Reasons For Technical Vocational Short Courses After Bachelor's Degree Program Completion in Rwanda

An Exploratory Study


Studienarbeit, 2019

79 Seiten


Leseprobe

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

DEDICATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURE

LIST OF ABREVIATIONS & ACCRONYMS

LIST OF APPENDICES

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to Study
Statement of the Problem
Objectives
Research Questions
Hypothesis
Significance of the Study
Justification of the Study
Limitations
Delimitation of the Study
Operational Definition of Term

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual Review
Demographic Factors
Unemployment
Bachelor Degree Program Completed
Realizing Inner Dreams
Seeking Additional Skills
Undertaking Technical Vocational Short Courses
Theoretical Review
Diffusion of Innovation Theory
The Theory of Probable Destiny
The Theory of Social Control
Behaviorism Theory
Empirical Review
Gap in Literature

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
Research Design
Mixing Quantitative and Qualitative
Population and Sampling Techniques
The Target Population
Sampling Technique
Research Instrument
Data Gathering Procedures
Qualitative Data
Quantitative Data
Statistical Treatment of Data
Mean
Standard Deviation (σ)
Correlation
The Ethical Considerations

CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Identification of Respondents
Gender
Marital Status
Age
Level of Education
Socio-economic Status
Residence
Training Option
Prior Academic Program
Period Spent Unemployed
Demography
Unemployment
Bachelor Degree Academic Program Completed
Realizing Inner Dreams
Seeking Additional Skills
Undertaking Technical Vocational Short Courses
Correlation Analysis
Statistical Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
Conclusion
Recommendations

References

APPENDICES
Qualitative Research questions

ABSTRACT

Finishing a Bachelor academic program and ending up in undertaking technical vocational short courses is in vogue in many universities. This exploratory study entitled “Exploratory Study of the Factors Behind Undertaking Technical Vocational Short Courses after Bachelor Academic Program Completion’ was essential to discover those factors, to satisfy curiosity and give recommendations to whom it may concern and open the door for other researchers. The population of the study was trainees that were undertaking technical vocational short courses on NEP Sponsorship in 2019 at IPRC/ Kicukiro. 175 trainees, the sample size were 72 trainees 58 among of them participated. This research was conducted sequentially with a mixture of qualitative approach to generate conceptual framework and quantitative research approach to measure how variables relate. The findings reveal that both unemployment, which mean is 3.5862, and prior academic studies, which mean is 3.7414, were the most influencing factors pushing bachelor’s academic program holders to undertake technical vocational short courses. In this study, females were 25% while males were 74.1%, and this implies that males are mostly frequenting these technical short courses than females. Therefore, the researcher recommends the increase of females in these short courses, the review of bachelor degree program curriculum, and the privatization of these short courses so that those who want to join them that may study on their own charges. In addition, further researchers are invited to retest this research and explore more factors influencing the undertaking of these technical vocational short courses after bachelor degree program completion.

Key words: Technical Vocational Short Courses, Bachelor Degree Program Completion,

Word count: 252

DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated to the Almighty God

LIST OF TABLES

1. Target Population

2. Evaluation of standard deviation

3. Evaluation of Correlation

4. Gender of respondents

5. Marital status

6. Age of respondents

7. Level of education

8. Socioeconomic status

9. Residence of respondents

10. Training option

11. Prior Academic program

12. Period spent unemployed

13. Perception of respondents on Demography

14. Perception of respondents on unemployment

15. Perception of respondents on bachelor degree academic program completed

16. Perception of respondents on realizing inner dreams

17. Perception of respondents on seeking additional skills

18. Perception of respondents on undertaking technical vocational short courses

19. Correlation factors behind choice of vocational courses.

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure:

