Master's Thesis, 2010, 159 Pages
Chapter One Introduction
1.2 Problem Definition
1.3 Objectives of this Study
1.6 Relevance of Study
1.7 Organization of Study
Chapter Two – Literature review
2.1 Definition of Broadband
2.2 Policy and Market
2.3 Theoretical Approaches towards Universal Approach
Chapter Three – Methodology
3.2 Research Methodology
3.3 Justification for use of method
3.4 Limitations for choice of methodology
3.5 Data collection methods
Chapter Four – SWOT Analysis of broadband development in Ghana
4.2 Overview of broadband development in Ghana
4.3 Broadband technologies available in Ghana
4.4 Level of broadband penetration in Ghana
4.5 SWOT analysis
Chapter Five – Policy components of the Ghana Broadband Strategy
5.2 Facilitation Policy of the Ghana broadband strategy
5.3 Regulatory policies of the Ghana broadband strategy
5.4 Market Intervention Policies of the Ghana broadband Strategy
Chapter Six – Overview of broadband policies in other countries
6.2 Australia’s national broadband strategy
6.3 Finland’s national broadband strategy
6.4 India’s national broadband strategy
6.5 Pakistan’s national broadband strategy
Chapter Seven – Descriptive analysis of the Ghana broadband strategy
7.2 Description of the Ghana broadband strategy
7.3 Stakeholder analysis
Chapter Eight – Assessment of Ghana’s Universal Access policy
8.2 Rationale for Universal Service
8.3 Ghana’s Universal Access and Service Policy
8.4 Assessment of Ghana’s Universal Access and Service fund
8.5 Assessment of Ghana’s Telecenter initiatives
8.6 NCA and the Universal Access Obligation
8.7 The effect of telecommunication policies and the Ghanaian telecommunications market
Chapter Nine Conclusions
9.4 Suggested technology step to Universal Access
Appendix1: Problem definition
Appendix2: Interviews with stakeholders
We declare that except for references, which have been duly acknowledged, this report is the result of our own research work carried out under the supervision of Prof. Anders Henten, CMI, Aalborg University (AAU), Copenhagen, Denmark and Mr. Dominic Louise as well as Mr. Thomas Henaku of the Ghana Telecom University College (GTUC), Accra.
Anders Henten, Associate Professor Mr. Dominic Louise, Mr Thomas Henaku
CMI Supervisor GTUC Supervisors
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Idongesit William Williams: I dedicate this project first and foremost to God Almighty for granting me an opportunity to achieve a dream I never thought I could ever achieve. He has given me a reason to live for one more day. I also dedicate this project to my parents, Engineer and Mrs Williams, for their support financially, morally and in prayers.
Yvonne Adwoa Botwe: I dedicate this project to God and my entire family for staking and staying with me throughout the course.
We owe a debt of gratitude to all who helped us to undertake this Project.
Our sincere thanks go to our supervisors, Prof. Anders Henten of CMI, AAU and Mr. Dominic Loiuse and Mr. Thomas Henaku of GTUC, Accra for their suggestions, comments, guidance and directions in the course of this research. We acknowledge the President of GTUC and Mrs Onny, the mICT coordinator for their help in facilitating the letters of introduction to various stakeholders. We also acknowledge the cooperation and friendly encouragement of many members of staff of both AAU and the GTUC.
We are grateful to the stakeholders in the telecommunication industry in Ghana especially GIFEC, Internet Research, other agencies such as National Communications Authority and all respondents whose valuable inputs formed the basis of this report.
The findings or recommendations of this report do not necessarily reflect the views of any person or group of persons other than the members of mICT Group Two. We are responsible for any inaccuracies or inconsistencies in facts or analysis that may be found in this report.
Williams, Idongesit William
Botwe, Yvonne Adwoa
This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government publications and sourced information from the internet in order to find out the extent of broadband development in Ghana. A SWOT analysis is carried out to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat to the development of broadband market in Ghana. The facilitation, regulatory and market intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market. A comparative analysis is carried out with broadband strategies in other nations to consolidate the perceived omissions in the Ghana broadband Strategy.
In our findings, the researchers saw the Ghana broadband Strategy to be a positive start towards developing a comprehensive broadband strategy for Ghana. The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding the market.
It is the hope of the researchers that this academic exercise will be useful to anyone who wishes to study the policy effect on the Ghanaian telecommunications market and the Ghanaian approach to Universal Access and Service.
The advent of broadband has made convergence of voice, data, and video services possible on a single platform (Ashilevi, 2008). This development has led to the convergence in the deployment of broadcast services on telecommunication platform and vice versa (Ashilevi, 2008). Today in Ghana, game shows are made more interactive by phone-in and text-in services. MTN, a mobile telecoms operator in Ghana, now transmits Digital Satellite Television (DSTV) via mobile phones. Internet Service Providers now provide broadband internet access to subscribers that can afford the service. The Government of Ghana and telecommunication companies are also developing broadband infrastructure in the country. The broadband market is developing.
Despite this development in the delivery of broadband service in Ghana the broadcast and telecommunication services are still facilitated and regulated differently. Ghana, like many countries, still use separate broadcast and telecommunication policies. The reason for the dichotomy in regulation is based on the differences in technology and purpose of telecommunications and broadcasting services. In Ghana presently, the Ghana Telecommunication Policy (GTP) of 2005 regulates the telecommunication sector (Ghana Telecoms Policy, 2005). The Electronic Communications Act of Ghana, Act 775 of 2008 regulates broadcasting, electronic communications, electromagnetic spectrum and other related matters (Electronic Communications Amendment Act, 2008). These distinct policies have led to the facilitation, regulation and development of both the broadcast and telecommunication markets respectively.
Aside the difference in the regulatory framework for telecommunications and broadcasting, there are divergent issues with the telecommunication and broadcast policies. For instance, the aim of the Ghana Telecommunications policy is to achieve Universal Access and Service (UAS) (Ghana Telecoms Policy, 2005). The Ghana Telecommunication Policy has 2010 as the year Ghana hopes to attain Universal Access. By the same year, the government, as recorded in the Ghana Telecommunications Policy, expects 25% penetration of telecommunication services in her bid to attain Universal Service. In the Ghana Telecommunications, broadband – which enables the convergence in the telecommunications and broadcast sector - is only recognized a measure of facilitation that will enable the country achieve the aforementioned Universal Access targets. The problem is; the Ghana telecommunication policy does not define the role by which broadband can be facilitated and regulated to achieve the Universal Access objective of the policy (Ghana Telecoms Policy, 2005). The Electronic Communications Act also poses a similar challenge (Electronic Communications Amendment Act, 2008). Here broadband is seen more as a facilitation measure for delivering broadcast services. These differences in purpose of both policies make it impossible for the separate policies to fit into the developing convergence trend made possible by broadband transmission in the country.
