Islam and Economic Development. The Ahmadiyya Factor


Textbook, 2018
55 Pages

Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENT

PREFACE

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

DEDICATION

TABLE OF CONTENT

GUIDE:

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Meaning of Islam
THE AHMADIYY FACTOR

CHAPTER TWO
THE GOAL OF ISLAM

CHAPTER THREE
THE WORLDVIEW OF ISLAM
KHILAFA (Vicegerancy of Human Being)
FUNCTIONS OF KHILAFAT
THE BLESSINGS OF KHILAFAT
KHALITUL RASHIDUN AFTER THE HOLY PROPHET ( SAW)
Hazrat Abubakar Ibn Abiqahafa
Hazrat Umar Ibn Khattab
HAZRAT UTHMAN BN AFFAN
HAZRAT ALI
THE PROMISE MESSIAH AND MADHI
(HAZRAT MIRZA GULAM AHMAD OF QADIAN)
TEN CONDITIONS OF BAI’AT
Caliphate after the Promised Messiah and Mahdi
HAZRAT MAULANA ALHAJ NOORUDIN
HAZRAT MIRZA BASHIRUD-DIN MAHMUD AHMAD
HAZRAT MIRZA NASIR AHMAD
HAZRAT MIRZA TAHIR AHMAD
HAZRAT MIRZA MASROOR AHMAD
ADALAH (JUSTICE)
The Economics of Adl (Adalah
CHAPTER THREE
THE ISLAMIC CULTURE
The Islamic Values and Practices
SALAT
IMPORTANCE OF PRAYER
Articles of Faith

CHAPTER FOUR
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

CHAPTER FIVE
ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF ISLAM

CHAPTER SIX
ISLAM AND WEALTH CREATION

CHAPTER SEVEN
ISLAM AND EDUCATION

CHAPTER EIGHT
ISLAM AND DEMOCRACY

CHAPTER NINE
ISLAM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

REFERENCE

PREFACE

Islam and Economic Development-the Ahmadiyya Factor is initially written as an EBook to provide balanced view of Islam in relation to economic development. The writer has been an economics teacher in senior high school for over fifteen years. The writer had also been a student of Islamic Religious Studies at Ordiary and Advanced levels, as well as introductory couses in Quranic Hermeneutics and Old Testament at the university.

The book is written with the aim to show readers that Islam does teach laziness, nor does Islam encourage Muslims to be poor. Islam and Economic Development is also written to show that Islam teaches muslims to be hardworking, truthful, honest, generous, kind to parents and neighbours , caring for the development of their societies , and more importantly to be submissive to will of Allah and peaceful to fellow humans and all creatures.

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my profound to Mr. Mohammed Awal and Madam Afishetu Jato for helping to type the work.

DEDICATION

This Ebook is dedicated to my late step-father, Alhaji Mohammed Alhassan, my late grandfather, Iddrisu Sunkari for supporting to have strong foundation in education.

ISLAM AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THE AHMADIYYA FACTOR

GUIDE:

1). Meaning and goals of Islam

2). Islamic worldview; Principal Concepts
a) Tawhid (Oneness and Unity of God)
b) Khilafa (Vicegeraucy of human beings)
c) Adalah (Justice)

3). The Islamic Culture
a) Pre-Islamic Era
b) Islamic Values and Practices

4). Islam and Economic Systems
a) Capitalism
b) Socialism/Command System

5).Islam and Wealth creation
a) Islam and Education
b) Islam and Trade or Sales
c) Redistribution of Wealth

6). Islam and Democracy

7). Islam and Economic Development
a) Meaning
b) Forms of Classifications

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Meaning of Islam

Islam means; peace and submission to the will of Allah. Islam can therefore be explained into broad ways; Muamallat, which means peaceful co-existence with humankind and, Ibadah, which means worship. Ibadah (Worship) in Islam means worship. Worship is generally taken to mean performing ritualistic acts such as prayers (Salat), fasting (Sawm), alms giving (Zakat), or charity (Sadaqaat), performing hajj among others.

According to a publication by the institute of Islamic Information and Education (as cited in WWW.upui.edu) “Worship is an all-inclusive term for all that God loves of external and internal sayings and actions of a person”

Allah says in the Holy Quran

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“Surely, the true religion with Allah is Islam. And those who were given the Book did not disagree but, after knowledge had come to them, out of mutual envy. And whoso denies the signs of Allah, then Allah is quick at reckoning” (Quran Chapter 3:20).

The foregoing verse means that all true religions were naturally Islam as they require the submission of followers of those religions to the will of Allah. But this find consummation in Islam as Allah’s own chosen religion. Quran 3:86 further states that

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“And whoever seeks religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the hereafter he will be one of the losers”.