1. Conceptual Framework

LIST OF ABREVIATIONS & ACCRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

LIST OF APPENDICES

A. To Whom It May Concern

B. Introductory Letter of the Researcher

C. Authorization of Data Collection

D. Questionnaire

E. SPSS Outputs

F. Curriculum Vitae

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My special thanks to God who enabled me to undertake this program to its completion. I would also like to give thanks to the Adventist University of Central Africa for the learning environment they created and made learning enjoyable. I am thankful to IPRC/Kicukiro that allowed my research to be conducted at their campus. I am grateful to East central Rwanda field officers who granted me the scholarship for this program. Lastly, I would like to express my sincere thanks, from the bottom of my heart, to my family and my colleagues who have continuously encouraged and supported me along my studies

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

For long ago, the purpose of undergraduate studies was to enable graduates to get a decent job, scholarship for master degree, to earn a degree, to get knowledge and skills to do business, to be a civilized person, or a mix of some of these (Moolio, 2014). However, The New Times reported that more university graduates show interest in acquiring technical and vocational education and training skills (TVET) (Rwirahira, 2016). This research aims to explore factors behind undertaking technical vocational short courses after bachelor degree program completion in Rwanda.

Background to Study

United Nations declared that global youth unemployment is on the rise (GENEVA ILO News, 2016) . The latest survey by MyCOS in 2018 (My China Occupational Skills) indicates that more than 90% of Chinese TVET graduates find gainful employment within 6 months of graduation in China, and this prompted the World Bank to promote TVET in East Africa to reduce unemployment (World Bank, 2018).

The report entitled “The Labour Force Survey” shows falling trends in unemployment. The National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) puts the number of unemployed people at 571,660 out of more than 3.78 million people in the labor force and emphasized that in the 2017 survey, the unemployment rate was at 17.8 percent (Ntirenganya, 2018).

To tackle the unemployment among youth, Rwanda Government established the National Employment Program and commissioned it to train unemployed in technical vocational short courses. After its establishment and being approved by the cabinet in May, 2013, in the report entitled: Design of Five-Year National Employment Programme when the National Employment Program for Rwanda appealed for technical vocational short courses applicants, university graduates came being a great number to apply and attend those short courses, and yet they already hold their degrees at home (Republic of Rwanda, 2014).

According to Integrated Polytechnic Regional College/ Kicukiro, this program aimed at training unemployed university graduates to acquire quick labour market skills organized under the National Employment Program (NEP) that enable them sustain themselves (IPRC kigali report, 2016). The phenomena of completing a bachelor degree program and end up undertaking technical vocational short courses is the problem that requires the researcher to explore and find possible solutions.

According to GENEVA (ILO News), the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that the global youth unemployment rate was expected to reach 13.1 per cent in 2016 and remain at that level through to 2017 up from 12.9 per cent in 2015 (ILO, 2016). The unemployment rate is at rise. According to Andrew Mold, while talking to New Times Journal, Rwanda faces an uphill task of creating jobs outside agriculture as the graduate numbers increase straight while vacancies for right jobs go down. “Countries like Germany have very good systems of technical training, leading to higher employment rates, and it is something that Rwanda could usefully emulate” (Gahigi, 2015).

For long time, young people are taught that education is a path to success in life as it opens opportunities for employability. The fact that university courses tend to be theoretically heavy, with very little practical experience, and furthermore, the very structure of exams and testing, in itself, that often focuses more on a person’s ability to memorize their coursework than their ability to take the information in and apply it to different situations, results in producing unprepared job seekers unsuitable to the requirement of work force (Jacobs, 2017).

The fact that the unemployment is rising, the researcher must find out whether it pushes the number of university graduates to undertaking technical vocational short courses after the completion of university degrees to sustain themselves. Through this study, we explore the factors behind undertaking technical vocational short courses after university academic completion.

Statement of the Problem

According to College Rank website, bachelor’s degree was a minimum requirement for improved employment opportunities, for graduate school possibility, for higher pay and for lower unemployment (College Rank, 2018). However, in prior three years, Evan Ortlieb had stated that just graduating from university was no longer enough to get a job (Ortlieb, 2015).