Although these challenges exist, the broadband market in Ghana is growing. The evidence is that fixed and mobile telecommunication companies in Ghana are deploying and delivering broadband services. This development has led to competition in the delivery of broadband services in Ghana. However, it is not a perfect competition. The imperfect competition has led to the development of monopolies, such as interconnection, price etc monopoly for the companies deploying the fibre optics backbone. These monopolies sometimes are not in the public interest. There is a danger in this development as it will lead to the survival of the fittest in the broadband market. Companies with huge investment fund and large market shares or both will impose their will in a free market if no policy is in place to guide the development of market for broadband services.
There is an effort to solve the aforementioned challenges in a regulatory framework that will consolidate the divergent aims in telecommunication and broadcast policies, as well as market anomalies. The framework is not aimed at over riding the previous policies, but rather to define a clear role for broadband so that the Universal Access and Service aims and objectives of both broadcast and telecommunication policies can be achieved by a policy guided broadband market. ICT stakeholders in Ghana have developed a strategy that will lead Ghana towards Universal Access and Service (UAS) using broadband. Their focus towards the penetration of broadband is the reduction in the cost of delivering broadband. The strategy is tagged the “Ghana Broadband Strategy”. The recommendations in the Ghana broadband strategy will guide the facilitation, regulation and market interventions for broadband services . The strategy is aimed at directing the market to achieve the targets earmarked in the Ghana Telecoms Policy. The regulatory measures adopted towards broadband will affect the broadcast and the electronic services as well since these services can now be delivered on telecommunication platforms.
The purpose of this report is to evaluate this strategy to find out how it will consolidate and push forward the development of broadband in Ghana. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) of broadband development in Ghana will be analysed to help in revealing the areas where the Ghana broadband strategy will be of use in regulating, facilitating and developing market intervention measures. The proposed policy is called ‘Ghana Broadband Strategy’. More on the ICT stakeholders will be discussed further in the report.
Ghana is making some strides in the development of the broadband market. This fact is evident in the retail and wholesale areas of the telecommunications sector. In the retail section, companies like MTN and Zain have deployed mobile broadband services with the 3.5 G High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technologies (MTN, 2009; ZAIN, 2008). Internet Service providers, like iBurst, Teledata ICT, Busy internet etc provide broadband internet services using different broadband access technologies (Busy Internet, 2009; Iburst, 2009). In the wholesale section, The Government of Ghana is building a fibre optic backbone that will run through the country. Vodafone Ghana is operating this fibre optic backbone under the 99 years lease agreement which grants Vodafone 70% shares in managing the government telecoms operator Ghana telecoms. The fibre optic backbone was a part of Ghana Telecoms. Mobile telecom operators like Glo and MTN are also building their fibre optic network (Eben Albertyn, WACS, 2009). Glo network and MainOne do have international fibre optic that transits through the shores of Ghana to Europe (MainOne, 2009). Fibre optic network operate at broadband speed. These developments have led to competitions in spectrum which is a scarce resource, Interconnection prices and requirements, tarrifs, numbering etc.
In spite of this development in the broadband market, there is no broadband policy or strategy to guide the development of the broadband market for the purpose of attaining Universal Access in Ghana. However, the GhanaConnect stakeholders, mentioned earlier in the report, have developed a broadband strategy to solve this problem. The Strategy is still at the development stage. It will be sent to parliament to make it an act once the final document is tabled before parliament (Appendix 2, interview 2).
The question now is: What provision is made in the Ghana broadband strategy to facilitate and regulate these developments of broadband in order to attain Universal Access?
This research question is further broken down to the following four sub research questions:
(1) What is the Universal Access and Service target of the Ghana Broadband Strategy?
(2) What policy framework is prescribed to achieve Universal Access and Service in the Ghana Broadband Strategy?
(3) What Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats are evident in the development of broadband in Ghana? How does the Ghana broadband strategy fortify the strength and opportunities as well as remedy the weaknesses and threats?
(4) What broadband technology infrastructure does Ghana have in place to facilitate Ghana Broadband Strategy?
This report will attempt to provide answers to these research questions.
The Ghana Broadband Strategy has three main objectives (National broadband strategies, 2009):
(1) To achieve a 50% broadband penetration by 2015
(2) To achieve an 80% reduction in broadband price by 2015
(3) To achieve a reduction in Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) and
Personal Computer (PC) cost.
This report is designed to analyse the stakeholders’ proposal in line with the above stated objectives.
By the end of this report the following analysis would have been performed:
(1) A comparative analysis of existing materials and white papers issued by telecommunication stakeholders for the development of a Broadband policy in Ghana.
(2) An analysis of the role of the proposed policy intervention in the development of market for broadband services in Ghana.
(3) Analyses of the present infrastructure of broadband services and possibly suggest a feasible broadband technology that will enable rapid universal access in Ghana.
(4) An Analysis of broadband policies that exist in some other countries and to identify what we can learn from those examples.
These critique exercise at the end of the day will help us identify the facilitation, regulation and market intervention measures available in the proposed broadband strategy aimed at broadband development in Ghana.
Various resources were employed in producing the report. They are:
(1) Study research documents, articles, textbooks, journals, technical papers, etc from telecommunication vendors, equipment manufacturers, mobile telecommunication operators, etc.
(2) Interview with local telecommunications regulators
This report is motivated by our desire to see proposed policies designed for broadband solve the regulatory and market problems that exist or may arise in the process of developing broadband in Ghana.
It is the hope of the researchers that this academic analysis on the broadband strategy in Ghana be used as for the following purposes:
(1) A reference and a guide for prospective students and stakeholders in the telecom sector who wish to pursue our findings do so for the betterment of the nation Ghana.
(2) As recommendations which will be considered as an input to the Ghana broadband strategy.
(3) As a guide to prospective investors in Ghana to see the state of broadband development in Ghana and how they can become a player without necessarily sinking in investment into choked areas of the broadband market.
This study is organized into chapters.
