Master's Thesis, 2010, 159 Pages
Table 1 Mobile Telephony Penetration in Ghana-January 2009 to
December 2009----------------------------------------------------------------- 36
Table 3 India’s target in Internet and Broadband growth------------------- 72
Table 4 Action Plan for Ghana broadband strategy-------------------------- 97
Table 5 Proposed solution in the Ghana Broadband strategy for weaknesses of broadband development in Ghana---------------120
Table 7: Lessons from other Broadband strategies that may help in
(4) An Analysis of broadband policies that exist in some other countries and to identify what we can learn from those examples.
These critique exercise at the end of the day will help us identify the facilitation, regulation and market intervention measures available in the proposed broadband strategy aimed at broadband development in Ghana.
Various resources were employed in producing the report. They are: (1) Study research documents, articles, textbooks, journals, technical papers, etc from telecommunication vendors, equipment
manufacturers, mobile telecommunication operators, etc. (2) Interview with local telecommunications regulators
This report is motivated by our desire to see proposed policies designed for broadband solve the regulatory and market problems that exist or may arise in the process of developing broadband in Ghana.
It is the hope of the researchers that this academic analysis on the broadband strategy in Ghana be used as for the following purposes: (1) A reference and a guide for prospective students and stakeholders in the telecom sector who wish to pursue our findings do so for the betterment of the nation Ghana.
(2) As recommendations which will be considered as an input to the Ghana broadband strategy.
(3) As a guide to prospective investors in Ghana to see the state of broadband development in Ghana and how they can become a player without necessarily sinking in investment into choked areas of the broadband market.
1.7 Organization of the study
This study is organized into chapters.
Chapter One: This chapter is the introduction of the report. It provides a general background the existence of broadband in Ghana. It grants a general picture to the differences to the regulatory framework behind telecommunication and broadcasting in Ghana hence making an argument
(3) Pakistan still considers 128Kbps minimum data speed as broadband (Pakistan Broadband Policy, 2004).
(4) Australia Considers 256Kbps minimum data speed as broadband (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2007).
The International Telecommunication Union Standardization Sector (ITU-T) recommendation I.113 has defined broadband as a transmission capacity that is faster than primary rate ISDN between the ranges of 1.5 to 2 Mbit/s (ITU, 2003).
However, it is important to note that the Olesen’s range is not a standard rather it is an observation of the authors of this report.
In the review of literature the researchers will be looking at the relationship between market and policies. The theories postulated by some telecommunication regulation consultants in achieving Universal Access and Service will be discussed as well. In discussing the role of policy, the researchers will be focusing on regulations since policies regulate market. The researchers will also look at what constitutes the market. This will narrow the researchers’ policy review to that of telecommunications. This is because broadband facilitates telecommunications among others and broadband policies are aimed at achieving universal access documented in telecommunication policies. Morten Falch defines Universal Access as the provision of access to telecom services to everyone in the country (Morten Falch, Universal Service and digital divide, 2009, p.2).
2.2.1 What should be regulated?
Telecommunication policies contain regulatory framework aimed at guiding telecommunication resources meant for the public for the purpose of attaining universal access. The telecommunication services often regulated are identified by William H Melody, Mr M H Au (2004), The Telecom Authority of Turkey (2006) and Shirley Svorny (1999). William H Melody identifies radio spectrum, numbering and right of way as public resources among others that need to be regulated (William H Melody). Mr M H Au (2004) identifies interconnection, tariffs, fair competition, merger acquisition and licensing of mobile services as some of the sector specific regulated resources (Mr M H Au, 2004). The Telecom Authority of Turkey (2004), in addition to what Mr Melody and Mr Au have mentioned, identified universal services and Quality of Service as variables that have to be regulated in the delivery of a
This section looks at some theories in social science research methodologies and the instruments of research. It places the instruments used in this study in the appropriate academic context and justifies their application. It also provides summary results and outlines the limitations of the research activities.
In a developing country such as Ghana where, illiteracy is high, GDP is low (GDP growth is 5.5%), ICT infrastructure is still undeveloped resulting in the low use of ICT enabled facilities. The development and implementation of a national broadband strategy is a great opportunity to accelerate the country’s development agenda towards the attainment of a middle-income status.
The methodology used in gathering data depends to a large extent on the objectives of the research.
Research methodologies provide the various methods by which data can be collected. It also looks at the advantages and disadvantages of each of the various methods that can be employed.
Research methodologies can broadly or conventionally be grouped into three; quantitative method and qualitative method. Each of these approaches has different disciplinary origins, developed distinctive tools and has its own critique of the other approaches.
• Quantitative methods:
Quantitative methods attempts to reduce social phenomena to quantifiable data which can then be statistically analysed, focusing on the links and attributes across several cases (Wikipedia, Social Research). This method is one in which the investigator primarily uses post- positivist claims for developing knowledge (i.e. cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypotheses and questions, use of measurement and observation, and the test of theories) (Creswell, 2003, p.19). Examples of this method include; experimental designs; non-experimental designs such as surveys; predetermined instrument based questions; performance data, attitude data, observational data and census data; statistical analysis among many
This method differs from quantitative methods in its aim and, not primarily at precise measurement of pre-determined hypotheses, but holistic understanding of complex realities and processes where even the questions and hypotheses emerge cumulatively as the investigation progresses (Creswell, 2003, p.19).
