Driver misconduct, traffic congestion and the effectiveness of urban transportation. A case study of the Kumasi metropolis


Master's Thesis, 2018

89 Pages, Grade: 65.73


Excerpt

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Background to the Study
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research Questions
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Research Methodology
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Organization of the thesis

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Global Urbanization
2.2 Urbanization in Ghana
2.3 Key issues of Urban Transportation
2.4 Ghana National Transport Policy (2008)
2.5 Transportation in Ghana
2.6 Transport Infrastructure
2.7 Urban Transportation system
2.7.1 Trends, challenges and opportunities of urban transportation
2.7.2 Urban transportation trends
2.8 Traffic congestion
2.8.1 Causes of traffic congestion
2.8.2 Ways to Reduce Congestion
2.9 Driver Behavior and Misconduct
2.10 Effectiveness of Urban Transportation
2.11 Influence of the Interactions between Driver and Traffic congestion on Effective transportation
2.12 Conceptual framework
2.13 Research Hypothesis

CHAPTER THREE,
METHODOLOGY AND ORGANISATIONAL PROFILE
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sampling Techniques and Sample size
3.4 Data Collection Methods
3.5. Reliability and Validity
3.6 Ethical Review
3.7 Data Analysis
3.8 Profile of Kumasi Metropolitan Area

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Response Rate of the Study
4.2.1 Profile of Respondents
4.3 Descriptive Analysis of Study Variables
4.4 Causes of Driver Misconduct and Traffic Congestion in the Kumasi Metropolis
4.5 Relationship between Study Variables
4.5.1 Relationship between Driver Misconduct and Transportation Effectiveness
4.5.2 Relationship between Traffic Congestion and Transportation Effectiveness
4.5.2 The Influence of Traffic Congestion on the relationship between Driver Misconduct and Transportation Effectiveness

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FIDNINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Summary of Finginds
5.1.1 Causes of Driver Misconduct and Traffic Congestion in the Kumasi Metropolis.
5.1.2 The Relationship between Driver Misconduct and Effectiveness of Urban Transportation In Kumasi Metropolis
5.2.3 Influence of Traffic Congestion on the Relationship between Driver Misconduct and Effectiveness of Urban Transportation
5.2.4 Other Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

DEDICATION

I dedicate this work to the Lord Almighty God and my savior Jesus Christ whose divine guidance has made it possible for me to successfully complete this programme and also to my wife; Naa.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks first of all go to the Almighty God for His guidance, protection and favor throughout this course. My special thanks go to Abdul Samed Muntaka (PhD), my supervisor, under whose guidance l was able to come out successfully with this thesis. I cannot forget about my friend, Abiola, Sufyan and Manaseh who helped me to administer the questionnaire. I must further extend my utmost gratitude to the officials at the various departments and organizations. Finally, l express my profound gratitude to all those who in diverse ways contributed to the success of this document

TO GOD BE THE GLORY.

ABSTRACT

Transportation has contributed meaningfully to the improvement of economic, social, political and cultural fields and uplifting their circumstance. Industrialization is not possible without improvement in transportation. The main aim of this study was to determine the causes of driver misconduct and traffic congestion, examine the relationship between driver misconduct and effectiveness urban transportation and finally to assess the influence of traffic congestion on the relationship between driver misconduct and effectiveness of urban transportation. A case study research design was used and the Kumasi metropolis was adopted as the case. The study relied on managers of transportation stations, drivers, passengers and other people familiar with the function of the transportation sector. Data was accordingly collected from these people through the use of questionnaires. Observations were also made to confirm some of the responses. Three hundred (300) respondents were selected through the purposive and convenient sampling techniques. The study found that the major causes of driver misconduct and traffic congestion included; talk-testing, inadequate road signs and markings and illegal crossing of pedestrians. Interestingly, the study found that driver misconduct was not a major contributor to the level of effectiveness of urban transport but that the traffic congestion due to inadequate infrastructure rather significantly affects driver misconduct. The study concludes that traffic congestion rather than driver misconduct affects the efficiency of the transport system in Ghana. It is therefore recommended that much attention should be paid to expanding the transport infrastructure to improve upon the efficiency of the transport system in Ghana.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Profile of Drivers (Gender, Age, Level of Education, Valid license, Year issued)