Chapter One: This chapter is the introduction of the report. It provides a general background the existence of broadband in Ghana. It grants a general picture to the differences to the regulatory framework behind telecommunication and broadcasting in Ghana hence making an argument for a regulatory framework that will take convergence into consideration. Broadband enables convergence making the regulation of broadband a factor that cannot be ignored. This chapter also introduces the effort made to develop a broadband strategy in Ghana. The aims, objectives and overview of relevant broadband policies are also discussed in this chapter.
Chapter Two: This chapter is the review of literature and theoretical approach. Literature is reviewed in line with the relationship between policy and the market. The reason for regulation, the role of regulation, and the market is some of the issues reviewed in order to explain this relationship. The chapter also contains some theoretical approach towards Universal Access and Service (UAS).
Chapter Three: This chapter touches on methodologies employed to achieve the objectives of the study. For this, the researchers conducted face-to face interviews, searched for materials from journals, white papers, course notes and the internet for research methods. A comparative study on the broadband strategies of other countries was carried out as well to help in making the comparative analysis.
Chapter Four: This chapter is SWOT analysis of broadband development in Ghana. This chapter outlines the development of broadband so far in Ghana and what their strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are.
Chapter Five: This chapter discusses the policy components of the Ghana broadband strategy that are proposed by the stakeholders to solve the perceived weaknesses and threats and also consolidate on the strengths and opportunities created by the developing broadband market in Ghana. The facilitation, regulation, market intervention and the proposed action plans assigned to stakeholders towards policy implementation in the Ghana broadband strategy are discussed in this chapter. These tasks are geared towards the attainment of Universal Access in Ghana.
Chapter Six: This chapter is an overview of broadband strategies of other nations. The aim of this chapter is to analyse these broadband strategies in order to make a comparative analysis between the proposed Ghana broadband strategy and the other broadband strategies in the world.
Chapter Seven: This chapter describes the Ghana broadband strategy. It takes a look at the general overview of Ghana’s proposed broadband strategy, the current broadband connectivity, the estimated growth of broadband subscribers, and the role of NCA in regulation. The descriptive analysis of the stakeholders involved in the development of the Ghana Broadband Strategy is also included in this chapter.
Chapter Eight: This chapter is a descriptive analysis of Ghana’s Universal Access policy and its effect in the development of telecommunications. The aim of this chapter is to examine the relationship between policy and market in Ghana. Ghana’s Universal Access policy contained in the Ghana Telecommunication Policy is discussed. The activity of GIFEC, Ghana’s Universal Access and Service fund is discussed with the aim of reporting on its achievements, challenges and future plans. The relationship between Ghana’s 1990 liberalization policy and its effect on the telecommunications policy is also discussed as well.
Chapter Nine: This is the final chapter of the report. The suggested steps towards universal access and some recommendations are discussed as the concluding part of the report. Under the suggested steps towards Universal Access, this last chapter touches on the advantages of mobile broadband technology and WIMAX.
The definition of broadband is relative. Data communications, Digital Subscriber line (DSL), Ethernet, Power line communication, and video are some telecommunication contexts by which broadband can be defined (Wikipedia, Broadband, 2009). In telecommunications generally, broadband refers to a signalling method that can handle a relatively wide range of frequencies (Wikipedia, Broadband, 2009). This wide bandwidth gives room to greater information carrying capacity. Quality of service is enhanced when data can be multiplexed at a high frequency, hence making the quest for broadband important in delivering telecommunication services. In the Ghana broadband strategy, broadband is defined for data communications generally (National Broadband Strategy 2009, p.3).
The definition of broadband along data communication lines is dependent on the country. The reason for the heterogeneous definition of broadband along data communication lines is explained by Henning Olesen (Henning Olesen, Future broadband and mobile networks, 2008, p.12). In his explanation he pointed to the fact that there is no definite definition for broadband (Henning Olesen, Future broadband and mobile networks, 2008, p.12). He considered the definitions of broadband in two categories namely: the old definition and the new definition. Data speed above 144kbps is regarded as the old definition whereas data speed above 2Mbps is regarded as the new definition (Henning Olesen, Future broadband and mobile networks, 2008, p.12). Countries many at times, based on lack of satisfaction with the performance of their broadband service delivery, do raise their minimum data communication speed within what the researchers call the Henning Olesen range of broadband definition. The range is between a minimum speed of 144Kbps and 2Mbps and above.
Here are some definitions obtained from some countries:
(1) The United States of America (USA): The USA considers data speed exceeding 200Kbps as broadband (Federal Communications Commission, 2009).
(2) India: The country initially considered 128Kbps minimum as broadband but now 256kbps minimum is considered broadband (Indian broadband policy,2004).
(3) Pakistan still considers 128Kbps minimum data speed as broadband (Pakistan Broadband Policy, 2004).
(4) Australia Considers 256Kbps minimum data speed as broadband (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2007).
The International Telecommunication Union Standardization Sector (ITU-T) recommendation I.113 has defined broadband as a transmission capacity that is faster than primary rate ISDN between the ranges of 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s (ITU, 2003).
However, it is important to note that the Olesen’s range is not a standard rather it is an observation of the authors of this report.
In the review of literature the researchers will be looking at the relationship between market and policies. The theories postulated by some telecommunication regulation consultants in achieving Universal Access and Service will be discussed as well. In discussing the role of policy, the researchers will be focusing on regulations since policies regulate market. The researchers will also look at what constitutes the market. This will narrow the researchers’ policy review to that of telecommunications. This is because broadband facilitates telecommunications among others and broadband policies are aimed at achieving universal access documented in telecommunication policies. Morten Falch defines Universal Access as the provision of access to telecom services to everyone in the country (Morten Falch, Universal Service and digital divide, 2009, p.2).
Telecommunication policies contain regulatory framework aimed at guiding telecommunication resources meant for the public for the purpose of attaining universal access. The telecommunication services often regulated are identified by William H Melody, Mr M H Au (2004), The Telecom Authority of Turkey (2006) and Shirley Svorny (1999). William H Melody identifies radio spectrum, numbering and right of way as public resources among others that need to be regulated (William H Melody). Mr M H Au (2004) identifies interconnection, tariffs, fair competition, merger acquisition and licensing of mobile services as some of the sector specific regulated resources (Mr M H Au, 2004). The Telecom Authority of Turkey (2004), in addition to what Mr Melody and Mr Au have mentioned, identified universal services and Quality of Service as variables that have to be regulated in the delivery of a telecommunication service (Telecom Authority of Turkey 2004). Shirley Svorny, unlike Mr Au who only identified the regulation of mobile services licensing, talks about the regulation of licensing in the broad sense of market entry for any service (Shirley Svorny, 1999). These regulated services are enforced by regulators established by a law in every country.