After the completion of bachelor’s degree, university graduates end up undertaking technical vocational short courses that never relate to their studies background. Among those short courses there are carpentry, automobile mechanic, construction, hair making, plumber, electricity, cooking and dry cleaning. The New Times reported that more university graduates show interest in acquiring technical and vocational education and training skills (TVET) (Rwirahira, 2016).

The fact that university graduates remain unemployed, they may adopt new skills for staving off unemployment, threatening of decay of prior knowledge they had acquired in university increases.

The research conducted on “the adequacy between the current TVET programmes and the labour market needs in Rwanda” revealed that the fresh Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) graduates found it hard to get jobs for lack of experience. According to the research findings, the reason cited by respondents for not directly getting jobs after trainings include lack of experience, lack of referees, lack of job opportunities, lack of enough skills and competencies in line with labour market requirements and the meager salary (Ntirenganya, 2016).

Objectives

The general objective of this study is to explore the factors leading university bachelor degree holders to undertake technical vocational short courses.

The specific objectives of this study are:

1. To explore the factors that lead university bachelor degree graduates to undertake technical vocational short courses.
2. To describe the existing relationship between university bachelor degree programs and technical vocational programs.
3. To suggest changes needed in university curriculum.

Exploring the factors that lead a university graduate to undertake

Research Questions

In this chapter, the researcher defines and outlines the following study’s research questions:

1. What are the factors leading university bachelor degree graduates to undertake technical vocational short courses?
2. Why do university bachelor degree graduates opt for undertaking technical vocational short courses after completing their bachelor degree programs?
3. How do university bachelor degree graduates perceive their prior programs in relation with technical vocational short courses being undertaken?
4. What are changes needed in university curriculum?
5. How differently do various factors dictate university bachelor degree graduates’ choices of vocational short courses?
6. To what extent do university bachelor degree graduates enrolled in vocational short course expect to satisfy the factors underlying their choices
7. Is there a significant relationship between university bachelor degree graduates’ choices of technical vocational short courses and their prior programs?

Hypothesis

According to Merriam Websiter, the hypothesis refers to the antecedent clause of a conditional statement (Websiter, 2019) to answer the research questions and achieve the objectives.

The researcher verifies an alternative hypothesis as follow;

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the factors leading bachelor academic program graduates to undertake vocational trainings and the choices of undertaking vocational short courses.

Significance of the Study

This research is a solution to many problems that lay in minds of many researchers, academicians, university students, parents and Technical and Vocational Education and Training Centers.

To the researcher, this research made him accomplish requirements of the University for the Award of Master’s Degree in Educational Administration. To Adventist University of Central Africa, this research inspires the university to continue adapt the knowledge, skills, methods of teaching learning in order to ensure the employability after graduation. To other researchers, because this research considers university bachelor degree graduates undertaking technical vocational short courses and training after bachelor degree program completion, they can use findings of this research in their quotations and verification. To university bachelor degree graduates that have a choice of undertaking vocational short courses, this research is meant to make them be aware of the real problem that exists and helps them to focus on practices that the job market requires in order to prevent further sufferings of unemployment and job dissatisfaction.

Justification of the Study

Various researches have been conducted on unemployment, job instability and curricular design that university are using, the implementation of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), but this research has the uniqueness of exploring factors of undertaking technical vocational short courses after bachelor degree program completion.

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Sample Size

This study aimed to explore factors behind undertaking Technical Vocational Short Courses after bachelor degree academic program completion. The sample size was 72 trainees, but 58 only were willing to participate. Considering that people completing bachelor degree and undertake technical vocational short courses are many, the researcher chose a sample size in order to generalize the results based on only 58 respondents to all bachelor degree holders in technical vocational courses or activities. In order to collect data from those respondents, we used sampling techniques.

Limitations

Data Collection Process

The researcher faced challenges of some respondents who refused to participate freely in the research. There were people who were disturbed by the presence of the researcher. In interview, for some respondents, the presence of the researcher influenced their responses. This took too long to reach the objective of the interview.