Ibadah expressed or contained in the meaning of Islam requires all creation to devote their worship to none but Allah. The Quran hereby states;

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“And your lord has commanded that you worship none but him, and that you show kindness to parents. If one or both of them attain old age with thee, never say to them as much as ugh nor reproach them, but always address them with kindly speech” (Quran chapter 17:24).

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“Worship Allah and join none with him (in worship) (Quran chapter 4:37). To show that worship is not only carrying out your duties to only Allah but to mankind too even as you are not permitted to associate partners with him, Quran 4:37 enumerates true Muslim’s responsibilities as

“And worship Allah and associate naught partners with Him, and show kindness to parents, and to kindred, and orphans, and the needy, and to the neighbor who is a kinsman and to a neighbor who is a stranger, and the companion by your side, and the wayfarers, and those whom your right hands possess. Surely, Allah loves not the arrogant and the boastful”

It explained further that Islam considers the individual to practice worship as a whole. He is required to submit himself in totality to the will of Allah, as the Quran instructed the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) to do:

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“Say (O Muhammad) my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and death all belong to Allah, He has no partner and I am ordered to be among those who submit. i.e Muslims” (Quran chapter 6:163)

The fact of the matter is that Islam does not think much of mere rituals when people perform them for performance sake and their performance do not influence on their inner likes. The Quran addresses the believers and their neighbors from among Christians and Jews who were arguing with them about the change of direction of Qibla in the following verse;

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“It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East or the West but righteous is he who believes in Allah and the Last Day and the Angels and the Book and the Prophets, and gives his beloved money to his relatives and the orphans and the needy and for the ransoming of captives and who observes prayer and pays the poor-due; and those who fulfill their promises when they have made one, and the patient in poverty and affliction and the steadfast in time of war; It is those who have proved truthful and it is those who are the God fearing” (Quran chapter 2:178)

The foregoing verse highlighted only part of deeds comprising worship. The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) told us about faith, which is the basis of worship and that faith “is made up sixty and some branches; the highest of which is the belief in the oneness of Allah, i.e. there is no God but Allah and the lowest in the scale of worship is removing obstacles and dirt from people’s way”. What all this means is that the concept of worship in Islam is a comprehensive one which covers all positive activities of the individual. Invariably, the Islamic concept of worship encompasses all facets of human life on all levels; that is individual, social, economic, political and spiritual.

Muamallat explains the other half of the definition of Islam, The Quran Says

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“You are the best people raised for the good of mankind; you enjoin what is good and forbid evil and believe in Allah. And if the people of the Book had believed, it would have surely been better for them. Some of them are believers, but most of them are disobedient”. (Quran chapter 3:111)

Muallamat refers to service to humanity and the sacrifices humankind are expected to make to ensure that the life of other humans and other creatures are supported. But the spiritual implication is that people should help others to do good and prevent others from indulging in evil deeds.

In other words, Islam teaches through the Quran not only to be just in our dealings with other humans but also to be gracious and kind to our fellow humans whether they are neighbors who are relatives, or passing strangers. In this regard, the Quran further states;

“And worship Allah and associate no partners with him and show kindness to parents, and to kindred, and orphans and the needy, and to the neighbor that is a kinsman and to the neighbor that is a stranger, and the companion by your side, and the wayfarer, and those whom your right hand possesses. Surely, Allah loves not the proud and the boastful”. (Quran chapter 4:37)

Allah Almighty guided the Prophet of Islam (SAW) to set standards for service to humanity (Muamallat) and advised that it is the key to nearness to Allah as was the case. Prophet Muhammad (SAW) also declared that;

“One who is not grateful to mankind is not grateful to Allah”. It was also narrated in a hadith thus;

“Allah the Almighty will tell son of Adam on the day of Judgment I was ill and you did not attend to me. Son of Adam will say O my Lord how could I have attended to you as you are the lord of all the Worlds. Allah will say, did you not know that so and so of my servants was ill you did not attend to him. If you had attended to him, you would have found me near him. O son of Adam I once requested food from you. Son of Adam will say O my Lord how could I give you food as you are Lord of all the Worlds. Allah will say one of my servants was Hungary, if you had given him food, you would have found me near him. O son of Adam, you did not give me drink, when I was thirty. How could I give you a drink when you are the Lord of all the Worlds? Allah will say that one of my servants was thirsty and asked for a drink. If you had given him a drink, you would have found me near him”.

The prophet of Islam (SAW) said that “people are the family of God Almighty and loves him the most who treats his family with love and compassion”.