There are arguments on whether regulation of telecommunications is really necessary or not. Most authors have not been able to make a clear call for or against telecoms regulation. This is because of the growing global trend of liberalization of the telecommunication sector which has led to the demise or transformation of state owned monopolies giving room to a multi player telecommunication sector. Hence a synergy of regulation and competition is being analysed by many authors, most of whom believe that an unregulated competition will lead to a fiasco in the telecommunication sector of an economy. William H Melody is open to the idea of competition and liberalization. However he is deeply interested in the regulation of competition. He warned that a non regulated competition will open telecommunication customers to a market with a competition policy and a no competitive option in the delivery of telecommunication service (William H Melody). This, he said, will lead a successful competitor to become a substantial monopoly power. He argued further; if competition is to work, then regulation will be the tools that will help competition achieve the economic and social objectives. Olivier Boylaud and Giuseppe Nicoletti (2001) studied telecoms regulation, market structure and performance in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. From their studies, their inference also pointed to the need for regulating competition. After studying the effect of evolving regulations driven by innovation in telecommunication services and technologies, they discovered improvements in the amount, price, range and quality of telecommunication services rendered in the OECD countries. Tobias Veith (2007) in discussing the regulation of access, rooted for regulation of competition, His focus was in the wholesale sector, specifically in Germany’s introduction of the Very High Bitrate DSL (VDSL) infrastructure. He also posted two scenario results as regards non regulation of competition as well as regulation of competition. Non regulation can lead to monopolistic rents. Although he believed in the regulation of competition he was quick to also point to the fact that Government interventions through regulations reduces the incentive for the market players to invest in new infrastructure or in extension of an existing network. The result of the intervention in his view will lead to service being offered to a smaller amount of customers. This may sound contradictory to Tobias Veith’s overall aim of promoting regulated competition. Another view is from Calvin Monson et al (2007). In order to strike a balance in the call for regulation of competition, they stated; Regulations have a high cost due to time constraint in administering the regulations to the later and the high expenditure of resources in administering the regulations in the policy. However this points to the argument of whether regulation is needed in telecommunications or not or whether regulation and competition can meet each other halfway. In this literature review the researchers will not contribute to this debate. We only mentioned this argument in order to let the reader know that this argument is one of the tools that will guide our thought process when making our analysis in this report. We will now look at the role of regulations in telecommunication to help in discussing the relationship between regulations (Policy) and the Market.
One may ask, what is the role of regulation in telecommunications? Let’s identify the opinion of some books in this regards. Calvin Monson et al (2007) in explaining the role of regulation believes that when a market by itself produces undesirable outcomes; regulation is needed. Regulation will in turn direct the market outcomes to socially desirable ones. He further explained that ex-ante regulations may right from the start direct the market towards desirable outcomes. Their argument on the need for regulation was hinged on price regulation. The regulation of the price of telecoms services in their opinion would lead to universal service since everyone will be able to afford the telecoms service. William H Melody did draw his role of regulation from a more traditional point of view. He juxtaposed telecommunications with other public utility like water and electricity regarding them as business that affects public interest. In order for reasonable service to be supplied at reasonable prices, Government has to control or regulate the supply conditions since the product is considered as a common necessity for the public at large. Mr M H Au (2004) differed on his take on the role of regulation. He hinged the role of regulation to five points namely:
(1) To manage scarce resources: Here Mr M H Au Identified, radio spectrum, numbering and right of way as some of the resources that needs to be regulated.
(2) To address market imperfections: William H Melody did explain this point made by Mr M H Au. He argued that unregulated competition will create companies that may have either price monopoly, an application or service monopoly or financial monopoly or duopolies turning the market to a survival of the fittest situation since an effective market have not been developed. Another example raised by Au on an imperfect market is when there is information asymmetry; an example is when the operator and the consumer differ on what they regard as quality of service. When the market cannot achieve policy objectives, Au regards that as an imperfect market. In order to solve these problems he argued that regulation is needed.
(3) To protect competition: He referred to safe guards against anti- competitive conducts and emergence of market structure that is not conducive for competition as the regulatory measures needed to protect competition.
(4) To achieve some social objectives: This means achieving universal access whether it is profitable or not.
(5) To ensure compatibility and inter operability between telecommunication systems and to avoid interference and safety hazard: This, Mr M H Au argued, is to be achieved by establishing technical standards The Telecommunication Authority of Turkey operates under the new European Union Common Regulatory Framework for Electronic Communication and Services (Telecommunication Authority of Turkey, 2006). The role of the regulation, as explained by the Telecommunication Authority of Turkey, is to sustain reliable competition in predefined markets (Telecommunication Authority of Turkey, 2006). In this framework, markets are defined in three ways namely: Definition of related markets as defined by the individual European Union nations, definition of operators with Significant Market Power (SMP) in the defined market and remedies to be applied on operators having SMP to increase the level of competition. The content analysis of these definitions will result in the development of policy that will regulate competition. The Competition framework for Telecommunication Industry in Singapore recognises the need to have boundaries for the conduct of competition in a fully liberalized telecoms environment (JFTC, 2002). Regulations make up these boundaries which they recognise as the telecom competition code. Having discussed the role of regulation, it is important to discuss what type of regulations each role portrays.
The role of regulations in telecommunications is enormous, however as can be deducted, the authors have different context to which they respond to these roles. Mr William H Melody identified his role from the regulation of state owned monopolies, while Calvin Monson et al and Mr Au identified the role of regulation from the regulation of competition and from the market development point of view. Calvin Monson et al and Mr Au focused on the ex-ante regulations. Telecommunications Authority of Turkey and the literature on the competition framework for the telecommunication industry in Singapore are focused on ex-post regulation, which are formed after the market had developed (JFTC, 2002). The Telecommunications Authority of Turkey and the Literature on the competition framework for the telecommunication industry in Singapore also focus on the regulation of competition. Before we proceed to the relationship between regulations and the market, we will briefly have a look at some services that make up the market. We have mentioned some of them earlier when discussing the role of regulation.
