Contested Politics in Ethiopia, Post of 2018. Challenges and Prospects of the Ruling Party

Term Paper, 2021

25 Pages, Grade: 1


Table of content


Recent Free Space to Journalists and Researcher /Writers

Diverse and Complex Polity: Towards a Political-Economic Unity

Ruling Party: Challenges and Prospects Ahead



Preface: The theme of this paper is highlighting the political, economic, democratic, historical dilemmas and realities that occurred in the Ethiopian political system in 2018 through popular rebellion; futuristic hinders and chances of the ruling party to sustain its popularity and prosperity of the country. Talk of Ethiopia conjures a whole range of metaphors and contradictory perceptions and misconceptions. With the ascendance to power of Dr. Abiy Ahmed, as Prime Minister of Ethiopia on April 2, 2018, the strategic Horn of Africa country is back in the global limelight. The political excitement in Ethiopia has not yet died out even though there is guarded or cautious optimism. Part of the reason why there is such great excitement about both Ethiopia and current ruling party members is the manner in which the political transition took place. First, there were massive protests across the country that nearly tore the country apart. Second, Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn did the honorable thing and resigned amidst rising political tensions, supposedly to pave way for radical political reforms and to be part of such process. Analysts are still guessing what this process would be. What is well known is that the ruling Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)--a coalition of ethnically based parties—painstakingly held lengthy meetings and finally settled for Dr. Abiy as the chairperson of the ruling party and subsequently was endorsed as the Prime Minister of Ethiopia. The rest, as they say, is history.

While the current ruling party (PP) political honeymoon is still on, it is important to ponder and ruminate over the mythical and mysterious polity known as Ethiopia, which has puzzled scholars for centuries if not millennia. A lot has been written and will continue to be written about this fascinating African polity, popularly nicknamed the “Land of origins.” This is because of the archeological findings of the oldest hominid called “Lucy” or “Dinknesh” in Amharic. By this fact alone, Ethiopia is placed in an interesting historical epoch and stands in a class of its own in the entire world. Not to forget that Ethiopia also is very much talked about in the Biblical narratives right from the Old Testament (Cush in Genesis, Moses having married an Ethiopia in Exodus, the Queen of Sheba’s historical visit to Jerusalem to seek the wisdom of King Solomon, the Ethiopian Eunich of the Acts of the Apostles who was baptized by the Apostle Philip, after he had read from the book of prophet Isaiah).

I will use Pan-African and Afro-Politian conceptual and theoretical frameworks to shed some light on Dr. Abiy’s Ethiopia in the broader global political economy. It is important to state right away that Ethiopia remains an enigmatic polity that defies clear cut categorization and conceptualization. One of the main goals for this piece is to start what will be a long discourse about Ethiopia amidst the current political trajectory that Dr. Abiy has embarked on, as a dynamic, forwarding looking, Pan-African, peace and security analyst and young leader. This is an aspirational and prescriptive approach since it is too early to tell what Dr. Abiy’s political and economic performance will be in the years to come.

The continental context and mood is that of the much talked about Africa rising narrative, Agenda 2063, Sustainable Development Goals, demographic dividend, African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA), and the increasing attractiveness of Africa as a choice destination for foreign direct investment. Since Dr. Abiy’s Ethiopia is home to the AU, one cannot talk about the destiny and fortunes of one ignoring the other. Ethiopia is, in a way, the mirror of the entire African continent’s paradoxes and contradictions: (1) rich and complex cultural diversity; (2) simmering ethno-politics; (3) underdevelopment amidst enormous natural resources and financial illicit flows; (4) brain-drain amidst limited capacity; (5) nascent democratic and governance institutions; (6) tension between tradition and modernity; (7) centrifugal and centripetal political and economic forces; (8) tension between the sacred and the secular; (9) increasing gap between rich and poor; (10) Quest for home-grown solutions while heavily relying on foreign aid, foreign direct investment and imported goods and services. We can call these challenges as ten problems with African development. Fix them would brought new boom of prosperity light to all Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular.