Khulafa who came after the Holy Prophet of Islam (SAW) followed the examples of the Prophet. It is reported that Hadzrat Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) used to milk goats for those who could not manage themselves.

THE AHMADIYY FACTOR

The Promised Messiah and Madhi, Mirza Gulam Ahmad declared “I proclaim to all Muslims, Christians, Hindus and Aryas that I have no enemy in the world.

I love mankind with the love that a compassionate mother has for her children, even more so, I am only the enemy of false doctrines which kill truth. Human sympathy is my duty. My principle is to discare falsehood. I reject paganism, wrongdoing, misconduct, injustice and immorality.

(Arbaen, pt.1; Roohami Khazain Vol.17 P.344 as cited in www.alislam.org-library-articles 21/05/2018)

In other words, all issues pertaining to the direct teachings of the Holy Quran, hadith/sunna are relevant to Ahmadi Muslims as are to all other Muslims as far as the relationship between Islam and Economic Development is concerned, but in the case of the Ahmadi Muslim, he/she further believes in the claims and teachings of the Promised Messiah and Mahdi.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is helping humanity by building schools and hospitals in Africa through the Nusrat Jahan Scheme. This was vigorously started by the third Khalifa of the Jama’at. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community helps humanity in all the areas and example of the Holy Prophet (SAW) and Khilafatu Raashideen.

The Muslim Community generally now has professionals in all fields of human endeavor, who are contributing their quota to national development and for that matter global development. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community particularly, produces; Medical Doctors, Nurses, Teachers in all fields up to the universities, lawyers, artisans, politicians to mention but a few, who contribute greatly to global economic development. This is in fulfilment of a Quran statement that;

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“You are the best people raised for the good of mankind; you enjoin what is good and forbid evil and believe in Allah. And if the people of the book had believed, it would surely have been better for them. Some of them are believers, but most of them are disobedient”.

It is when one completely submits to the will of Allah even as he/she is so useful to society that such people can be said to be the best example among mankind as stated in Quran 3:111.

Commenting on this verse, Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmoud Ahmad explained

“ the verse not only claims that the Muslims are the best people-a big claim indeed-but also gives reasons for it: (1)They have been raised for the good of Mankind; and (2) it is their duty to enjoin good and forbid evil and believe in God. The glory of the Muslims is subject to and governed by these two conditions”.

CHAPTER TWO

THE GOAL OF ISLAM

The principal aim of Islam is to establish Islamic brotherhood through Khilafa and Justice through Adalah. Those two make the well-being of human beings “(falah)”. This well-being includes physical satisfaction, because mental peace and happiness can be addressed only through a balanced realization of both material and spiritual needs of the human personality. It is contended after all that mere maximization of output or satisfaction by a consumer as the case may be, cannot be a goal of a Muslim society. Islam maintains that maximizing output or profit and minimizing losses must be accompanied by efforts that aim at improving spiritual health at the inner core of human consciousness, as well as justice and fair play at all levels of human interaction, hence the relationship between Islam and economic development.

While the conventional economics world view or goal may be to obtain material benefit, the goal of Islam goes beyond that to include spiritual gains.

For example, the creation of Angel, Jinn, mankind and all that is in the heavens and earth by Allah is for them to worship Him alone, the Quran states:

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“Do you not see that to Allah prostrates whosoever is in the heavens and whoever is in the earth, and the sun, the moon, the stars, the maintains, the trees, the moving creatures and many of the people? But upon many who are deserving of punishment. And Whosoever Allah disgraces, none can raise him to honor. Verily, ALLAH does what he please” (Quran chapter 22:19)

Allah further states in the Holy Quran that

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“The seven heavens and the earth and whatever is in them exalt him. And there is not a thing except that it exalts (Allah) by His praise, but you do not understand their (ways of) exalting. Indeed, He is ever forebearing and forgiving (Quran chapter 17:44)

Allah sent his Messengers, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) not being an exception for the purpose of establishing the worship of Allah alone. To this, the Quran states

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“And we certainly sent into every nation, a messenger (Saying) “Worship Allah and avoid Taghiit” (Quran chapter 16:36)

Hazrat Mirzat Masroor Ahmad (aba) Khalifatul Masih V, explained the purpose and objectives of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community which is a Sect in Islam, as “Seeking to bring mankind towards its creator-God Almighty.

