Impact of Classroom Environment on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science


Bachelorarbeit, 2016

49 Seiten


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Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A

Questionnaire for Junior Secondary School Students

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study

“In today’s society, schools are being held accountable for every aspect of student achievement”. “Effective Classroom environment is playing a vital role in strengthening instructional process and makes it more productive, effective and successful”. “Without effective Classroom environment, teaching learning process has no fruitful results”(Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008).“Teachers vary in how they manage their classrooms but little is known regarding the relationship between Classroom environment styles and student outcomes”. “Classroom environment optimization is one strategy towards maximizing student achievement in Private Schools and Public Schools” (Brannon, 2010). “Classroom environment was brought into keen focus in the 1983 publication of A Nation at Risk”: “The Imperative For Educational Reform, published by the National Commission on Excellence in Education, which blamed poor Classroom environment to explain why some school students receive one-fifth of the reading comprehension instructional time of other students”(Kent & Chelladurai, 2001) .”The NCEE report went on to state that”, “The teacher preparation curriculum is weighted heavily with courses in "educational methods" at the expense of courses in subjects to be taught.” “In spite of all of this effort invested in pedagogy, surprisingly little is known regarding how instructional and behavioral Classroom environment styles might impact student outcomes”(Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011).

“Classroom environment is a critical part of effective instruction”. “Effective classroom management, which begins with efficient lesson planning preparation, helps teacher to teach and students to learn”(Brannon, 2010). “Students thrive in a positive class climate and an environment in which they feel safe, cared for and involved”. “From a student perspective, effective Classroom environment provides students with opportunities to socialize while learning interesting content”. “From a teacher perspective, effective classroom management involves preventive discipline and interesting instruction”(Suleman & Hussain, 2014). “Similarly, Classroom environment is important because it keeps students motivated to continue their work, provides appropriate instruction and feedback, and managing student work and it can keep disruptive behaviors down to a minimum”(Clunies‐Ross, Little, & Kienhuis, 2008). “The effective teacher is an extremely good classroom manager. Effective teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom”. “If students are disorderly and disrespectful, and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm”(Brady, 2004).

Well managed classrooms provide an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish”(Ahmad, 2010). “Many research studies have suggested that a conducive classroom environment promotes students’ academic achievement”. “Classroom environment strategies are a crucial part of teachers’ success in creating a safe and effective learning environment for students”. “ The purpose of education is to provide a safe and friendly environment in order for learning to take place”. “Therefore teachers should know how to use and apply strategies that will allow and also help students to learn”(Suleman, Hussain, & Akhtar, 2013).

1.2. Statement of Problem

The “Classroom environment” as a critical factor affecting students’ behavior and achievement; the amelioration of learning and behavioral disorders; and broad educational outcomes for students, such as high school completion and participation in postsecondary education careers”. “Both of these measuring tools for schools have placed an emphasis on teaching and learning”. “If a teacher does not possess strong Classroom environment skills, his/her teaching will not foster student achievement”(D. F. Brown, 2004).

“Some teachers may use Classroom environment strategies that have a positive impact on the behavior of students, but some methods may be harmful for the child and the classroom”(Dustova & Cotton, 2015). “However, little is known regarding how student outcomes might differ by teacher Classroom environment style”. “Therefore, what was needed is a study that contrasts teacher instructional and behavioral Classroom environment styles in the important outcomes of percent of students passing statewide standardized tests”(Briesch, Briesch, & Chafouleas, 2015).

Classroom environment had been a major problems in teaching of Basic Science in Zing Local Government Area more especially in Government Technical Training School Zing ( Elizer 2017). The Challenges are in form of in-conducive classroom for teaching both Practical and theory aspect. Therefore, the study aims to proffered a solution to the above problem associated with classroom environment.