A Paradoxical Mythical and Mystical Polity with Manifest Destiny in Global Affairs That Ethiopia still fascinates scholars, politicians and development agents, is not in dispute. But it also intrigues many in equal measure. It is a political enigma in the Horn of Africa, and no scholar has been able to fully grasp the territory that was once referred to as the “Land of Prester John.” Few countries on earth can claim to have a history that goes back to the mythical biblical times, share narratives with ancient Egypt, provide one source of the might Nile river (the other source being in Uganda), be home to ancient and medieval monasteries, host dozens of World UNESCO World Heritage sites, have the hottest area on earth, be home to all major world religions (Christianity, Judaism, and Islam), have its own alphabet, be home to over 80 ethnic communities each with a distinct language, and be both modern and ancient.

Psalm 68 states that, Ethiopia shall lift up its hands in prayer to God. This prophetic pronouncement that reappears in other forms in other Old Testament passages situates Ethiopia in the divine plan of God. And truly in Ethiopia hands are lifted up in prayer to God. Numerous Orthodox and other Christian churches decorate the entire expansive land of Ethiopia, followed by numerous Mosques. There are also animist religious traditions that are not usually spoken about. The most dramatic religious monuments are the rock hewn churches in Lalibela and the controversial belief that the Old Testament Ark of the Covenant is kept securely in Axum at the Church of Our Lady of Tsion. Millions of pilgrims and tourists have flocked to Axum and Lalibela to catch a glimpse of these amazing sacred spaces. The connection of Ethiopia to the Solomonic dynasty is narrated in the famous ancient book Kibre Negest1 or the Glory of the Kings, that claims that when the Queen of Sheba visited King Solomon,2 she conceived a son with King Solomon.3 This son, it is believed, was Menelik I. The veracity of these claims defies verification since historians have not reached consensus on what in fact was Ethiopia of that time, or even where Sheba was actually located. However, if you cannot prove something to be true, you also cannot categorically deny it to be true. Joseph Flavius, a famous Jewish historian also narrates the story of the Queen of Sheba whom he says was a queen both of Egypt and Ethiopia: “There was then a woman Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia; she was inquisitive into philosophy, and one that on other accounts also was to be admired.”4 Ethiopia will remain a land where myth, mystery and history meet, for centuries to come.

It is not only the Old Testament that speaks a lot about Ethiopia (regardless of how one defines Ethiopia of the Old Testament), even the New Testament has several references to it. Philip the Apostle met an Ethiopia treasurer of Queen Handace who was reading a book of Isaiah (Acts of the Apostles 8:26-39), and after explaining to him what he was reading without understanding, he baptized him. Tradition has it that it is this convert who brought Christianity to Ethiopia.5

A terrain where you have all major world religions converging, you will definitely have world civilizations converging, if not competing. So you will find Chinese, Indians, Americans, Europeans, and Africans, side by side on the wide and recently tiled streets of Addis Ababa. This is not Samuel Huntington’s “clash of civilizations” but the convergence of civilizations, for the moment. Chinese, Indian, Ethiopian, Turkish, French, Kenyan, and Italian restaurants are shoulder to shoulder in the streets of Addis Ababa. A stop at Edna Mall around Bole will bring you face to face with Hollywood Movies like Black Panther, and if you move a few meters away you will be at Yod Abyssinia watching traditional cultural music and dance from the various ethnic communities of Ethiopia. Food at Yod Abyssinia will be traditional Doro wat, Injera, Kitiffo, Tebs and traditional Gomen vegetable. While at Edna Mall the main food and drinks will be chicken, chips, pop corns and coke. A few meters away from Edna Mall you will find an imposing Orthodox Church. Tradition and modernity live side by side—malls as temples of global capitalism and churches or mosques as temples of global faiths.