It typically focuses on compiling a selection of micro level case studies, investigated using a combination of informal interviews, participant observation and more recently visual media like photography and video. Questions are often broad and open-ended, and are changed and developed over time to fill in a 'jigsaw' of differing accounts of 'reality' (Creswell, 2003, p.19).
Different sampling techniques/ methods are used and this includes, the different techniques used in sampling the documents to be reviewed and the selection of key informants.
Qualitative analysis and questioning assists us to investigate the relationship between cause and effect (causality) and their underlining factors (attribution) (Creswell, 2003, p.19). For large-scale qualitative data, performing such analysis is aided by computer programmes such as Atlas. ti, AnSWR, AccuLine etc.
However, choosing a particular method or a mix of it depends on factors such as, the researchers’ beliefs and values, research goals, researcher questions, researcher skills, time and fund.
To achieve the objectives of the study, the researchers employed some of the different forms of qualitative methods. Documentary and key informants’ interview was used and this is due to the following;
(1) Documentary reviews:
a. Provided useful means of evaluating the extent to which the
b. Provided useful means of analysing the 'official' view and accessing the 'official' record of events, decisions and plans. c. Provided a measure on the implementation of policy/ strategy and
(1) It took a lot of time to transcribe the interview (2) It required a good interviewing skills or experience. For example, good listening skills; body language that encouraged the interviewee to relax and talk; a capacity to ask questions, perhaps take notes and yet maintain eye contact; an ability to prompt people who were not very responsive; knowing just how long to allow silence to continue before intervening; an ability to probe sensitive areas and issues; being able to 'think on ones feet' and being flexible in questioning e.g. to recognise that a respondent had just answered about three of more of the questions in one response.
As stated above, several methodologies were employed. Documentary reviews of broadband policies and/ or strategies of some developed and developing countries were done. A comprehensive review of local literature (in line with the objectives outlined above) were done outlining/documenting the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of the broadband development in Ghana.
In addition, key informants interviews with semi-structured interviews/ questions (comprised of a set of open-ended questions with follow-up probes and prompts) were administered to some stakeholders of the Ghana broadband strategy. In some cases, a relatively unstructured interview (where a list of themes or topics or headings was adjusted to individual interviewee) was used. This became necessary because views of different stakeholders were sought after and there was the need to modify the questions to suite a particular stakeholder.
This implied that most of the data collected were qualitative in nature and based on the methods of data collection outlined below.
3.5.1 Documentary Reviews
Extensive documentary reviews of existing local and international literature and other relevant documents were done. This facilitated the capturing of information on the coverage, scope and limitations of broadband strategies for other countries. The reviews focused on both developing and developed countries and lessons were drawn from their respective broadband policies or strategies.
The selection of these countries whose policies/ strategies were reviewed and based on the following criteria;
SWOT Analysis of Broadband Development in Ghana.
SWOT is an acronym for Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunity and Threats. It is used as a tool for evaluation (Allan Hammershoj, 2009, P.9). It is also a part of the ‘Quick and dirty’ way of developing a scenario (Lene Sorenson, 2008, p.10). However, this chapter is an evaluation of the broadband development in Ghana using the Ghana broadband strategy. The question this chapter will answer is: What is the current strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of broadband development in Ghana? Before making this analysis, it is important to have an overview of broadband development, the broadband services available and the current level of telecommunication penetration in Ghana.
The level of penetration of telecommunication service in Ghana has been made possible by the technological advancement in that sector. These technological advancements have been made possible by some visible drivers namely:
(1) Infrastructure development
(2) The advent of Global System Mobile (GSM) (3) Market liberalization (4) Competition:
4.2.1 Infrastructure Development:
Back haul is delivered to the countries in three ways namely, internationally, nationally and last mile. Hence the relevant infrastructures are developed at these levels. In Ghana, the development and ownership of infrastructure at these different levels is either a partnership or a single effort investment. The most common partnership is between the government of Ghana and private companies. A single effort investment and ownership of infrastructure may come from the government or any player from the private sector.
In this segment, the infrastructural development at the different stages of back haul delivery in Ghana will be discussed.
had 8 000 946 subscribers. By January 2009, Zain had 463 824 subscribers and by December 2009, they had 1 293 238 subscribers (NCA, 2009).
There is a quest for broadband in Ghana and competition has enabled this push in technology. The push has resulted in cheaper access of telecom services and the introduction of value added services. It is important to note that MTN and ZAIN have only deployed their 3.5G networks at Accra and Kumasi. They are expanding.
At the moment, broadband is delivered by telecommunication operators and Internet Service Providers. They utilize different technologies in deploying broadband. This report will group the technologies and also list some technologies used by ISPs. The technologies fall under the mobile broadband and the fixed broadband service. The mobile telephone companies deliver broadband via their mobile networks. The end user can access the service either via their mobile telephones or their PCs or laptops using customized modems. The Fixed telephone operators deliver their broadband services via copper. The ISPs deliver their broadband either through a mobile telephone network if they are dependent on the mobile telephone company’s infrastructure. Or they can deliver their broadband internet service using Broadband Wireless Access networks of theirs. This section will focus on the mobile broadband technologies and the fixed broadband technologies. The technologies used by the ISPs will be mentioned briefly.
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