The word market has been mentioned over and over again when the researchers reviewed literature on the role of regulation in telecommunications. This section identifies the market components. William H melody in his analysis on why competition should be regulated separated the market into two. Both of them are competitive markets namely, equipment supply market and the service development market. The equipment supply market is made up of the equipment vendors selling to the Public Telephone Operators (PTOs) and the service development market involves the wholesale and retail of the telecommunication service to other PTOs and subscribers. The players involved in the equipment market as identified by Melody are: telecom equipment manufacturers, computer hardware manufacturers, software manufacturers and consumer electronics. The services involved in the service development market are: Internet services, Value Added Services (VAS), databases and network management.
The above mentioned markets are made possible through demand and supply like every other market. Some books have identified various ways by which public interest can be protected by encouraging different forms of markets, like monopolies, duopolies, competitions etc. These markets are regulated differently for different reasons. ICT regulation toolkit identifies interconnection, pricing, infrastructure sharing as the market facilitation measures between the PTOs and the Equipment Suppliers and the service development customers (ICT regulation toolkits, section 1645, 2009). The ICT regulation toolkit recommendation operates in an open market. When market is open, competition sets in; regulation of competition may be required. William H melody also sheds some light about the reverse where the government of the nation believes; a monopoly can achieve maximum economic efficiency by exploiting economics of scale and avoiding the duplication of facilities. He points out that the monopolies worked in some countries and failed in some. In the Nordic countries where he said monopolies did succeed, the government allowed the technocrats to operate the monopoly without government interference, whereas in the other countries government interference sunk the monopolies. ICT regulation toolkit made a case for a competition indicating that public interest and social good is well served when the market is allowed to work efficiently (ICT regulation toolkits section 1670, 2009). Hence in this case focus isn’t on the telecommunication companies and how they operate but on the market and how rapidly it can grow as a result of a competition or monopoly.
In spite of these developments, Calvin Monson Et Al and William Melody believes that competition may have its downsides. Companies with financial muscles can go into mergers that will reduce competition. Certain PTOs may connive to increase the price of their services or reduce the quantity and quality of their services to exclude other competitors in the market. PTOs with Significant Market Power may use their might to exclude other PTOs or even stop them from coming into the market. These downsides according to the duo prove that competition can’t be left without supervision.
Having said so, it is important to identify a well performing market. The OECD (2000) describes a well performing market as one which is characterized by high rates of (multi factor) productivity growth (OECD, 2000). The European Union’s new regulatory framework has the following market indicators as a signal for a well performing market under the framework’s regime. They are: Indicators for output and consumption, indicators for efficiency, Indicators for quality of supply, indicators for financial performance, Indicators for prices, indicators for competition, social indicators and indicators for capacity, investment and maintenance (Brown et al, 2006). Bassanini .A and E Enrst (2001) identifies innovation as a characteristic of a well performing market. They are quick to add that the degree of product market regulation influences the strength of innovative activities.
These facts about the market buttress the point that policy is needed to regulate competition in some facets of the telecommunications market. However, Mr M H Au (2004) has described regulation as a second best approach. He believes the free market in spite of its shortcomings is the best since it will lower prices, widen choices, promote quality and enhance innovation. He tasks the regulators to foster the development of the market. William Melody and Mr M H Au all agree on one thing, which is; the regulators should always open the door to new players and not allow old players get a Significant Market Power that will turn them into a monopoly. This is an idea that Shirley Svorny differs with. She believes in the fact that licensing protects the consumer from the side effects of poor consumption decisions. Our argument for regulation goes for both monopolistic and competitive markets in as much as some of the literature we reviewed favoured competition
In our attempt to understand why regulation is needed, we can also clearly deduce that a market can exist without regulation. However, if the telecommunication market is to attain universal access, then regulation is needed. Since regulation is contained in a policy, we can also say that policies guide markets. We can buttress this argument with Morten Falch’s identification of the role of policy and market. He believes that policy should be able to facilitate, regulate and enable market intervention guides (Morten Falch, Universal Service and Digital divide, 2009, P4).
In this report the underlying theory is that policies which facilitate, regulates and provide market interventions for broadband can be tailored towards Universal Access and Service. The literature analysed so far underscores the relationship between market and policy. If the policy guiding the market is right then the market will expand leading to the rapid diffusion of broadband services.
There are different policy and market approaches that can be adopted to achieve Universal Access and Service. In the service development market, specialists in communication market economics, David N Townsend et al (2001) recommend policies that will promote community based telecenters. These community based telecenters are to be located in communities where information communication technology is absent. The idea is to enable a Universal Access push into developing communities. They believe Universal Access can be achieved faster this way. Their idea is cost effective but can’t provide Universal Service as they readily admit. Despite this fact, they believe the marketing proposal towards Universal Access can work perfectly with a policy drafted with the thought of narrowing the information gap between developed and under developed communities of the world. The David N
Townsend et al (2001) is a theory that can be incorporated towards achieving Universal Access with broadband.
Eric Lie (2007) places his focus on the challenges of achieving Universal Access through the instruments of Next Generation Networks (NGN). The advantage of the NGN’s as recognized by his presentation is the fact that NGN offers end user access through a variety of networks using the Internet Protocol (IP) technology. Another advantage of NGN as identified by Eric Lie (2007) is the fact that NGN rely on a much cheaper bandwidth and also make available a wide range of services more easily (Eric Lie,2004,p.4). This report considers Eric Lie’s presentation because broadband is a component of NGN technology.
Eric Lie (2007) starts by recognizing the fact that some countries embark on Universal Access funding. The fund is aimed at funding programmes that will lead to Universal Access (Eric Lie, 2004, p.20). The funding is necessitated by the erosion of revenue from traditional sources like revenue from international and domestic long distance services. Competition is in the increase in the use of Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) thereby circumventing the international accounting system, and the rapid diffusion of mobile phone services allowing subscribers to avoid paying high domestic long distance charges are some of the factors identified by Eric Lie for the erosion in the revenue from international and domestic long distance services (Eric Lie,
2007, p.20). He believes that the gradual movements towards NGN will further erode this funding. These funds are derived from General tax revenues and specific taxes line end user taxation and tax on operators. Whom the funding is being directed to or be directed to isn’t clear in his presentation. However contributors to the presentation identified end users, operators (small or big) and even NGO’s to help them facilitate the Universal Access policy stipulated by the Government. They also identified the fact that the fund may not reach the mass of recipients simultaneously. They have suggested that the funds be disbursed by either auctions or tenders. They also suggested that the funds be disbursed by subsidies, venture capital, loans etc (Eric Lie, 2007, p.21). Eric went further to identify other types of funding support. They are as follows:
(1) Micro Financing: Loans, grants, equity participation in small entrepreneurial telecom projects are some micro financing moves that can trigger universal access at the grass roots (Eric Lie, 2007, p.24).