And yes, even matters of health and wellness carry the consistent paradox. Spas with sauna and massage parlors for the affluent Afro-politans and expatriates provide stress relief, while ordinary pious Orthodox and other Christians immerse themselves in or sign themselves with holy water at the entrance of churches. Hot springs near Hilton and in Sodere in Nazareth, are choice destinations for those who seek wellness infused with divine aroma-aqua therapy. On the feast of Timqat or Epiphany (celebrated by millions of people from Ethiopia and abroad), the pious faithful are sprinkled with Holy water, while others immerse themselves in the pool of water in Gondar.

You may hold you own beliefs on the supernatural, but I do not see how such a country fully immersed and imbued with sacred and religious symbolism can decline in reverence and awe for the divine. Forget the once trending scholars’ secularization thesis that dominated Western academia. Even during the tense times of the mass protects, state of emergency that rocked the country since 2016, religion and divine invocation was a dominant theme. When there was some claim of a supernatural phenomenon in Bole Bulbula to the effect that Mary might (since the investigation is still going on) have appeared to a Salesian Polish Nun Alexandra, those who strongly believe in such supernatural phenomena were quick to link the phenomenon with divine intervention to save Ethiopia from a political cataclysm. And indeed hundreds of devout Christians (both Catholic and Orthodox) flocked to Bole Bulbula to see the alleged apparition but also to pray for peace in Ethiopia. The image of Our Lady that supposedly appeared on a piece of cloth has since gone viral. The cloth was taken to the Vatican for careful examination. This phenomenon, if it is validated, will also add to the global visibility of Ethiopia and contribute to the sacred global political economy of the Land of Prester John.

Recent Free Space to Journalists and Researcher /Writers

With the rise in mass protests across Ethiopia, that eventually gave rise to the shift in power dynamics, the EPRDF itself admitted that there were mistakes in governance and democratic participation. With this admission, the suggestion was that there should be more inclusive participation—widening the political space. Political prisoners were released and some of the most critical independent journalists who had been imprisoned such as Nega (on terrorism charges), were released. One famous political scientist turned politician Dr. Merera Gudina, who had been arrested after his trip from Europe, was also released from prison. In a situation where political and economic spaces are tightly controlled, do not expect free flow of ideas and knowledge guided by objective and rigorous research. Intellectual and academic freedom require political and economic freedom. The most obvious challenge that researchers face in a highly controlled state systems is the limited access to internet and current literature. Dr. Abiy being an intellectual and scholar in his own right, it is hoped that he will be more at home with press freedom and frank intellectual exchange. This will be another litmus test of his commitment to opening political space.

Scholarly interest in Ethiopia is not something new. Apart from Egypt, Ethiopia ranks no. 1 in terms of scholarship on ancient African societies. When scholars speak about African studies, they exclude Ethiopia and create a separate category of Ethiopian Studies, given the unique history and geographical location. The controversy and polemics on this categorization will not detain us. Philosophers and theologians have also tried to do scientific research on Ethiopian manuscripts hidden in ancient monasteries that date to the medieval period. Due to the fact that these manuscripts are written in an ancient language known as Ge’ez, it is exceedingly difficult to unravel the hidden mysteries in these manuscripts. Some scholars have even traced Ethiopian philosophy to the modern period of Rene Descartes. The much studied Ethiopian philosopher Zara Yacob occupies a special place in knowledge production. Surprisingly, it was a Canadian Jesuit philosopher Prof. Claude Sumner who popularized Ethiopian philosophy and wrote several volumes about it.6 He studied both Zara Yacob’s philosophy and also Oromo wisdom literature as expressed in proverbs and folk tales.7 The type of philosophy found in proverbs and folk tales is what some call ethno or sage philosophy. Another Jesuit researcher Van de Loo studied Guji customs and proverbs.8 A close look at these studies reveals how all the research so far done on Ethiopia is just a scratch on the surface. Ethiopia is not just layers of time but also layers of truth that one keeps unearthing with time. A question is usually posed: “how long does it take to understand Ethiopia for a research?” The answer goes like this: “One year to understand the language Amharic (and there are other over 80 languages); two years to understand the culture; three years to understand the economy; four years to understand politics; five years to understand religion; and eternity to understand the whole country and its people!” Then the conclusion is that it is only God who understands Ethiopia. This makes it exciting since there is always something hidden to learn.