Time

The researcher had a deadline to submit the research. This was because the academics have deadlines to fill in the exact list of students ready to graduate in the academic year. The researcher, of course, would do more on this research if he had more time. He would have contacted more trainees instead of those in sample size to enrich data and increase confidential level. For this reason, time is a very common limitation for many studies.

Financial Resources

Money is always a problem. The sponsors of my studies did not cover the research expenses. Sometimes, I needed to purchase the necessary equipment for this research but failed due to the cost I could not afford. This contributed to the delaying of data collection. To purchase specific statistical software or to simply reward participants with products or giveaways for having participated in the study costed heavily, and this delayed this research too.

Access to Literature

In the majority of cases, studies start when researchers identify gaps in the literature and try to address them. However, in this research, the identification or understanding that there is a gap depended on the researchers’ level of access to the existing literature. What may seem as a research gap has been the lack of related literature in the Rwandan context. Thus, access to literature has been a limitation.

Delimitation of the Study

This research targets to explore factors that push graduates to undertake vocational and trainings. Up to July 2019, the researcher hoped to have accomplished and defended this research. This study was conducted in IPRS KICUKIRO, located in Kicukiro district, Kigali city . Students undertaking technical vocational short courses at IPRS KICUKIRO in the program organized by National Employment Programme 2019 are under consideration.

Operational Definition of Term

Demographic factors: these refer to factors that cannot be manipulated. They are either categorical (gender, marital status) or continuous (age, years of unemployment and family income,).

Unemployment: it is defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as people who do not have a job, have actively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are currently available for work. Also, people who were temporarily laid off and were waiting to be called back to that job are included in the unemployment statistics. In this study, the term unemployment is used to refer to the state of not being employed after bachelor degree program completion

Bachelor degree program completion: it refers to bachelor’s degree holders that meet requirements of NEP sponsorship to undertake technical vocational short courses.

Realizing inner dreams: it refers to the inner motivation of undertaking technical vocational short courses that might have existed in trainee’s mind.

Seek additional skills: this refers to motivation of acquiring new abilities to explore wide range of technical vocational skills.

Technical vocational short courses: they are short studies undertaken in automobile electricity, carpentry, automobile mechanics, film making, etc.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Through this chapter, the researcher arranged literature review to point out the factors that influence academic graduates to undertake vocational short courses. This exploratory study of factors behind undertaking Technical Vocational Short Courses after Bachelor degree program completion is important in order to explore those factors and suggest solutions and recommendation accordingly.

Conceptual Review

Demographic Factors

In the study conducted by Mustata Andrea- Elena published under the authority of Romanian Society of Applied Experimental Psychology, the author presented the results relying on the fact that the general tendency of modern society is to no longer make a difference between men and women in terms of fields of activity, considering that women, like men, can handle a challenging job, but also that men can successfully integrate in fields which are generally dominated by women (Elena, 2013).

In the article of gender entitled “A Nurhaeni and Kurniawan Saying on Indonesia Education,” the author states that inequality practices still occur in nearly all fields of development, one of which is the education development (Kurniawan, 2018). While, according to Rubagiza, it is still a challenge to achieve gender parity and equality in the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) sector which is characterized by gender inequalities and stereotyping (Rubagiza, 2010).

The study of Ayub in Thailand states that the usefulness of Technical and Vocational education has significance relationship with parental influence, career and job potential and socioeconomic status of family. Overall, students’ attitude has a significant relationship with parental influence, career and job potential and socioeconomic status (Ayub, 2015). The factors that push people to undertake technical vocational short courses include demographical background, interest, personality, aptitude and ability, skill, and others.

Unemployment

The first American female to win Nobel Peace Prize in 1935 once said, “Of all aspects of social misery, nothing is as heartbreaking as unemployment” (Addams, 1949). Unemployed are defined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) as people who do not have a job, have actively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are currently available for work (Amadeo K. , 2019). Nationally, unemployment is caused when the economy slows down, and businesses are forced to cut costs by reducing payroll expenses.