(2) Targeted end user programmes: The target of this programme will be low income household, the disabled and the elderly. The programme includes subsidies and the mandating of special tariff for certain target group (Eric Lie, 2007, p.25).
Having identified the policy of Universal Access funding, Eric finds the development of a general Universal Access Policy as inefficient. The evolution of Next Generation Networks makes future developments hard to predict. The effect of a cheaper or free bandwidth is also hard to predict. Hence he suggests another approach to Universal Access. He proposes a development of sector specific regulations and policies (Eric Lie, 2007, p.26)]. Hence issues like licensing, Spectrum management, Interconnection, VOIP and price regulation should have separate Universal Access polices respectively. He believes that this move by regulators will lead to the lowering of barriers to market entry in rural and remote areas. He further advised that interventions like Universal Access funding should be attempted only when there is a clear failure in market forces in the quest to reach Universal Access goals. If there is need for Universal Access funding due to failure of market forces, then the regulators should ensure the following:
(1) The principle of technology neutrality should be adopted to ensure flexibility and allows practical technology solutions allowed by NGN.
(2) There should be a separation of infrastructure from service. This is because the service layer is independent of the transport layer which is the infrastructure layer (Eric Lie, 2007, p.13). When a new service provider wants to provide service, he can do so directly at the service level without considering the transport layer. Hence a telecommunication company may only provide service and may not have the infrastructure. The company has to hook up with a company that has the infrastructure. The NGN network will be deployed at the transport layer. He advised that attention be paid to the infrastructure Where backbone and back haul infrastructure deployment, capacity building and local content development is made possible via Universal access funding.
When disbursing the Universal Access funds, he recommended micro financing since it will allow small businesses, civil societies and individuals to play a big role in bringing about Universal Access. This will reduce the Universal Access expectations on incumbent operators. Eric Lie’s document has been able to deliver two policy approaches towards Universal Access. They are:
(1) Universal Access funding
(2) Sector specific regulation towards Universal Access
Sonja Oestmann Et al (2008) in their paper on Universal Access and Service also takes a look at some approaches towards Universal Access. Their approach is a step further than approaches identified by David Townsend Et al (2001) and Eric Lie (2007). Sonja Oestmann Et al (2008) identify Universal Access and Service finding as an approach adopted by governments and regulatory bodies to achieve Universal Access. Other approaches mentioned by Sonja Oestmann et al (2008) are:
(1) Traditional Approaches to Universal Access and Service: This entails Universal Service Obligation (USO) imposed by governments on the government own national telecommunications Operator. This works in a monopoly situation. In an open market situation, Sonja Oestmann Et al (2008) explains that the act of imposing a USO on the incumbent operator will not lead to a level playing field. Hence in an open market countries often introduce administrative, non – competitive procedures for designating a company to fulfil a Universal Service Obligation.
(2) Competing for subsidies and Universal Access funds: Their thought in this area is not different from the analysis made by Eric Lie (2007) on what necessitates Universal Access funding and on how funds are raised and administered. However they have moved one step further to describe what the advantages will be in the administration of such a fund. The advantages are as follows :
a. Transparency and fairness in allocating subsidies (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.45).
b. Emphasis on innovation and least cost-solution which in many cases requires complicated cost models and well developed internal accounting systems within the operators (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.46).
c. The funds provide pay or play in practice. Here the Universal Access and Service Fund (UASF) is provided with least subsidy and no operator is forced to participate in the competition of providing Universal Access (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.46).
d. The funds can bring finance into the sector and reduce the cost to operators (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.46).
e. The public interest is explicitly served (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.46).
In stating the challenges of the Universal Access and Service funds, Sonja Oestmann et al (2008) agree with Eric Lie (2007) that Universal Access funds are not allocated in a technology neutral manner where new technologies are not left out of the allocation because they did not exist when the fund was initiated. Another observation made that Universal Access funds have accumulated too much money and little is done with the money. Finally, they observed that Universal Access and Service programme planning and implementation is sometimes overtaken by market development.
(3) Non governmental and local community initiative: This was mention in passing in the Eric Lie (2007) document as one of the institutions who are beneficiaries of the Universal Access funds. This was in line with the top down approach of money coming from the government regulators to the community institutions. Sonja Oestmann et al (2008) are looking at the same situation from the bottom up approach. The same institutions are recognised as the donors not the channel of Universal Access fund. They are Microfinance institutions and village phone initiatives, community networks, Internet public access and telecenters, cooperatives and finally regional and rural operators. The organization of these groups towards developing and implementation of rural IT access is an approach considered towards Universal Access (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.48).
(4) Backbone development and Open Access: Sonja Oestmann (2008) places importance to Backbone development. This is because the backbone is the core infrastructure that every telecommunication service sits on. The policy and regulatory approach of governments are now geared towards the proper routing of the backbone network to attain universal Access. An example identified by Sonja Oestman (2008) et al is the inclusion of a back bone build- out in the Chilean Universal Access and service fund (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.51). However there are some bottlenecks to backbone development identified by Sonja et al. Some of them are :
a. The inability of operators to access the national backbone at a reasonable cost based price.
b. The increase for demand for capacity to support broadband at both national and internationally.
c. High investment cost in rolling out Next Generation Networks. This will create bottlenecks for Universal Access and Service if the market is not developing.
Some approaches to addressing the bottlenecks in backbone and infrastructure development are as follows:
a. Opening networks of monopolies or dominant operators to competition and wholesale Service provision. Sonja Oestmann Et al (2008) further suggest non discriminatory access to incumbent networks in developing countries. This move will drive down the cost of interconnection and operational cost (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.51).
b. Backbone extensions should be included in Universal Access and Service tenders. This open access requirements on access backbone links enable service providers beside the initial subsidy recipient can use the facilities (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.51).
c. Emerging Alternative network options will allow policymakers and regulators to license competitive backbone operators and allow existing operators to sell their excess capacity. They suggest this solution if the market is not already liberalized (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.51).
d. Building new wholesale backbone – only networks is a part of the new initiative meant to regulate access to the backbone infrastructure. The networks are managed by an existing consortium of network operators or a specially constituted network operator. The main reason for this initiative is borne out of the beLieve; that existing network operators do not have enough backbone and back haul to match the country’s needs. Sonja Oestmann etat (2008) expect careful evaluations to be made before such an alternative is considered (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.51). e. Infrastructure sharing is another option where networks can be extended to areas which are commercially viable in a cheaper rate. Here the operators share the cost of a particular infrastructure. They also propose a policy based on the Indian Universal Service Obligation Fund, which stipulates a subsidy to the building of microwave towers and masts in rural areas (Sonja Oestmann, 2008, p.51).