1.3. Research Objectives

“The aim of this study is to analyse Impact of Classroom environment on student academic performance in Basic Science. ”In order to achieve said aims, Following objectives are designed:

- “To analyze the relationship between Classroom environment and students’ performance”;
- “To identify the impact of effective strategies that can be used in classroom to improve students’ performance”;
- “To study the Classroom environment problems that influences the student’s behavior and achievement.

1.4. Research Questions

RQ1.What is the relationship between Classroom environment and students performance?

RQ2.What is the effective strategies that is used in classroom to improve students’ performance?

RQ3. “How does Classroom environment problems, influence the students behavior and achievement?

1.5. Significance of the study

“ The purpose of this study is to gain awareness about the classroom environment strategies and about the performance of students“.“ The research will provide insight to determine the effectiveness of the strategies used in schools level“.“ This study will help the school environment in improving their Classroom environment Strategies which ultimately enhance the students’ behavior and increase the achievement level of the students as well. the study will be beneficial to the following individual and organization

1. Ministry of Education
2. State Government
3. Teachers
4. Students
5. And other stalk holders

1.6. Limitations of the study:

The purpose of this study is to check the “Impact of Classroom environment on student academic performance in Basic Science”. So, the main focus of this study was Classroom environment

This was not be able to bring light on some of the more hidden problems in teaching style, included factors such as Teachers’ role, the students’ eLearning, and socio-economic issue and socio-cultural issues as well. The study focuses mainly on classroom environment and students performance in Basic Science subject.

1.7. Delimitations of the study:

This study was delimited to the Junior Secondary school level because of the shortage of time, the Cost for the Transportation and limited resources.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

“Literature is basically published information related to specific topic, area, or subject. It can be said that literature reviews encompasses prior studies and their findings related to the independent variables that are used in this study with respect to their relationship with the dependent variable to measure the impact of Classroom environment skills on the student’s performance of Public Schools and Private Schools in Zing Local Government Area”. It is related to secondary work; therefore it does not provide any novel work. For this particular study, this chapter of literature review is meant to critically review the classroom strategies.

2.1WHAT IS CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT?

Definitions of Classroom environment vary, but usually include actions taken by the teacher to establish order, engage students, or elicit their cooperation. For example, the working definition used in a National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook on the topic (Duke, 1979) follows: “The provisions and procedures necessary to establish and maintain an environment in which instruction and learning can occur”. More recently, the conceptualization has been expanded by delineating both the complexity of the setting in which the strategies and procedures are enacted, as well as the scope of the teacher’s goals in carrying out environment behaviors. For example, Doyle (1986) summarized it as “The actions and strategies teachers use to solve the problem of other in classrooms” (p. 397). Building on Jackson’s (1968) analysis of classroom life, he noted that environment’s complexity results from several properties of classroom teaching, including multidimensionality (varied events and persons), simultaneity (many things happen at once), immediacy (the rapid pace of events limits reflection), unpredictability (of events and outcomes), publicness (events are often witnessed by many or all students), and history (actions and events have pasts and futures). Jones (1996) emphasized the comprehensive nature of Classroom environment by identifying five main features:

1. An understanding of current research and theory in Classroom environment and students’ psychological and learning needs.
2. The creation of positive teacher–student and peer relationships.
3. The use of instructional methods that facilitate optimal learning by responding to the academic needs of individual students and the classroom group.
4. The use of organizational and group environment methods that maximize on-task behavior.
5. The ability to use a range of counseling and behavioral methods to assist students who demonstrate persistent or serious behavior problems (p. 507).

Environment of any component in teaching learning system may have varied purposes, but there should be a single primary reason of doing so. That is enhancing the students’ learning. Thus, effective Classroom environment should also be initiated with a common purpose to enhance the level of learning among the students, at any level. Lakes and Smith (2002) have recognized the significance of effective Classroom environment as the first tool to improve learning effectiveness. These scholars have suggested that Classroom environment should be considered as an integrated function of characteristics development in teachers, behavioral environment across the school community, managing school environment for effective teaching-learning, organizing and managing resources for effective learning, and designing effective lessons for effective student learning whereby they could show up their optimal participation and process engagement.