The 2008 financial crisis was created by the worst unemployment since the 1980s, and the history of recessions reveals that they always cause an increase in unemployment rates. Competition in particular industries or companies can also cause unemployment. Advanced technology, such as computers or robots, causes unemployment by replacing worker tasks with machines. Jobs outsourcing is a significant cause of unemployment. It's especially common in technology, call centers, and human resources (Amadeo, 2019).

The same author states that if graduates have been out of work even longer, their job skills may no longer match the requirements of the new jobs being offered. This is one of the reasons to undertake technical vocational short courses to find updated job skills. The second reason to undertake the vocational short course is that according to Gwinnett Colleges and Institute document accessed online, choosing a career early in life is imperative. However, the path towards achieving that career goal is not often straightforward. That dream to become an artist, accountant, medical assistant, computer technician, nurse, business analyst, or paralegal is available for those who attend a vocational school (Gwinnett Colleges and Institute, 2018)

According to Dick Winterton, “Regardless of whether they have achieved the grades they want or need, students have the opportunity to start shaping their careers now, and take important steps to ensure they are able to fulfill their aspirations of finding a job and reach their satisfaction” (Winterton, 2007)

Interestingly, the results of study conducted at University of Ghana suggest that job security is a very important consideration in course selection in the technical and vocational program. There is, therefore, the need to either establish more industries or equip the graduate to set up their own businesses after their training (Francis, 2014)

Bachelor Degree Program Completed

Bachelor's degrees worldwide normally require three or four years of full-time study, depending on the education system of the country or whether the program is general or specialized (University guide online, 2019). A Bachelor’s degree is considered as the basic academic level to be eligible for the Rwandan professional job market (U.S. Embassy in Rwanda, 2019).

However, in its studies, the Bureau of Labor Statistics in United States of America found that 37% of currently employed college grads are doing work for which only a high school degree is required (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2017). There are some weaknesses with bachelor degree programs. The research found that over 53% of recent college graduates are unemployed or under-employed according to their studies. However, those who went in the subject of vocational training are well-paid, skilled jobs and employable (Wyman, 2015).

In his book entitled “Fearing Africa’s Young Men: The Case of Rwanda”, Marc Sommers states that most Rwandan youth are poorly educated, out of school, unemployed, and bereft of promising opportunities. He relies on a survey of UNDP and International Council on National Youth Policy 2003, showing that “every second adolescent in Rwanda had no money at all at his personal disposal,” and less than a third had a regular paid income (Sommers, 2006).

Recently, the report published by Ministry of Education in Rwanda states that the present examination system only measures theoretical achievements. Inappropriate management of Technical Schools, the missing link with the potential employers and the lack of school monitoring and performance evaluation are the main reasons for the Schools’ insufficient contribution to the development of much needed human capital. Rwandan society’s disregard for the importance of practical skills is a strong development constraint.

Learner transition based on exam results and not guidance nor proof of technical ability and the lack of career counselling are other factors that reduce TVET efficiency (Ministry of Education, 2008). According to Kimberly Amadeo, 2019 structural unemployment occurs when workers' skills no longer meet the needs of the job market (Amadeo, 2019)

According to Gwinnett Colleges and Institute document accessed online, choosing a career early in life is imperative. However, the path towards achieving that career goal is not often straightforward. That dream to become an artist, accountant, a medical assistant, computer technician, nurse, business analyst, or paralegal is available for those that attend a vocational school ( Gwinnett Colleges and Institute, 2018)

Some students in Rwanda expressed that the course they had studied was not relevant to the local market and, therefore, needed support to acquire skills that were more responsive to the market (Rwirahira, 2016).

Despite that there are many studies on bachelor degrees and vocational short course, apart from this study, there is no other study yet discovered explaining why today in Rwanda bachelor degree holders undertake technical vocational short courses after academic program completion.