These theories are some approaches adopted by governments and consultants towards attaining Universal Access. Each theory is aimed at good market outcomes. Even though some authors were sceptical about some approaches, each of them is willing to shift position. Some of these approaches will guide our discussions in this report.
It is also important to note that these theoretical approaches towards Universal Access can be applied to broadband as will be seen in the report. Broadband services can be facilitated by community telecenters as proposed by David Townsend et al (2001). It can also be funded using Universal Access and Service funds and it can be regulated in bits as proposed by Eric Lie (2007). Broadband can be facilitated using the Traditional Approach of the Universal Service Obligation. Non governmental and local community Initiatives can fund the provision of broadband at the grass root level. And finally the regulation of backbone for broadband delivery is options proposed by Sonja Oestmann et al (2008). It is also important to note that broadband is a major component of many telecommunication policies which means that the Universal Access and Service plans are starting points to formulating policies that will regulate broadband for the aim of achieving universal access.
This section looks at some theories in social science research methodologies and the instruments of research. It places the instruments used in this study in the appropriate academic context and justifies their application. It also provides summary results and outlines the limitations of the research activities.
In a developing country such as Ghana where, illiteracy is high, GDP is low (GDP growth is 5.5%), ICT infrastructure is still undeveloped resulting in the low use of ICT enabled facilities. The development and implementation of a national broadband strategy is a great opportunity to accelerate the country’s development agenda towards the attainment of a middle-income status.
The methodology used in gathering data depends to a large extent on the objectives of the research.
Research methodologies provide the various methods by which data can be collected. It also looks at the advantages and disadvantages of each of the various methods that can be employed.
Research methodologies can broadly or conventionally be grouped into three; quantitative method and qualitative method. Each of these approaches has different disciplinary origins, developed distinctive tools and has its own critique of the other approaches.
Q u antitative methods:
Quantitative methods attempts to reduce social phenomena to quantifiable data which can then be statistically analyzed, focusing on the links and attributes across several cases (Wikipedia, Social Research). This method is one in which the investigator primarily uses post- positivist claims for developing knowledge (i.e. cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypotheses and questions, use of measurement and observation, and the test of theories) (Creswell, 2003, p.19). Examples of this method include; experimental designs; non-experimental designs such as surveys; predetermined instrument based questions; performance data, attitude data, observational data and census data; statistical analysis among many others Wikipedia, Social Research.
The method is mainly concerned with rigorous objective measurement in order to determine the truth or otherwise of a particular pre- determined hypotheses. Its main focus is on measuring 'how much something has changed and how many people has been affected by this change and uses tools such as surveys analysed using statistical techniques such as t-tests, chi-squared tests, regression analysis etc (Creswell, 2003, p.19).
Questionnaires are used and are conducted for a random sample or stratified random sample of individuals, often including a control group. Causality is assessed through the comparison of the incidence of the variables under consideration between the main sample and the control group and/ or the degree to which they co-occur.
For large-scale research, projects teams are composed and are made up of a number of skilled research designers and analysts, assisted by teams of local enumerators (e.g. DHS).
Qualitative methods emphasize personal experiences, interpretation, and self-knowledge over quantification, are concerned with understanding the meaning of social phenomena, and focus on links and attributes across relatively few cases (Wikipedia, Social Research). For this method, the inquirer often makes knowledge claims based primarily on constructivist perspectives (i.e. meanings are drawn from individual experiences, social and historical events and are constructed in a way that develops a theory or pattern) or advocate/presents participatory perspectives (Creswell, 2003, p.18).
Qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomenon in terms of the meanings people bring to them (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000, p.3). Examples of this includes; ethnography, case study, grounded theory, discourse analysis, biography, etc; focus group discussions/ interviews, observational data, documentary data and audiovisual data; text and image analysis; semi-structured interviews; unstructured interviews, etc Wikipedia, Social Research).
This method differs from quantitative methods in its aim and, not primarily at precise measurement of pre-determined hypotheses, but holistic understanding of complex realities and processes where even the questions and hypotheses emerge cumulatively as the investigation progresses (Creswell, 2003, p.19).
It typically focuses on compiling a selection of micro level case studies, investigated using a combination of informal interviews, participant observation and more recently visual media like photography and video. Questions are often broad and open-ended, and are changed and developed over time to fill in a 'jigsaw' of differing accounts of 'reality' (Creswell, 2003, p.19).
Different sampling techniques/ methods are used and this includes, the different techniques used in sampling the documents to be reviewed and the selection of key informants.
Qualitative analysis and questioning assists us to investigate the relationship between cause and effect (causality) and their underlining factors (attribution) (Creswell, 2003, p.19). For large-scale qualitative data, performing such analysis are aided by computer programmes such as Atlas. ti, AnSWR, AccuLine etc.
However, choosing a particular method or a mix of it depends on factors such as, the researchers beliefs and values, research goals, researcher questions, researcher skills, time and fund.
To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers employed some of the different forms of qualitative methods. Documentary and key informants’ interview was used and this is due to the following;
(1) Documentary reviews:
a. Provided useful means of evaluating the extent to which the policies or strategies developed by other countries have been implemented and the challenges encountered.
b. Provided useful means of analysing the 'official' view and
accessing the 'official' record of events, decisions and plans.
c. Provided a measure on the implementation of policy/ strategy and the impact of the achieved or otherwise e.g. an evaluation report on the policy/ strategy.
d. Enabled the researchers to investigate the background and context of the situation of broadband in Ghana and the specific problem(s) that got them interested.
e. Were not so prone to be influenced by the researcher.
(2) Key informant Interviews (semi-structured or unstructured interviews):
a. Provided an opportunity for the various stakeholders to give more detailed responses than in a questionnaire or other methods.
b. The information provided by some stakeholders interviewed were richer and full of contextual information as compared to a data provided by a questionnaire or other methods.
c. The information was collected in a more natural setting. For instance, interviewing a stakeholder on the subject provided the researchers with more information than a questionnaire would have.
d. Presented the researchers with a deeper understanding of the experiences and actions of each stakeholder that they interviewed. As the more unique each respondent's experiences were, the more important it was to use a research technique, which acknowledges and elicits that uniqueness.
e. Provided an opportunity to the researchers to probe respondents' views in ways that might be difficult to plan for in advance.
f. Provided the researchers with an opportunity to also observe and record the non-verbal behaviour of the respondent as well.