Of course, Classroom environment stands for managing effective teaching learning. These scholars have claimed that effective Classroom environment has a noble reason of doing all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place by fostering student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities, and establishing a productive working environment.

Why is Classroom environment important?

Effective Classroom environment:

I. Establishes and sustains an orderly environment in the classroom.
II. Increases meaningful academic learning and facilitates social and emotional growth.
III. Decreases negative behaviors.

Although effective Classroom environment produces a variety of positive outcomes for students, according to a 2006 survey of pre-K through grade 12 teachers conducted by APA, teachers report a lack of support in implementing Classroom environment strategies. Chaotic classroom environments are a large issue for teachers and can contribute to high teacher stress and burnout rates. Therefore, it is important to use effective Classroom environment strategies at the universal level in a tiered model, as they serve as both prevention and intervention methods that promote positive outcomes for students.

2.2 Effective Classroom environment

Classroom environment systems are effective because they increase student success by creating an orderly learning environment that enhances students' academic skills and competencies, as well as their social and emotional development. Classroom environment systems are most effective when they adhere to three basic principles (Brophy, 2006, pp. 39-40):

1. Emphasize student expectations for behavior and learning.
2. Promote active learning and student involvement.
3. Identify important student behaviors for success. More specifically:
(i). What behaviors are required to reach the goals of learning activities?
(ii) What implications does a particular learning activity have for student roles?
(iii) How will the teacher prepare students to take on these roles?

2.3 Classroom environment and Collaborative Learning

It has been well said that we must show adequate love, care and compassion for our students, and in return, they will show it towards others. This is all about chain effect in collaborative learning and transformation system. More importantly, it is the core expected value of education today. For this, our classrooms must be appealing, inviting and luring enough to impart an effective collaborative learning exchange. The classroom’s physical as well as behavioral structural sets up and overall operating system applied will confirm the direction and intensity of each learner’s behavior. Effective Classroom environment is universally considered as one of the indicator for measuring the teacher effectiveness too. More importantly, it has been considered as an integral function of quality school environment which includes total participation, learner focused approaches of teaching learning, shared commitment, system standardization and measurement, and continuous improvement of everything that the school does (Rijal, 2011; Everston, & Neal, 2006).

From a more recent work of Emmer and Evertson (2012), the present scholar would like to deduct a procedural system of functions covering the entire job of Classroom environment as follows:

1. Organize the classroom materials
2. Make a choice over rules and procedures
3. Manage strategically and effectively the work of the students as a collaborative mission
4. Commence everything with a good start
5. Expose effectiveness in planning and executing lessons
6. Help students develop and manage cooperative learning groups within the class membership
7. Transform and maintain more conducive student behavior
8. Empower the entire teaching-learning community with effective communication skills
9. Manage effectively and timely the problematic behaviors as and when they appear to take place or even before
10. Manage with priority the special learner groups, who otherwise, may not learn effectively.

2.4 Smaller group instruction

Typically an additional 10-15 percent of students need more behavior support than is provided at the Universal level. Tier 2 support typically involves small group instruction.

2.4.1 Institute socio-emotional groups

Small group instruction can be established for students who need to focus on specific skills to improve and manage their classroom behavior. Topics for these groups may include:

a. Self-management
b. Anger management
c. Conflict resolution
d. Specialized social skill instruction
e. Mentoring programs

2.4.2 Institute daily check-in and check-out procedures:

Check-in and check-out procedures allow for monitoring of students' behavior as well as provide feedback for improvement. Criteria for monitoring are based on school behavior expectations.

2.4.3 Develop brief functional behavior assessments to determine the motivation behind student behaviors.

Consult with colleagues trained in functional behavior assessment to collect data on students' behavior and offer analyses of potential interventions that are most appropriate and effective for specific needs.

2.4.4 Involve families in supporting children in group interventions

Inform families of problem-solving plans at school and engage in consistent communication to ensure effectiveness of plans.