As way back as the 17th Century a famous Jesuit by the name of Pedro Paez (1564-1622) dared to write a comprehensive history of Ethiopia in two massive volumes covering anthropology, botany, geography, religion, politics, culture and even theology. This history has been recently translated into English for the first time.9 With this scholarly publication, some of the myths and legends about Ethiopia have been laid to rest, and a foundation for further inquiry has been laid. The main reason why Ethiopia has been a great source of fascination among scholars and international relations experts is its strategic location close to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, and in a very strategic geopolitical location known as the Horn of Africa. As early as the 16th and 17th Centuries, European imperial powers, explorers and missionaries were busy figuring out the legend of priestly and royal King Prester John. The deeper motive for fascination with Prester John was the challenging advance and expansion of Islam in the backdrop of Christian crusades. Not surprisingly, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) got entangled in the dramatic quest of Prester John, and used this intriguing phenomenon to strategically explore possibilities of consolidating the Christian faith in Ethiopia. St. Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits took a personal interest in the question of Prester John, and dispatched some of his most talented Jesuits to Ethiopia in the 16th and 17th Century. By that time, Ethiopia had become a theatre of complex geopolitical rivalry and theological debates on the nature of Christ—whether he was both human and divine.

Jesuits who were working closely with the kings of the time, naturally found themselves in the middle of these protracted debates. Because of intimate interaction with the Ethiopian rulers and elites of the time, Jesuits contributed immensely to the intellectual and cultural production of medieval Ethiopia.10 The journeys of Jesuits in Ethiopia, especially Fathers Antonio Fernadez, Almeida, martyrdom of Fathers Francisco Machado and Bernado Pereira, their interaction with Kings of the time, are meticulously documented in Almeida’s History, Book,s VII-VIII.11

What is paradoxical about Ethiopia’s medieval era is the exposure to the then imperial powers of the time such as Portugal, Spain and the Papacy, and at the same time Ethiopia being sheltered from the rest of Africa. The well documented correspondences between Ethiopian Kings and Popes of the time suggest a great deal of interaction between Ethiopia and Europe. Some papal legates commonly known as Nuncios were being sent from the Vatican to Ethiopia. One wonders why the vibrant Christian faith that flourished in Ethiopia since the Acts of the Apostles did not spread to the rest of Sub-saharan Africa.

The challenge that all Christian missionaries who come to Ethiopia have to grapple with is what role they have to play in a country that has had a vibrant Christian life since the 4th Century when King Ezana officially declared Ethiopia a Christian country. Confronted by such a challenge, some expatriate missionaries settle for provision of social services and try to steer away from trying to make converts. But still this does not solve the issue since not all parts of Ethiopia have been evangelized. Quite a bit of studies have been made on missionary strategies in Ethiopia, with special focus on the role of Jesuits.12 Just to demonstrate how Ethiopia has been of great interest for the then Christendom of the 16th Century, St. Ignatius of Loyola wrote three documents between 1553 and 1556, instructing Jesuits on how to go about their missionary work in Ethiopia.13 In 1553, St. Ignatius wrote a letter to King King João III (1521–1557), that contains instructions on who among Jesuits should be sent for the mission in Ethiopi, and especially, who should be appointed the Patriarch, as well as succession procedure. This first document is called ‘ Information for His Highness on the people of our Company who seem to be suitable for the kingdoms of Prester John’.