Table 4.2: Nature of Commuting

Table 4.3: Average time spent commuting from home to work

Table 4.4: Experience with Traffic Jam

Table 4.5: Future expectation of Traffic congestion

Table 4.6: Assessment of transport condition in respondent’s area

Table 4.7: Causes of Driver misconduct and traffic congestion

Table 4. 8 Correlation Coefficients of both dependent and independent variables

Table 4.9: Regression Result for the hypothesis

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.2: Theoretical Framework of the Study

Figure 4.1: Impression about trends in traffic congestion

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background to the Study

Any development and poverty reduction agenda of any country depend vigorously on a powerful transportation framework. Road transport is a prevalent method for commuting in Ghana representing high passenger travels and trucking of goods in the nation, making it a crucial transportation service that connects the nation to others in the whole West African sub-region. Road transportation contributes altogether to economic activities of all countries, and along these lines is one of the most vital pointers of a nations' economic status. By and by, it engenders various negative impacts on society in the form of contamination, commotion and accidents (Buron et al., 2004). It is the single biggest wellspring of air contamination in urban territories (Agyemang et al., 2007). In Kumasi, for instance, the number of vehicles has increased in more than four-folds in the last two decades (DVLA, 2004). In 1996 and 2006, the quantity of vehicles in Kumasi were 41,278 and 130,796 separately at about 90,000 in 10years and an average of 9,000 per year etc. Also, in 2017 alone, the DVLA in Kumasi registered 18,247 vehicles. This development in number of vehicles has genuine monetary, natural and social ramifications for the general population of Kumasi. It has essentially influenced urban way of life and produced economic opportunities as well as economic threats. Then again, the rise in vehicle fleet introduces a test to urban experts in that air quality proceeds to genuinely decay while traffic congestion builds (Xin, 2006).

Kumasi as the profitable center of Ashanti Region in Ghana has high mass of automobiles resulting in a general characteristic of traffic jamming in several areas of the city. This can be ascribed to the over reliance on the road transportation scheme as the only major means of transportation in the metropolis resulting in the minimal usage of the other ways like rail and air transportation. Kumasi roads have gone through substantial stress resulting from the number of automobiles and the degree of events. This goes to highlight the statement by Jean-Paul, and Slack, (2007) that road transport is described by serious topographical differences in traffic and it is not rare that 20% of the road system assist in 60 to 80% of the traffic. Residents depend on transport to get sustenance and to get the chance to work, markets and health centers. Farmers depend on transport to get their produce to urban markets. The failure in accessing jobs and services as a result of denial of transportation is an imperative component of social prohibition which characterize destitution. Effective transportation is the sign of industrialized societies. A decent transportation system is essential for economic development and poverty reduction.

Of developing concern is the transport problems in Ghana's urban centers. Experience from around the globe demonstrates that as economies develop, fast urbanization happens holding onto as much as 60% of a country's populace. Urban areas end up as engines of development attracting in manufacturers and giving significant work opportunities to the inhabitants. In the course of the most recent four decades, Ghana's urban population has increased dramatically, rising from 4 million to over 24 million people, and outpacing rural population growth. Traffic congestion has in the course of recent decades made vehicular discharges increase considerably, particularly in significant metropolitan territories like Kumasi, Accra and so on through quick development in movement (Nesamani, 2007), urban mass migration and persistent increment in population motorisation rate. Travel speed in Kumasi is moderate and continually deteriorating throughout the years as vehicle numbers continue to rise (Agyemang-Bonsu et al., 2007). As the number of people migrating to the cities increases by each day, there is a significant challenge faced by the transportation infrastructure which leads to congestion, rampant road accidents, deaths, and environmental pollution. Many studies have indicated that in the United States alone, there are over 30,000 deaths and 1.2 million injuries annually on roadways, 80% of these are as a result of the inattentiveness of drivers or as a result of unintended maneuvers (Doshi and Trivedi, 2011). The above among different components have contributed to the complexity of quality of sustaining a business of late. The expanding rate of driver misconduct, traffic congestion, attention to environmental issues and numerous different issues is pushing individuals, organizations and government to improve systems with a specific end goal to prevent any massive impact. This research, hence, will look at driver’s misconduct, traffic congestion and the effectiveness of urban transportation.