Realizing Inner Dreams

Many theories demonstrate that human being may have other abilities apart from those he has studied. In the famous multiple intelligences (MI) theory, intelligence is viewed as the incorporation of a range of talents or the behavioral representations of talents. According to the theory, there are at least nine intelligences: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, and existential. Therefore, there are at least nine different representations of talents (Sharif, 2015).

Howe confirms that we were born with talents that are discovered either earlier or later in life. He says, ‘It is clear that that researchers and experts make extensive use of the concept of talent to predict exceptional abilities and to explain their causes. Because researchers as well as educators rely on the talent account, it is important to examine its validity” (Howe, 1998)

So, according to the communication in PDF format of National Employment Program, the candidates, being a large number, applied hoping to undertake vocational short courses after bachelor’s degree academic program. The great number of applicants, including those that were employed, reveals that human being has inner dreams that prompt him to seek for satisfaction through nourishing them by learning accordingly.

Seeking Additional Skills

The reason to undertake technical vocational short courses is to seek additional skills to live on or increase employability opportunities. Skills are a form of currency in the working world. The more skills people have, the more valuable they are as employees. Additional skills make skilled be more attractive to more potential employers; they may be able to make more money, and be able to do more once they land their ideal position (DeMers, 2015)

Curiosity prompts people to seek additional knowledge. When you follow your curiosities, you will bring passion to your new careers, which will leave you more fulfilled. And by doing more than one job, you may end up doing all of them better (Sehgal, 2017)

Undertaking Technical Vocational Short Courses

Due to the unemployment rate that is increasing, one international agency official working in Rwanda comments that about 1.5 percent of Rwanda’s national budget is earmarked for non-formal education and out-of-school children and youth. Another international agency official relates a conversation with a Rwandan government official who explains that the Ministry of Gender does not work on youth issues.

The international official also relates that while the government is expanding investment in vocational education, the mistakes emerging from the earlier CERAI legacy are not being heeded (such as not basing its programming on labor market information), and most graduates (reportedly as much as 60 percent) do not find jobs after graduating. Suzanne Kaplan has recently noted, “Today the Rwandan youth struggle to rebuild their lives with little help in a society that has been completely devastated” (Sommers, 2006).

Therefore, the technical vocational short courses have very long history in Rwanda. Although sustained educational development from generation to generation depends on having a stable and healthy school system, out-of-school courses and training programs form an important bridge between schooling and the world of work. Non-formal education programs serve both people interested in improving their lives while pursuing their traditional occupations and those who seek jobs in the modern sector economy (Hoben, 1989).

Compared to formal schooling, courses in these programs are short, focused, and far less disruptive of the students’ daily life and work. In many cases, the costs of such training are borne not by government but by private agencies or private sector employers. For all these reasons, programs of this sort tend to be highly cost-effective and not burdensome for government budgets. Even in countries where virtually everyone has gone to school, programs of non-formal education play a pivotal role in preparing people for specific jobs, rather than for general occupations and in retooling workers to meet changing needs and opportunities in an evolving economy (Hoben, 1989)

At the time, Communal and Religious Centers raised focuses on health issues, others on occupational training, yet others on rural development. CCDFP (Centers Communaux de Developpement de la Formation Permanente). These adult education centers were under the direction of MININTER, the Ministry of the Interior and Communal Development.

They combined the programs of several earlier types of centers Literacy Centers, Centers of Social Development (mostly offering home and crafts courses for women), and Social Workshops. They were planning to offer a menu of courses ranging from agriculture and practical technology to health, nutrition, family planning and hygiene, literacy, accounting and cooperative management, or civics, understanding the law, and social relations (Hoben, 1989).

CFJ (Centres de Formation des Jeunes ) were organized by MIJEUCOOP, the Ministry of Youth and Cooperatives. These centers were giving courses in practical skills and cooperative organization to out-of-school youth, in an effort to launch them into productive jobs (Hoben, 1989).