The second document was written in 1554-- Instructions which may help to bring the kingdoms of Prester John into union with the Catholic faith and Church— following the decision to appoint João Nunes Barreto (1520–1568) to become Patriarch of Ethiopia. Given the complicated history and traditions of Ethiopia that outsiders could not easily understand, some of the instructions and recommendations in this document led to some serious misunderstandings between Jesuits and the Orthodox Christians of Ethiopia. The third and final document that was written in 1556-- Summary of things necessary for Ethiopia— was more of practical procedures for Jesuits who were sent to Emperor Galawdéwos' (1540–1559). St. Ignatius of Loyola who was a man of details and a strategist, spelt out how Jesuits were to relate with the local clergy and also how bishops were to be consecrated in Ethiopia.

Even though Ethiopia of the global middle ages is largely the Ethiopia of Kings and imperial European rivalry and missionary adventures, it is still being studied by historians up to today. Since most of the writings of this period were written in Latin, Portuguese, Italian and Spanish, the English speaking world looks at the recent English translations and works in English with a fresh look. Among the leading scholars of Ethiopian studies, Professor Richard Pankhurst occupies pride of place. He has written scholarly works on Ethiopia’s economic history, towns, medicine, education, slave trade, trade, and culture.14 Paul B. Henze took bold step to write Ethiopian history form the remote past to the modern time addressing issues such as:15 the rise and fall of Aksum, Zagwe and Solomonic dynasties, architecture, painting, handcrafts, and Ethiopia’s interaction with the Near East, Arabia, and the Indian Ocean. In all these interactions, what is commendable is Ethiopia’s resilience and keeping her culture and beliefs intact to a great extent. Matteo Salvadore, Assistant Professor of History at American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, recently published an excellent work that can be considered the best intellectual history of Ethiopia during the middle ages.16 Salvadore writing in 2017, digs deep into Italian and Portuguese sources to unravel Ethiopian and European relations between 1402 and 1555.17 A close look at both religious and political motives of the time, reveals how Europe influenced and was influenced by Ethiopia in equal measure. Sites of mutual influence were, royal palaces, monasteries, markets around the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Indian Ocean, Lisbon, Jerusalem, Venice and Goa. Important to recall that Portugal intervened in support of the Christian monarchy in the Ethiopian Adal War.

Of course it is a mistake to assume that European encounter with Ethiopia took place only in the Northern Highlands and around palaces of Kings, or that Ethiopia is one monolithic culture, as some people wrongly assume, far from it. A social and cultural historical analysis reveals the contrary. For instance from 1846 until 1880, Massaja, a Capuchin missionary served as Vicar Apostolic among the Oromo of East Africa for over three decades.18 It is during this period that the Italian interest in Ethiopia got consolidated. The issues that Cardinal Massaja struggled with such as Muslim-Christian relations and Orthodox-Catholic relations, are still of great concern in Ethiopia even today.19 In those days, prominent missionaries played both political and diplomatic roles. Another missionary who played a similar role in the Apostolic Vicariate of Abyssinia is Giustino de Jacobis.20 Bishop Daniel Comboni played a similar role in Sudan. On the role of priest in Ethiopia during between 1830 and 1868, Donald Crummey has done an impressive study, focusing on:21 political interaction; the central role of missionaries in the genesis of modern Afro-European relations; Ethiopian leaders dealings with representatives of a foreign society; missionary strategies; attitudes towards the Ethiopian Orthodox Church; and identification of Christianity with European culture.