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The high urban development rate in the nation is outpacing service provision, and is occurring in a generally unplanned way, making it hard to design better systems and plan transport in accordance with urban improvement in Ghana. Generally, the urban transport environment in Ghana, for example, at the peak periods is characterized by heavy congestion, low utilization of vehicle, inadequate facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists, weak implementation of traffic management measures, poor road safety arrangements and high accident rates. In spite of the significance of an effective urban transport in fulfilling mobility needs of the people, it operates under monetary and administration limitations. Transport not just assumes a key part in the day by day working of urban areas, it is also an apparatus for overseeing development. As urbanization takes a middle stage in Ghana, emergencies will progressively emerge around the provision of safe, clean and an effective transportation. When these issues are left unattended to, this will bring about a breaking down winding of raising transport framework costs, intolerable congestion, rising air contamination and diminishing capacity of the poor to movement inside urban locales, among others. Lécué et al. (2014), argued that congestion on traffic is a major problem that started over a century ago at a time when mass-production of automobiles were made possible by the introduction of the assembly line in the automotive industry. The challenge of congestion on the traffic is yet to be resolved and yet many countless losses in the industrial world could be attributed to this. Congestion decreases the traffic volume that can use the roadway, delays caused by congestion on the traffic cost Americans $121 billion in the form of 5.5 billion lost hours and 2.9 billion gallons of wasted fuel in the USA alone (Schrank et al., 2012).

The road substructures at Kumasi is not all properly developed and prearranged. In addition, observing the degree of increase of populace and the number of automobiles, in the city if appropriate actions are not taken a period is coming when the degree of a breakdown in effective transport systems is going to be high as well as driver misconduct and traffic congestions in the city would be very problematic.

Driver misconduct refers to the intentional wrongdoing or misbehavior; specifically, deliberate violation of a road laws or standard especially by road drivers. Drivers conduct on the road play a major key role in causing traffic congestion. According to expert’s poor driving conducts such as chatting with some in the car, receiving phone calls whilst driving, focusing on other thing off-road could slow down traffic to cause congestion. In Kumasi, indiscipline on the part of drivers is one key factor that causes congestion in the city especially at the central business district (CBD) (Urban Road, 2004).

It is vital to know, nevertheless, that whereas every area of the globe suffer the influence of driver misconduct and traffic congestion on effectiveness of urban transportation, evolving nations suffer more than their comparatively much-advanced counterparts. This study seeks to determine the factors that lead to driver misconduct, traffic congestion and the relationships that exist between driver misconduct and effectiveness of urban transportation as well as to assess the influence of traffic congestion on the relationship between driver misconduct and effectiveness of Urban transportation in the Kumasi metropolis.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to assess driver misconduct, traffic congestion and the effectiveness of urban transportation in Ghana. The specific objectives are

1. To determine the factors that cause driver misconduct and traffic congestion in Kumasi metropolis.
2. To examine the relationship between driver misconduct and effectiveness of urban transportation in Kumasi metropolis.
3. To assess the influence of traffic congestion on the relationship between driver misconduct and effectiveness of urban transportation in Kumasi metropolis.

1.3 Research Questions

1. What are the influencing factors of driver misconduct and traffic congestion in the Kumasi metropolis?
2. What relationship(s) exist between driver misconduct and effectiveness of urban transportation in Kumasi metropolis?
3. What are the influencing factors of traffic congestion on the relationship between driver misconduct and the effectiveness of urban transportation in Kumasi metropolis?

