.
4. The study recommends speedy Empowerment of trainees to be done between one to three months after training and certification. In an interview with the instructors of the programme, the researchers found out that 2012 batch of trainees had not yet been empowered by the government.
5. In addition to the available data of the graduated trainees at the State office, a data bank of all the successful trainees and beneficiaries of the training should be created at the training centers and maintained.
6. NDE should create a forum for beneficiaries to be meeting on regular basis to discuss their challenges and way-forward on a quarterly or at least bi-annual basis. Regular contact with the graduated tnrainees by the center manager is important so as to know if they are doing fine or not.
We therefore recommend government / private assistance to fund their business set-up.
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- Quote paper
- Salisu Harfiz (Author), 2019, Appraisal of Workshop Practice on Training of Master Craftsmen in Construction Industry, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/456290