In the 20th Century, scholars started to expand discourse on Ethiopia to include other ethnic communities in an attempt to comprehend the evolution of a complex multiethnic society and polity we call Ethiopia. A few illustrations will suffice. Budge E. A. W., explored the history of Ethiopia from Nubian and Abyssinian perspectives.22 Donald Levine, once a professor of sociology at the University of Chicago, tried to synthesize the Ethiopian multiethnic reality, by exploring the Semitic civilization, differentiation of peoples and cultures, Amhara, Oromo and Tigrean legacies, and emerged with Greater Ethiopia project.23 William A. Shack studied kinship, local organization, family, marriage, clanship and ritual, and religious organization of the Guraghe.24 Picking up from where William A. Shack stopped, Daniel Teferra took the study of the Guraghe a step further and developed what can be called an “indigenous African economic philosophy” by studying Guraghe entrepreneurship.25 Teferra’s conclusion is that a peaceful and cooperative work ethic that includes frugality. As a result they are one of the most enterprising people in Ethiopia. To paraphrase Max Weber, one can posit a thesis: Gurage ethic and the spirit of capitalism! If there is such a thing as Africapitalism (a fusion of African values of solidarity, hard work and sharing with capitalist spirit of competition, saving and free enterprise), then the Gurage would be its best manifestation.


1 See, Baye Felleke, Questions about the Kibre Negest.

2 This visit is recorded in 1Kings 10:1-1-13 and 2 Chronicles 9:1-12. Even Jesus quotes the visit in Mathew 12:42, Luke 11:31.

3 For a full narrative of this episode see Sir E. A. Wallis Budge (Trans.), The Queen of Sheba and He Only Son Menilik (Kebra Nagast), (Cambridge, Ontario: In Parenthesis Publications, 2000), pp. 21-40.

4 See, William Whiston (Translator), The Works of Josephus (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1988), p. 224.

5 Felleke, op. cit. p. 10.

6 For a scholarly discussion on Ethiopian Philosophy and its impact on African philosophy see, “The significance of Ethiopian philosophy for the problematic of an African philosophy” in Claude Sumner & Samuel Wolde Yohannes (eds.), Perspectives in African Philosophy: An Anthology on "Problematics of an African Philosophy: Twenty Years After, 1976-1996". Addis Ababa University 2002.

7 See Claude Sumner , African Philosophy (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1998); Claude Sumner, Living Springs of Wisdom and Philosophy Volume II The Ethiopian Sources of African Philosophy (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1999); Claude Sumner, Living Springs of Wisdom and Philosophy Volume I Problematics of an African Philosophy (Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University, 1999).

8 See Joseph Van De Loo, Guji Oromo Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Religious Capabilities in Rituals and Songs (Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlang, 1991).

9 For a detailed study of the political, social, cultural and economic life of Medieval Ethiopia and its interaction with European missionaries, See Isabel Boavida(Editor),Hervé Pennec(Editor),Manuel João Ramos(Editor) Pedro Páez's History of Ethiopia, 1622 , (Hakluyt Society, Third Series)1st Edition,Volume 1& II (London: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011).

10 For detailed study of the role of Jesuits in middle ages Ethiopia and their missionary strategies see, Festo Mkenda, S.J., Mission for Everyone: A Story of the Jesuits in Eastern Africa (1555-2012) (Nairobi: The Paulines Publications Africa, 2013); Philip Caraman, The Lost Empire: The Story of the Jesuits in Ethiopia 1555-1634 (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1985); Leonardo Cohen, The Missionary Strategies of the Jesuits in Ethiopia (1555-1632) (Wiesbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag, 2009); Ignacio Echaniz, S.J., Passion and Glory: A Flesh-and-bloos history of the Society of Jesus Volume II Summer 1581-1687 (Gujarat: Gujarat Sahitya Prakash, 1999).

11 See C. F. Beckingham and G. W. B. Huntingford, Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593-1646 (New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. xxxii-xlvii, 143-202.