1.4 Significance of the Study

The economic utilization of different type of resource would be incomplete without transportation. Jean-Paul et al (2007) has outlined low costs of vehilces and the singular advantage of providing for passengers and freight a door to door services as some of the merits of road transportation. Transportation has contributed meaningfully to the improvement of economic, social, political and cultural fields and uplifting their circumstance. Industrialization is not possible without improvement of transportation. Without improvement of transportation neither mass production nor distribution is feasible. Transportation allows in mass production whether or not it's far to purchase and produce raw substances or it's far to distribute finished goods, one or the opposite way of delivery is necessary. The old markets are developed and new ones created. As a result, demands for goods will increase and manufacturing have to also be accelerated. The contribution of transportation is very critical to move commodities to nooks and crannies of the world in a bit time. If the development of transportation was no longer made, marketplace might be confined in neighborhood regions and manufacturing would be restricted to meet local wishes only.

Transportation facilitates an awful lot to the improvement of different industries, which produce perishable goods, inclusive of fisheries, chicken firms, horticulture, dairy and many others. This study will go a long way to:

Fill in as an edge of reference for application by policy makers to ensure an enhanced urban transportation which infers reduced energy imports, consequently lessening foreign exchange pressure in this manner fortifying the whole economy.

Also, at the industry level, reducing traffic congestion will minimize energy cost in their operations and reduces the delay in getting clients goods delivered.

It will also give a basic and logical point of view for understanding the challenges that urban transport faces and provides a valuable information on the kind of interventions that are required to ensure an improved urban transport system and minimize the impact of driver misconduct, traffic congestion on the effectiveness of urban transportation.

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study was restricted for the most part to road transport as cars and taxis form about 80% of the traffic mix (Ghana Statistical Service, 2009; KMA). The study, Driver misconduct, Traffic congestion and the effectiveness of Urban transportation means how the actions and inaction of drivers as well as traffic congestion has on an effective urban transportation. The geographical area selected for the study was the Kumasi Metropolis. Also, activities of drivers at the terminals and on the roads were observed and finally the study looked at four of the most congested areas in terms of travel time and commuter trip per mode as captured in a study done by Poku-Boansi and Adarkwa (2013 ).

1.6 Research Methodology

A case study research design was used and the Kumasi metropolis was adopted as the case. The study relied on managers of transportation stations, drivers, passengers and other people familiar with the function of the transportation sector. Data was accordingly collected from these people through the use of questionnaires. Observations were also made to confirm some of the responses. As to secondary data, the data gathering procedures that were utilized incorporated the extraction of broad data on the investigation from significant books and the web. Data analysis included descriptive and statistical analysis to decide the effectiveness of urban transportation in the Kumasi metropolis through the influence of driver misconduct and traffic congestion.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The analysis, conclusion of the study depended intensely on primary data. In that capacity, errors in these data may impoverish the intensity of the outcomes or discoveries to foresee impeccably, the genuine idea of events. Additionally, a reasonable sample test estimate does not really mean a flawless or a hundred percent illustrative of the whole populace, which likewise implies that any generalization maybe subject to some level of error. It might however be immaterial. It was very problematic for the investigator to get the respondents in Kumasi to answer the questionnaire and hence a lot of work and time had to be given to participants to comprehend the purpose for their contribution into the investigation. Although several of them demonstrated some fear in the answers they offered, the investigator guaranteed them of the privacy added to the ethics of study writing and the main purpose why names of participants are not stated. It was a stimulating and learning procedure for the investigator.