2.5 Individual intervention

An additional 5-7 percent of students may need continued support beyond Tier 2 interventions. These students typically benefit from individualized, intensive interventions.

1. A problem-solving team in the school can offer support to the teacher

Problem-solving teams composed of teachers, school psychologists, principals and special educators should meet regularly to collaborate on appropriate interventions for students needing increased support.

2. Develop and implement function-based interventions for individual students

Functional behavior assessments are effective means of determining the purpose of student misbehavior and creating appropriate interventions (Scott et al., 2005).

Social and emotional learning (SEL) is affiliated with the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) (Weissberg, Kumper, & Seligman, 2003). SEL programs provide instruction at the universal level and are designed to teach social and emotional competencies to students to enhance their success in school and in life (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnikci, Taylor, &Schellinger, 2011). According to CASEL, effective SEL instruction includes opportunities to practice skills, coordination with school and community environments, systematic and sequential programming throughout grade levels, and continuous monitoring of programming.

2.6 Student-centered classrooms and collaborative learning to enhance quality education

Evertson and Neal (2014) have worked on learning-centered classrooms and figured out a number of implications for Classroom environment in a more recent working paper and have revealed the changing roles of educational practices and policies to revamp the classrooms and schools to close the achievement gaps and promote excellence in learning for all students. These scholars have attempted to examine the best practices that shift Classroom environment emphases from controlling student behavior to creating learner-centered classrooms to foster the students’ engagement, autonomy, and sense of being in an intact community by giving them progressively more responsibility, under the teacher’s careful guidance. These scholars have further claimed such practices as part of school’s instructional strategies aimed at helping students achieve high academic, moral, and social goals. Further, Candler (2014) has stated that before involving the students in cooperative learning activities or other active engagement lessons, it requires to establish clear procedures for whole class environment and where effective management strategies are in place, both teachers and students can relax and enjoy the learning environment. In this discourse, Laura (2014) emphasizes on establishing procedures as the means of good Classroom environment through effective cooperative learning. This scholar has stressed that the schools and teachers need to have clearly defined set of procedures so that the children know the shared expectations and perform accordingly. Similarly, Candler (2014) added implementation of a full-proof quiet signal as another strategy in Classroom environment to actively involve the students in the process of instruction. This scholar has identified a number of signaling strategies that include hand signal, bell signal, clicker, or even a rain-stick – all the means for getting the students’ attention within very short span of time, say, in 3 to 5 seconds. Such signals should be something that can be used over and over without annoying the teacher as well as students. According to this scholar, all such signals must sound and seem quiet and favorite as well as perceived to be right for their use. They should sound pleasant but should easily be audible for all students. Another equally effective strategy to be used in Classroom environment is to create sound classroom rules that rationally govern the behavior of the students and teachers. For instance, Candler (2014) has stressed the need for creating classroom rules to effectively and actively involve the entire class in establishing such rules for confirming a greater extent of students’ ownership and shared commitment while implementing such rules in action. The present author has observed a great deal of success in Edify International School in Kathmandu where the teachers allow the children to develop their class rules by themselves. The students are found to be quite enthusiastic in implementing and monitoring the effective implementation of such rules. In fact, a collaborative approach allows the students come forward with their creative ideas in managing their classrooms in a better way (Rijal, 2010).

According to this scholar, limited exchange of information and explanation are adequate for routine learning in collaborative seatwork, whereas more open exchange and elaborated discussion are necessary for conceptual learning with group tasks and ill-structured problems. “Moreover, task instructions, student preparation, and the nature of the teacher role that are eminently suitable for supporting interaction in more routine learning tasks may result in unduly constraining the discussion in less structured tasks where the objective is conceptual learning”, suggested Cohen (1986) with a claim that it is necessary to treat problems of status within small groups engaged in group tasks with ill-structured problems whereby the students are communicated with corresponding rewards that they are likely to get after each attainment, to guarantee better collaboration and higher performance.