(P.13, June 2016, Vol.111). Huzur added that the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community sought to draw the attention of mankind towards their responsibilities to their fellow men (Muamallat) and, the need to treat one another with love, compassion and respect. And he pointed out that “we desire and seek to establish true and long-lasting peace in the World” (P.13)

According to Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih V (Huzur, 2016), the Promise Messiah explained that Muamallat is a type of worship or at least, is subsumed under worship when he said

“To love mankind and to show compassion to others is an immense form of worship of God Almighty and an outstanding means of attaining his pleasure”.

Huzur (2016) further explained that Islam counsel us to avoid or eschew all kinds of hatred, enmity and malice and instead unite under a banner of love and mutual respect. The Quran emphasises the need for the establishment of peace Justice in all segments of society and between all people, when it states:

“O ye who believe! Be steadfast in the cause of equity: and let not a people’s enmity incite you to act otherwise than with justice. Be always just, that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah surely, Allah is aware of what you do”.

CHAPTER THREE

THE WORLDVIEW OF ISLAM

There are three Principal concepts that are discussed under the Worldview of Islam. These are:

1. Tawheed
2. Khilafa or Vicegerancy of human beings, and
3. Adalah or justice

Tawheed

Tawheed in Arabic means oneness of God. It also means God is described as being one and unique, with no partner or peer in His essence and Attributes. The Quran states:

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“Say (O Muhammad): He is Allah, (the) one, the self- sufficient (Masher, who all creatures need), He begets not nor was begotten, and there is none like unto Him” (Quran chapter 112:1-4) The Quran further states in Quran 2:163

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“And your God is one, there is none worthy of worship but He, the Most Gracious, Ever Merciful”

Tawheed

In a related discussion of Tawheed, the Quran says

1. “In the name of Allah, the Gracious, the Merciful
2. Say, He is Allah, the One
3. Allah, the independent and besought of All
4. He begets not nor is begotten
5. And there is none like unto him”

A short commentary of the Holy Quran edited Malik Gulam Farid under the auspices of Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad Khalifatul Masih (IV) expatiates on the foregoing shura as follows:

That Qu l which means say entails an emphatic command to Muslims to continuously proclaim “God is One” He explained that the use of ‘Huwa’ (He) as Damir al-Sha’n and meaning, ‘ the truth is’, points to the fact that it is clearly a natural truth deep seated in man that God is one and only.

Ahad is an epithet applied to God alone and signifies, the one, the sole, He who has been and will ever be one and alone”

While God as Samad, means one to whom all have recourse or to who obedience is rendered; or without who no affair is accomplished.

On the other hand, the fact the forth verse “He begets not nor is begotten” immediately follows his divine attribute Al-Samad, Means God the one and only is above NEED. So He succeeds no one and no one succeeds him.

Finally, the verse “And there is none like unto Him” dispels every iota of doubt possible to which the earlier verses emphasise that “Allah is one, Alone, Absolute and independent of all” and the fact that He neither begets nor is He begotten, but could be the case that yes these are the attributes of God but there is another being like him or with similar attributes? So the last verse assures that there is really no Being like Allah anywhere at any time

In Saheeh al-Bkhaari (7372) and Saheer Muslim (19) it is narrated by Ibn Abass (May Allah be pleased with him) that when the Prophet (SAW) sent Mu-aelh Ibn Jabal to Yemen, he said to him “you are going to people from among the people of the Book, so let the first thing to which you call them be belief in Allah alone (Tawheed). If they accept that, then you tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five daily prayers. If they pray then tell them Allah has enjoined them to pay Zakat from their wealth to be taken from their rich and given to their poor. If they agree then take it from them but avoid the best of people’s wealth”

Also in Saheeh Muslim, it is narrated from Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (SAW) said: Islam is built on five Pillars: belief that Allah is one, establishing regular prayer, paying zakat, fasting in Ramadan, and performing the pilgrimage (Hajj)”

Putting the Quranic verse and hadith together, it vigorously affirms the unity of God and that there is none worthy of praise or worship but Allah and Muhammad (SAW) is his Messenger, Tawheed therefore is the essence of the testimony that Allah alone should be worshiped.

Whoever therefore devotes the whole of his worship or a part of it to someone or something other than Allah is deemed to have gone astray from true belief.

KHILAFA (Vicegerancy of Human Being)

The Quran Says in chapter 24:56

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“God has promised to make those of you who believe and do good, leaders (Vicegerants) in the land, as He made those before them, and will establish their faith which He has chosen for them and change their fear into security. They will worship me alone and associate not partners with me. But those who disbelieve after this will be reprobates”

1) Allah’s Promise
2) The Choosing of Khilafat by God
3) The preservation and protection of faith chosen by Allah Himself
4) Tawheed.