12 For a detailed study of the work of Jesuits during the 16th and 17th Century, see William Young, ed., Letters of St. Ignatius of Loyola (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1959); Philip Caraman, The Lost Empire: The Story of the Jesuits in Ethiopia, 1555–1634 (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1985); LaVerle Bennette Berry, The Solomonic Monarchy at Gonder, 1630–1755 (Boston: Boston University, 1976); Donald Crummey, Land and Society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: From the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000); Donald Crummey, "Ethiopia in the Early Modern Period: Solomonic Monarchy and Christianity,"Journal of Early Modern History 8, no. 3/4 (December 1, 2004), 191–209; The best starting point for further research is Leonardo Cohen Shabot and Andreu Martinez d'Alos-Moner, "The Jesuit Mission in Ethiopia (16th–17th Centuries): An Analytical Bibliography,"Aethiopica 9 (2006), 190–212. Dauril Alden, The Making of an Enterprise: The Society of Jesus in Portugal, Its Empire, and Beyond, 1540–1750 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996); and Luke Clossey, Salvation and Globalization in the Early Jesuit Missions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008). Leonardo Cohen, The Missionary Strategies of the Jesuits in Ethiopia (1555–1632) (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2009).

13 For details on these documents see Camillo Beccari,Notizia e Saggi Di Opere e Documenti Inediti Riguardanti La Storia Di Etiopia Durante i Secoli XVI, XVII e XVIII(Roma: Casa Editrice Italiana, 1903), 229–231; and Pennec,Des Jésuites Au Royaume Du Prêtre Jean, Ethiopie: Stratégies, Rencontres et Tentatives D'implantation, 1495–1633, 58–71.

14 See, Richard Pankhurst, A Social History of Ethiopia: The Northern and Central Highland from Early Medieval Times to the Rise of Emporor Téwodros II (Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies, 1990);, Ethiopia a Cultural History (Woodford Green, 1955); ,Economic History of Ethiopia (1800-1935), Addis Ababa, 1968);, History of Ethiopian Towns from the Middle Ages to the Early Nineteenth Century (Wiesbaden, 1982).

15 Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa: Shama Books, 2004).

16 See Matteo Salvadore, The African Prester John and the Birth of Ethiopian-European Relations, 1402-1555 (Transculturalisms, 1400-1700)1st Edition

17 Matteo Salvadore, The African Prester John and the Birth of Ethiopian-European Relations, 1402-1555 (London; Routledge, 2017).

18 Mauro Forno, Cardinal Massaja and the Catholic Mission in Ethiopia (Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa, 2013), p. 7.

19 Ibid., pp. 13-14, 77-80, 82-180.

20 Ibid., p. 10.

21 See Donald Crummey, Priests and Politicians: Protestant and Catholic Missions in Orthodox Ethiopia 1830-1868 (London: Oxford University Press, 1972).

22 Budge, E. A. W., A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia, 2 Volumes (London: 1928). Several studies about the Oromo have been published: Asmarom Legesse, Oromo Democracy: An Indigenous African Political System (New Jersey: Red Sea Press, 2001); , Gada: Three Approaches to the Study of African Society (London: 1973); Deme Feyisa, “The Origin of the Oromo. A Reconsideration of the theory of the Cushitic roots,” in The Journal of Oromo Studies, vol. 5 No 1 and 2, July 1998; History of the Oromo to the Sixteenth Century (Oromo Culture and Tourism Bureau, 2006); Dirribi Demissie Bokku, Oromo Wisdom in Black Civilization (Addis Ababa: finfinne Printing & Publishing S. C., 2011).

23 See Donald N. Levine, Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of A Multiethnic Society (Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1974).

24 William A. Shack, The Gurage: A People of the Ensete Culture (London: Oxford University Press, 1966). See also Gabreyesus Hailemariam, The Guragué and Their Culture (New York: Vantage Press, 1991).

25 Daniel Teferra, Lessons of Peace and Development: Gurage Entrepreneurship in Ethiopia (UPA. 2008)

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Contested Politics in Ethiopia, Post of 2018. Challenges and Prospects of the Ruling Party
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Mengesha Robso (Author), 2021, Contested Politics in Ethiopia, Post of 2018. Challenges and Prospects of the Ruling Party, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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