1.8 Organization of the thesis

The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one provides a background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, discusses the research problem, significance of the study, summary of the methodology, scope of the study, limitation of the study and the organization of the study. In chapter two key concepts are defined, discusses specific topical issues and a conceptual framework is developed. Chapter three presents the methodology adopted in the study while Chapter four covers the data and the analysis of the data. Chapter five gives the findings, conclusions and suggested recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

There is a main challenge of several works done by other researchers on driver misconduct, traffic congestion and effectiveness of urban transportation in Ghana. Nevertheless, the little study done in this area by the researchers have opened broadly on urban transportation infrastructure. Efforts were as well done to consider the impact of the relations amid the Driver misconduct, traffic congestion and effectiveness of urban transportation. The literature review takes a look at existing collection of knowledge and researches on driver misconduct, traffic congestion and effectiveness of urban transportation. The different viewpoints are captured in headings that outline the different parts of the theme.

2.1 Global Urbanization

A world development report of 1990/2000 reported that, the global urban population between 1950 and 2000 has more than tripled to 2.86billion. More people now reside in urban areas than in rural areas. The urban population is expected to grow by 80million new urban inhabitants each year. While urbanization in developed countries has slowed considerably, developing cities are becoming the more urbanized. In 2000 it accounted for 68 percent of urban population and by 2020, 77 percent of the global urban population is expected to be in developing countries.

2.2 Urbanization in Ghana

In 2015, a World Bank report stated that, the urban population of Ghana has more than tripled over the last three decades, rising from 4 million to almost 14 million people and exceeding rural population growth. It noted that, all this growth has been experienced by all regions toward cities. Ghana has seen the side effects of fast urbanization in recent years such as unregulated urban expansion, congestion, limited access to expansion, quality housing that is affordable and inability of institutions to cope with the speedy transition. The World Bank in its report proposed four key interventions are needed which are;

1. Improved connectivity between and within cities with affordable public transport systems for working and minimizing congestion and benefiting producers and consumers alike in urban and rural areas. This will entail developing of high quality public transport system in large metropolitan areas.
2. Strengthen the management and planning of land use in municipal and metropolitan areas by establishing land markets that are effective and also coordinating the development of land with infrastructure and affordable housing.
3. Mobilize the existing, untouched revenue potentials in the urban areas and also find new revenue sources to finance the mentioned transport connectivity, land use planning, and affordable housing, as well as the providing universal basic services;
4. Improve institutional strength and coordination to support the reforms recommended above appropriately. In addition to human capital development, Ghana should enhance inter-jurisdictional coordination and metropolitan management, complete decentralization reforms and develop public-private partnerships

2.3 Key issues of Urban Transportation

Currently there are several challenges in city transport planning and management. A study conducted 2008 in India on traffic and transport policies in urban areas revealed the following;

1. Several amount of man-hours is wasted in a “held in traffic”. For instance, in two eras amid 1981 to 2001, the populace of six main cities in India augmented by around 1.9 times, while the quantity of motor cars raised by about 7.75 times within the same time.
2. The rate of transport has augmented significantly, particularly for the frugally lesser group. Non-motor-powered types like biking and walking have come to be non-existing or exceedingly dangerous, once there is no precise path for such types. Lesser rentals and landscape charges resulted in expanded urban boundaries that upsurge transportation lengths, thus preventing non-motor-powered styles.
3. Augmented utilization of private cars as well as absence of firm and episodic release supervision and regulation have resulted in augmented carbon releases and noise contamination. This leads to harmful air feature and thus public well-being damage.
4. Road substructure is of bad class and therefore now declining non-renewable petroleum capitals are used in a surprising way.

Also, car assurance, upkeep, working and purchase charges for the millions of licensed drivers that own millions of cars have intensified and lastly, car parks space/lot jamming is generally all over.