2.7 Sensitivity of Culture in Classroom environment

Weinstein, Clarke, and Curran (2013), on their work entitled, ‘toward a conception of culturally responsive Classroom environment, have stressed on the issues related to socio-ethical and cultural aspects linked with Classroom environment. These scholars have pointed that given the increasing diversity of the classrooms; a lack of multicultural competence can exacerbate the difficulties that novice teachers have with Classroom environment.

According to these scholars, the definitions and expectations of appropriate behavior are often culturally influenced, and conflicts are likely to occur when teachers and students come from different cultural backgrounds. Further, these scholars have provided with a conception in this regard with five essential components –

1. Recognition of one’s own ethnocentrism,
2. Having adequate knowledge of students’ cultural backgrounds,
3. Understanding of the broader social, economic, and political context around the school community,
4. Capacitating the teachers with ability and willingness to use culturally appropriate environment strategies,
5. Promoting a shared commitment to building caring classrooms

2.8 Classroom environment and students’ behavior

Classroom environment is a term teachers use to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly without disruptive behavior from students compromising the delivery of instruction.

It is a difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers. A problem in this area causes some to leave teaching. In 1981 the US National Educational Association reported that 36% of teachers said they would probably not go into teaching if they had to decide again. A major reason was negative student attitudes and discipline (Wolfgang, Charles H; Glickman, Carl D 1986).

Classroom environment is crucial because it supports the proper execution of curriculum development, developing best teaching practices, and putting them into action. Classroom environment can be explained as the actions and directions that teachers use to create a successful learning environment; indeed, having a positive impact on students achieving given learning requirements and goals (Soheili, Alizadeh, Murphy, Bajestani, Ferguson and Dreikurs). In an effort to ensure all students receive the best education it would seem beneficial for educator programs to spend more time and effort in ensuring educators and instructors are well versed in Classroom environment.

Teachers do not focus on learning Classroom environment, because higher education programs do not put an emphasis on the teacher attaining Classroom environment; indeed, the focus is on creating a conducive learning atmosphere for the student (Eisenman, Edwards, and Cushman). These tools enable teachers to have the resources available to properly and successfully educate upcoming generations, and ensure future successes as a nation. According to Moskowitz & Hayman (1976), once a teacher loses control of their classroom, it becomes increasingly more difficult for them to regain that control.

Also, research from Berliner (1988) and Brophy & Good (1986) shows that the time a teacher must take to correct misbehavior caused by poor Classroom environment skills results in a lower rate of academic engagement in the classroom. From the student's perspective, effective Classroom environment involves clear communication of behavioral and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning environment (Allen, J.D. (1986). Some of these behaviour can be corrected by the following methods.

1). Corporal punishment

Until recently, corporal punishment was widely used as a means of controlling disruptive behavior but it is now illegal in most schools. It is still advocated in some contexts by religious leaders such as James Dobson, but his views "diverge sharply from those recommended by contemporary mainstream experts" and are not based on empirical testing, but rather are a reflection of his faith-based beliefs ( Bartkowski, John P.; Ellison, Christopher G. 1995).

According to studies taboo physical punishments like spanking or procedures used in Asia in the classroom such as standing do not make students or children more aggressive. Consistency seems to play a greater role on whether outcomes could be negative.

Corporal punishment is now banned in most schools in the United States, and most developed countries. Although it effectiveness was never proven, the punishment was very disproportionately met. African American and male where the most punished groups. In a study conducted in 2006, 17.1 percent of students who experienced. Corporal punishment where African Americans, and 78.3 percent of total students were males ("Corporal Punishment Persists in U.S. Schools").