Though vocational courses have a long history in Rwanda, according to the Ministry of Education, the country still is in dire need of skilled workers and technicians. The TVET lacks effectiveness and relevance to the reality of the workplace. Even in those occupational fields that show high demand for skilled workforce, like the construction sector, TVET graduates remain unemployed because they have not acquired the practical hands-on competencies (Ministry of Education, 2008). The hope is that vocational courses are being adapted to the exact need of labor market today.

Theoretical Review

These are theories that support this research thesis. After reviewing all theories that relate or contribute to this research, the researcher believed the below theories are useful to this research thesis.

Diffusion of Innovation Theory

This theory, developed by E.M. Rogers in 1962, is one of the oldest social science theories. When we quote social science, the education is included. It originated in communication to explain how, over time, an idea or product gains momentum and diffuses (or spreads) through a specific population or social system. The end result of this diffusion is that people, as part of a social system, adopt a new idea, behavior, or product (Rogers, 1962).

Adoption means that a person does something differently than what they had previously. For example, a person can change his/her career because of his/her demography traits, unemployment, realizing the inner dream, or seeks for additional skills. The key to adoption is that the person must perceive the idea, behavior, or product as new or innovative. It is through this that diffusion is possible (Rogers, 1962).

The Theory of Probable Destiny

The theory of probable destiny was an intrinsic corollary of socioeconomic stratification. According to the theory of probable destiny, social classes are inherently stable so that a person born into a working-class family will probably live and die as a member of the working class. A young person's "probable destiny" could be determined by a combination of factors, including socioeconomic class at birth, aptitudes, and interests.

The Theory of Social Control

The theory of social control posits that, for any society to exist, its members must adhere to both the implicit and explicit norms of that society. For a society to endure over time, such adherence must be voluntary and near automatic on the part of the citizenry.

Although never formulated as a single and coherent theory, pedagogy involved the systematic study of teaching and learning that was rapidly developing at that time. According to Wirth (1972), the pedagogy for career and technical education must be based on an organized, rigidly sequenced, hands-on approach to teaching.

Behaviorism Theory

As the emerging learning theory of the early 1900s, behaviorism provided the final foundation for social efficiency. In particular, the research of E. L. Thorndike (Thorndike, 1932) contends that learning consists of the formation of links between specific stimuli and responses through the application of rewards (Wirth, 1972).

This emphasis on SÕR pairing reflects behaviorism's positivistic philosophical base, that is, an analysis of the human condition that relies on only verifiable observations of behavior and not on untenable mentalistic constructs. Further, behaviorists believe that most human behavior could be understood as basic reflexive learning mechanisms or "laws" that operate on one's experience within the environment.

Empirical Review

The self-perception theory developed by Daryl Bem suggests that people look at their actions just like an outsider would observe a character and make conclusions on why they were motivated to do what they did. This theory reveals that those joining technical vocation short courses may be also prompted by the inner dreams, that are not observable, that condition the external behavior

When graduates who have completed Bachelor Degree Program and choose to undertaking vocational short courses, this demonstrates that the problem dwells either in prior studies, unemployment or opportunities to pursuit those courses (Shisia, 2018).

Gap in Literature

The relationship between the five factors (demographic factors, unemployment factor, bachelor degree program completion, realization of inner dreams, seeking for additional skills) leading bachelor degree holders to undertake technical vocational short courses have not yet been clarified well. Therefore, it is not obvious which one is dominant in decision of undertaking technical vocational short course.

[...]

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Details

Titel
Reasons For Technical Vocational Short Courses After Bachelor's Degree Program Completion in Rwanda
Untertitel
An Exploratory Study
Autor
Jahr
2019
Seiten
79
Katalognummer
V541342
ISBN (eBook)
9783346173522
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
after, technical, study, short, rwanda, reasons, program, exploratory, degree, courses, completion, bachelor, vocational
Arbeit zitieren
Habanabakize Schadrack (Autor), 2019, Reasons For Technical Vocational Short Courses After Bachelor's Degree Program Completion in Rwanda, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/541342

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