2.4 Ghana National Transport Policy (2008)

National targets for poverty reduction and growth heavily rely on a transportation system that is effective. The Citizenry mainly rely on transportation ensure that food and fuel are made available in their communities and also to get to markets, schools, jobs, and health clinics. The A prove from around the globe shows that there is a direct relationship between investment in transport infrastructure and poverty reduction (World bank, 2006). The inability to access jobs and services as a result of too expensive transport system or its denial are key elements of social exclusion which in turn define poverty. There is therefore a significant of an effective transportation system on the quality of life, opportunity for citizens and businesses. It helps form an important part of the social safety net facilitating the distribution of wealth through trade and employment opportunities in both urban and rural communities. Results from studies carried out in Ghana between 2005 and 2006 where roads constructions for example, are completed and are properly maintained, markets and other social facilities are relatively accessed easily as a result of ease of transportation, lower costs of travel and rise in income for the dwellers of rural communities through which the roads pass. Road infrastructure investment is also plays an important role in the performance of some sectors of the Ghanaian economy (GPRS II sect 2.2.1). Therefore, effective infrastructure investments through contributions to construction, mining and quarrying sub-sectors of the Industry Sector will be a major contributor to Ghana’s macro-economic performance.

The Ghana National Transport Policy aims to:

- explain the need for transport infrastructure and services in the context of sub regional, national and local growth objectives of Ghana (GPRS II, MDG, ECOWAS, NEPAD, etc)
- Give directions on the priorities of Government and the strategic objectives for the transport sector to the institutions and key stakeholders that are involved in the planning, developing, providing, financing, maintaining and regulating transport services and infrastructure.
- Provide a space for dialogue, and also to give directions on the key stakeholders’ roles and responsibilities.
- Provide direction on investment priorities and reforms that helps to facilitate achievement of the strategic objectives for transport within the policy decision.
- Offer a long-term decision-making platform for the effective development and management of Ghana’s transport infrastructure and Services.

In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of vehicles. The effect of this is urban areas congestion resulting in slow and unreliable travels. Congestion issues are also being observed in towns that are located along main highways. Moreover, there is likely that road accidents will rise, injury rates and fatalities, this is based on the experience of other developing worlds. In Ghana, this trend may as well be emerging. As a result of the ineffective speed limit enforcement and control on trunk and urban roads, there is an emergence of safety issues. This situation is worsened when considering the additional traffic generated by growing freight movements through the cities and along the highways.

There is lack of maintenance, implementation and improvements of traffic control devices are inadequate. Road users are engaged in unsafe behavior. Development is taking place but without the consideration of transport impact and or needs. Urban sprawl pushing out the boundaries of the cities is as a result of unplanned and uncontrolled development and this make it more complex in demanding for transportation. This has led to a considerable increase in travel times, cost and short distances become long. Industrial and retail developments are embarked on without adequate provisions for transport such as parking and public transport linkages. Major facilities such as large markets are planned and developed with little or no consideration for implications on transport. The result of the poorly planned facilities is worsening in road congestion.

2.5 Transportation in Ghana

In 1960 just after the independence of Ghana, Gould (1960) posted an in depth look at the improvement of transportation in Ghana. In Ghana the development of the colonial transport system started out all through the 16th, 17th and 18th century with the status quo of a few forty small surf ports or touchdown points along the coast of Ghana (regularly positioned collectively with a castle) first through Portuguese and later through British, Dutch, Danish and different European trading businesses, trading commonly in slaves and gold and to a smaller quantity additionally in ivory. There has been a good-sized competition and increasing differentiation among the ports, and all through the nineteenth century and mainly after the British took over the Dutch forts in 1869 and have become the sole colonisers, the trade increasingly relied on still fewer ports, so that in 1900 just 6 ports accounted for 81% of all of the export trade and 75% of all of the import (Gould 1960).

In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of vehicles. The effect of this is urban areas congestion resulting in slow and unreliable travels. Congestion issues are also being observed in towns that are located along main highways. Moreover, there is likely that road accidents will rise, injury rates and fatalities, this is based on the experience of other developing worlds. In Ghana, this trend may as well be emerging. As a result of the ineffective speed limit enforcement and control on trunk and urban roads, there is an emergence of safety issues. This situation is worsened when considering the additional traffic generated by growing freight movements through the cities and along the highways.