2). Good teacher-student relationships

Some characteristics of having good teacher-student relationships in the classroom involve the appropriate levels of dominance, cooperation, and awareness of high-needs students. Dominance is defined as the teacher's ability to give clear purpose and guidance concerning student behavior and their academics. By creating and giving clear expectations and consequences for student behavior, this builds effective relationships. Such expectations may cover classroom etiquette and behavior, group work, seating arrangements, the use of equipment and materials, and also classroom disruptions. Assertive teacher behavior also reassures that thoughts and messages are being passed on to the student in an effective way. Assertive behavior can be achieved by using erect posture, appropriate tone of voice depending on the current situation, and taking care not to ignore inappropriate behavior by taking action (Marzano, Robert J. September 2003).

3). Preventive techniques

Preventive approaches to Classroom environment involve creating a positive classroom community with mutual respect between teacher and student. Teachers using the preventive approach offer warmth, acceptance, and support unconditionally – not based on a student's behavior. Fair rules and consequences are established and students are given frequent and consistent feedback regarding their behavior. Bear, G.G. (2008) described that one way to establish this kind of classroom environment is through the development and use of a classroom contract. The contract should be created by both students and the teacher. In the contract, students and teachers decide and agree on how to treat one another in the classroom. The group also decides on and agrees to what the group will do if someone violates the contract. The group should also decide how to fix the problem through either class discussion, peer mediation, counseling, or by one on one conversations leading to a solution to the situation.

Preventive techniques also involve the strategic use of praise and rewards to inform students about their behavior rather than as a means of controlling student behavior. To use rewards to inform students about their behavior, teachers must emphasize the value of the behavior that is rewarded and also explain to students the specific skills they demonstrated to earn the reward. Teachers should also encourage student collaboration in selecting rewards and defining appropriate behaviors that earn rewards (Bear, G.G., Cavalier, A., & Manning, M. 2005).

4). Rote discipline

Also known as "lines", rote discipline is a negative sanction used for behavior environment. It involves assigning a disorderly student sentences or the classroom rules to write repeatedly. Among the many types of Classroom environment approaches, it is very commonly used.

5). Assertive discipline

Lee canter (2010) asserted that Assertive discipline is an approach designed to assist educators in running a teacher-in-charge classroom environment. Assertive teachers react to situations that require the environment of student behavior confidently. Assertive teachers do not use an abrasive, sarcastic, or hostile tone when disciplining students.

Assertive discipline is one of the most widely used Classroom environment tactics in the world. It demands student compliance and requires teachers to be firm. This method draws a clear line between aggressive discipline and assertive discipline (www.behavioradvisor.com). The standards and rules set in place by assertive discipline are supported by positive reinforcement as well as negative consequences. Teachers using this approach carry themselves confidently and have no tolerance for class disruption. They are not timid, and remain consistent and just (Helman, Daniel, 2017).

6). Constructivist discipline

A constructivist, student-centered approach to Classroom environment is based on the assignment of tasks in response to student disruption that are "(1) easy for the student to perform, (2) developmentally enriching, (3) progressive, so a teacher can up the ante if needed, (4) based on students' interests, (5) designed to allow the teacher to stay in charge, and (6) foster creativity and play in the classroom. Compliance rests on assigning disciplinary tasks that the student will want to do, in concert with the teacher rapidly assigning more of the task if the student does not initially comply. Once the student complies, the role of the teacher as the person in charge (i.e. in loco parentis) has been re-established peacefully, creatively, and with respect for students' needs. Claimed benefits include increased student trust and long-term emotional benefits from the modeling of creative solutions to difficulties without resorting to a threat of violence or force (Culturally Responsive Classroom environment Strategies, March 2015).

7). culturally responsive Classroom environment

Culturally responsive Classroom environment (CRCM) is an approach to running classrooms with all children [not simply for racial/ethnic minority children] in a culturally responsive way. More than a set of strategies or practices, CRCM is a pedagogical approach that guides the environment decisions that teachers make. It is a natural extension of culturally responsive teaching, which uses students' backgrounds, rendering of social experiences, prior knowledge, and learning styles in daily lessons. Teachers, as culturally responsive classroom managers, recognize their biases and values and reflect on how these influence their expectations for behavior and their interactions with students as well as what learning looks like. There is extensive research on traditional Classroom environment and a myriad of resources available on how to deal with behavior issues. Conversely, there is little research on CRCM, despite the fact that teachers who lack cultural competence often experience problems in this area (Marshall, Marvin, 2001).