A short commentary of the Holy Quran published under the guidance of Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad Khalifatul Masih (IV) and edited by Malik Gulam Farid (2002) explained that due to the Importance of the Subject of Successorship of Leadership in Islam, Versus Preceding Quran chapter 24:56, such as 52, 53, 54 and 55, emphasized on the need for followers to be obedient to constituent authority, Particularly Messengers of Allah. This emphasis markedly tells the status of Khilafat in Islam. Verse 56 contains a Promise that Muslims would be vouchsafed both Spiritual and temporary leadership. Since the Prophet of Islam (SAW) was sent to all mankind for all ages or till the end of the World, “all other Khulafa having ceased to exist”.

“Our age has witnessed the greatest spiritual Khilafah in the person of the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Movement”. That is, the Promised Messiah and Madhi, Mirza Gulam Ahmad of Qadian.

The foregoing discussion shows that Khilafat’ can be looked on two main ways; The Khulafah of God who are Prophets and the Khulafah of Prophets who are the successors of the Prophet.

The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was succeeded by four rightly guided caliphs- Abubakar, Umar, Uthman and Ali.

On the other hand, the Promised Messiah and Madhi (AS), whose advent was foretold by the Holy Prophet of Islam (SAW) has so far been succeeded by five caliphs including the current Khalifa.

FUNCTIONS OF KHILAFAT

The word Khilafat signifies someone who succeeds another and continues the work of his predecessor. The Quran has stated the functions of a Khalifah in Sura Al-e- Imran verse 165 as, that he “recites to them his messages, and reforms and teaches them the law and judgement”

1. Recite the verses of God to the People
2. Purify them
3. Teach them the book and
4. Impart wisdom to them

Reference:

Hazrat Mirza Bashirudin Mahmud Ahmad Khalifatul Masih II (First translation 1914, 2013).

The Bles`sings of Khilafat. Raqueem Press: United Kingdom

THE BLESSINGS OF KHILAFAT

The obvious miracle of Islam is the Quran, but the true functioning of khilafat on the precepts of the prophethood, particularly in the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, is the second manifestation of the miracle of Islam. The core essence of khilafat is to preserve prophet hood as a living and an inexhaustible channel of divine revelation. Quran 24:56 highlights the functions of a khalifa.

One of blessings of Khilafat is ensuring absolute obedience to Allah, His Messsenger and those in constituent authority. In this regard, Quran 4:60 states:

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“o ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey His Messenger and those who are authority among you.And if you differ in anything refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you are believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is best and most commendable”

Commenting on this verse, Hazrat Mirza Bashiriddin Mahmoud Ahmad, explained that, the omission of the word “obey” before those in authority as compared to its use before Allah and His Messenger shows clearly that obedience to authority properly constituted by law is coterminous with obedience to Allah and His Messenger.

Applying this to the system of Khilafat, particularly that Muslim Ahmadiyyat, it can be seen that Khilafat ensured obedience from the local unit (Halqa), through the Circuit, Zonal, National and International leadership. So therefore, obedience to the Halqa president is obedience to the circuit president. And obedience of the Circuit president is obedience to the Zonal president. While obedience to the Zonal president is deemed obedience to the Ameer and obedience to Ameer is obedience to Huzur Anwar, who is worldwide leader. In the same way, obedience to Huzur Anwar is obedience to the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, whereas obedience to the Promised Messiah is obedience to the Holy Prophet Mohammad (SAW) and ultimately obedience to Allah

KHALITUL RASHIDUN AFTER THE HOLY PROPHET ( SAW)

Hazrat Abubakar Ibn Abiqahafa

When news went round like wild fire that the Holy Prophet (SAW) had passed a way, everyone shocked and Hazrat Umar who later became the Second Khalifa unsheathed his sword and declared anyone who would say the Prophet was dead would be slain by him. It Hazrat Abubakar appeared quoted from the Quran thus

“Muhammad is a Prophet of God, verily the Prophets before him passed away. If he died or was slain, will then turn back on your heels? Let him who worshiped Muhammad knows that Muhammad is dead and let him who worshiped Allah know that All lives and is ever-living!!

When the People heard this verse from Hazrat Abubakar, they knew the Prophet had died and Hazrat Umar was stupefied.

[...]

Excerpt out of 55 pages

Details

Title
Islam and Economic Development. The Ahmadiyya Factor
Author
Year
2018
Pages
55
Catalog Number
V491810
ISBN (eBook)
9783668982451
Language
English
Tags
islam, economic, development, ahmadiyya, factor
Quote paper
Dr. Munawaru Issahaque (Author), 2018, Islam and Economic Development. The Ahmadiyya Factor, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/491810

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