There is lack of maintenance, implementation and improvements of traffic control devices are inadequate. Road users are engaged in unsafe behavior. Development is taking place but without the consideration of transport impact and or needs. Urban sprawl pushing out the boundaries of the cities is as a result of unplanned and uncontrolled development and this make it more complex in demanding for transportation. This has led to a considerable increase in travel times, cost and short distances become long.

Industrial and retail developments are embarked on without adequate provisions for transport such as parking and public transport linkages. Major facilities such as large markets are planned and developed with little or no consideration for implications on transport. The result of the poorly planned facilities is worsening in road congestion.

Ghanaian transportation is achieved by road, rail, air and water. Ghana's transport and infrastructure systems are placed in the southern sections, particularly the places where gold, cocoa, and timber are gotten. The northern and central sections are linked via main street scheme; certain places, nevertheless, continue to be comparatively remote (Clark etal, 2007). Road transportation have for a very long time been the main transporter of cargo and travelers in Ghana’s land transportation scheme. It transports above 95 % of every traveler and cargo traffic and spreads to several societies, comprising the rustic deprived and is secret underneath three groups of trunk streets, city streets and rough roads. The Ghana Highway Authority, instituted in 1974 is obliged with evolving and preserving the nation's trunk street system adding up to 13,367 km, that represents 33% of Ghana's entire road system of 40,186 km.

Ghanaian trunk streets are categorized as Nationwide, Regional, and Inter-regional roads, every one of that falls under Ghana road system. National roads, selected with the alphabet N, connect every main populace hub in Ghana. Regional roads, selected with the alphabet R, are a combination of major and minor roads, that assist as rough roads to National roads; at the same time Inter-Regional roads, chosen with the abbreviation IR, link main villages all over regional boundaries. The Trans-West African Coastal Highway, component of Trans-African Highway system all over Ghana alongside the south linking it to Abidjan, (Côte d'Ivoire), Lomé, (Togo) and Benin and Nigeria. Finally, the highway would link to additional seven ECOWAS countries to the west.

The research conducted by Jorgensen and Rundmo (2006) stated that restraints on flexibility and challenges of access and bad transportation substructure are among the major impairments to develop the livings of the populace of Ghana. From them enhanced access and transportation delivery are considered first for improvement. Nonetheless, adverse influences are the increase in amount of road traffic congestions and fatalities. Therefore, despite the attempts by investors the degree of congestion is remain huge. A statement from one of the most renowned selling daily graphics in Ghana (Daily Graphic of 24th September 2007) defined the urban transportation network in Ghana as described by the jammed dominant places of the metropolises; bad excellence of facility from public transportation operatives; huge experience to street calamities and bad ecological values. Based on the statement of these characteristics it can be understood in the lengthy travelling hours and trip holdups, long waiting hours for public transportation both at and amid stations, huge degree of calamity and local bad air quality. The National Road Safety Commission’s (2005) yearly report has somewhat disheartening facts around mortalities in the nation.

[...]

Excerpt out of 89 pages

Details

Title
Driver misconduct, traffic congestion and the effectiveness of urban transportation. A case study of the Kumasi metropolis
College
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology  (Institute of Distance Learning)
Course
Msc Logistics and Supply Chain management
Grade
65.73
Author
Year
2018
Pages
89
Catalog Number
V514045
ISBN (eBook)
9783346102973
ISBN (Book)
9783346102980
Language
English
Tags
driver, kumasi, Misconduct, Effectiveness, Transportation, Urban, Traffic, Congestion, Ghana
Quote paper
Stephen Tete Mantey (Author), 2018, Driver misconduct, traffic congestion and the effectiveness of urban transportation. A case study of the Kumasi metropolis, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/514045

Comments

  • No comments yet.
Read the ebook
Title: Driver misconduct, traffic congestion and the effectiveness of urban transportation. A case study of the Kumasi metropolis



Upload papers

Your term paper / thesis:

- Publication as eBook and book
- High royalties for the sales
- Completely free - with ISBN
- It only takes five minutes
- Every paper finds readers

Publish now - it's free