The method employed does have some limitations. Among the limitation of the documentary reviews were;
(1) Biases in the selection of documents
(2) It was time consuming
(3) Reviewing required critical reading since each document was written for a particular purpose and within a specific context, which may not necessarily be obvious from the document itself.
(4) Required expertise and experience since documents had to be interpreted at the same time as it is been read. For key informants interviews,
(1) It took a lot of time to transcribe the interview
(2) It required a good interviewing skills or experience. For example, good listening skills; body language that encouraged the interviewee to relax and talk; a capacity to ask questions, perhaps take notes and yet maintain eye contact; an ability to prompt people who were not very responsive; knowing just how long to allow silence to continue before intervening; an ability to probe sensitive areas and issues; being able to 'think on ones feet' and being flexible in questioning e.g. to recognise that a respondent had just answered about three of more of the questions in one response.
As stated above, several methodologies were employed. Documentary reviews of broadband policies and/ or strategies of some developed and developing countries were done. A comprehensive review of local literature (in line with the objectives outlined above) were done outlining/documenting the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of the broadband development in Ghana.
In addition, key informants interviews with semi-structured interviews/ questions (comprised of a set of open-ended questions with follow-up probes and prompts) were administered to some stakeholders of the Ghana broadband strategy. In some cases, a relatively unstructured interview (where a list of themes or topics or headings was adjusted to individual interviewee) was used. This became necessary because views of different stakeholders were sought after and there was the need to modify the questions to suite a particular stakeholder.
This implied that most of the data collected were qualitative in nature and based on the methods of data collection outlined below.
3.4.1 Documentary Reviews
Extensive documentary reviews of existing local and international literature and other relevant documents were done. This facilitated the capturing of information on the coverage, scope and limitations of broadband strategies for other countries. The reviews focused on both developing and developed countries and lessons were drawn from their respective broadband policies or strategies.
The selection of these countries whose policies/ strategies were reviewed and based on the following criteria;
1. countries that had adopted a national broadband strategy in a particular year which was 2004 and had made it accessible to the general public
2. the economic status of the country i.e. developing verses developed;
3. penetration (high verses low) level of the country’s broadband users
4. the population size of the countries (high population size verses medium/smaller population size)etc
Going by the above, a number of countries would fall in these criteria but, the researchers selected four countries whose policies were reviewed. India and Pakistan were selected on criteria 1 and 2.
This reviewed what has been done and is currently being done with respect to the telecommunication infrastructure, shortfalls, challenges and possibly its impact on broadband and Information, Communication and Technologies (ICTs) as a whole in Ghana. Documents/ papers/ journals etc related to the above subject were reviewed.
This review ideally was part of the earlier section (section 3.1). It had intentionally been isolated so that thorough review of the telecommunication infrastructure would be carried out to ascertain the gains made, obstacles encountered and the way forward in order to achieve the set objectives.
Consultative meetings and in depth key informant interviews with stakeholders, key officials from relevant organizations and relevant teams and groups in order to augment information gathered from the documentary review exercise.
A semi‐structured interview will be conducted in a face-to-face setting, which will permit the researcher(s) to seek new insights, ask questions, and assess phenomena in different perspectives. It will also provide the researcher(s) with different perspectives on the issue and also present them with in-depth information on the topic. This approach is being used due to the limited or none existence of written records or published documents.
Information gathered from the consultative meetings and in-depth key informant interviews will be analyzed using the data summarizing technique where the writers will ensure that information gathered would be understood, interpreted or related to some decisions. Emerging patterns or trends, strongly held opinions and frequently held opinions would also be noted.
SWOT is an acronym for Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity and Threats. It is used as a tool for evaluation (Allan Hammershoj, 2009, P.9). It is also a part of the ‘Quick and dirty’ way of developing a scenario (Lene Sorenson, 2008, p.10). However, this chapter is an evaluation of the broadband development in Ghana using the Ghana broadband strategy. The question this chapter will answer is: What is the current strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of broadband development in Ghana? Before making this analysis, it is important to have an overview of broadband development, the broadband services available and the current level of telecommunication penetration in Ghana.
The level of penetration of telecommunication service in Ghana has been made possible by the technological advancement in that sector. These technological advancements have been made possible by some visible drivers namely:
(1) Infrastructure development
(2) The advent of Global System Mobile (GSM) (3) Market liberalization
Back haul is delivered to the countries in three ways namely, internationally, nationally and last mile. Hence the relevant infrastructures are developed at these levels. In Ghana, the development and ownership of infrastructure at these different levels is either a partnership or a single effort investment. The most common partnership is between the government of Ghana and private companies. A single effort investment and ownership of infrastructure may come from the government or any player from the private sector.
In this segment, the infrastructural development at the different stages of back haul delivery in Ghana will be discussed.
Research Paper (undergraduate), 17 Pages
Master's Thesis, 41 Pages
Diploma Thesis, 199 Pages
Master's Thesis, 91 Pages
Research Paper (undergraduate), 26 Pages
Research Paper (undergraduate), 60 Pages
Scientific Essay, 32 Pages
Elaboration, 31 Pages
Seminar Paper, 26 Pages
Essay, 23 Pages
Bachelor Thesis, 128 Pages
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 197 Pages
Research Paper (undergraduate), 17 Pages
Master's Thesis, 41 Pages
Diploma Thesis, 199 Pages
Master's Thesis, 91 Pages
Research Paper (undergraduate), 26 Pages
Research Paper (undergraduate), 60 Pages
Scientific Essay, 32 Pages
Elaboration, 31 Pages
Seminar Paper, 26 Pages
Essay, 23 Pages
Bachelor Thesis, 128 Pages
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 197 Pages
GRIN Publishing, located in Munich, Germany, has specialized since its foundation in 1998 in the publication of academic ebooks and books. The publishing website GRIN.com offer students, graduates and university professors the ideal platform for the presentation of scientific papers, such as research projects, theses, dissertations, and academic essays to a wide audience.
Free Publication of your term paper, essay, interpretation, bachelor's thesis, master's thesis, dissertation or textbook - upload now!