8). Discipline without Stress, Punishments or Rewards

Discipline without Stress (or DWS) is a K-12 discipline and learning approach developed by Marvin Marshall described in his 2001 book, Discipline without Stress, Punishments or Rewards. The approach is designed to educate young people about the value of internal motivation. The intention is to prompt and develop within youth a desire to become responsible and self-disciplined and to put forth effort to learn. The most significant characteristics of DWS are that it is totally non coercive (but not permissive) and takes the opposite approach to Skinnerian behaviorism that relies on external sources for reinforcement (It has been discussed in Educational Leadership: Building Classroom Relationships).

9). Provide flexible learning goals

Instructors can demonstrate a suitable level of strength by giving clear learning objectives, they can also pass on fitting levels of participation by giving learning objectives that can be changed based on the classes needs. Allowing students to participate in their own learning goals and outcomes at the start of a unit brings a sense of cooperation and mutual understanding between the instructor and student. One way of involving the students and in turn making them feel heard in the decision making of the class is by asking what topics they would find most intriguing in learning based on a guided rubric. This approach will engage and send a message to the students that the teacher is interested in the student's interests. The student in turn will bring greater learning outcomes as well as a mutual respect (Responding to rule violations)

10). The Good Behavior Game

The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a "classroom-level approach to behavior environment" Tingstrom, D.H., Sterling-Turner, H.E., Wilczynski, S.M. (2006)

Suggested that was originally used in 1969 by Barrish, Saunders, and Wolf. The Game entails the class earning access to a reward or losing a reward, given that all members of the class engage in some type of behavior (or did not exceed a certain amount of undesired behavior). The GBG can be used to increase desired behaviors (e.g., question asking) or to decrease undesired behaviors (e.g., out of seat behavior). The GBG has been used with preschoolers as well as adolescents, however most applications have been used with typically developing students (i.e., those without developmental disabilities). In addition, the Game "is usually popular with and acceptable to students and teachers (Ref: Feeling Good about Themselves)

11). Positive classrooms

Robert DiGiulio has developed what he calls "positive classrooms". DiGiulio sees positive Classroom environment as the result of four factors: how teachers regard their students (spiritual dimension), how they set up the classroom environment (physical dimension), how skillfully they teach content (instructional dimension), and how well they address student behavior (managerial dimension). In positive classrooms student participation and collaboration are encouraged in a safe environment that has been created. A positive classroom environment can be encouraged by being consistent with expectations, using students' names, providing choices when possible, and having an overall trust in students. So As educators, we have daily opportunities to help students grow confidence and feel good about themselves. Despite all the negativity that may be around them within their households. Through such actions as boosting their self-esteem through praise, helping them work through any feelings of alienation, depression, and anger, and helping them realize and honor their intrinsic worth as human beings. May result in better behavior in the long line jeopardy of the students (Lucero, Rodrick 2016 & Carolyn M. Evertson ; Carol S.2006).

2.9 “Approaches to Classroom environment

“Approaches to Classroom environment may be classified by the degree of teacher intervention and control that each approach requires.

“The following represents continuum strategies

1. Intimidation approach”

“Intimidation attempts to control students’ behavior through strategies that create fear”. “These strategies include threats, sarcasm, ridicule, disapproval, psychological coercion, and physical force”(Suleman & Hussain, 2014). “This approach also views Classroom environment as the process of controlling student behavior”. “The role of the teacher is to compel the student to behave as the teacher wishes out of a fear to do otherwise”.

2. Authoritarianism:

“Authoritarianism sets and enforces rules in a dictatorial way, using obtrusive discipline as necessary”. “Authoritarian teachers seek to control students behavior by issuing commands, orders ,and directives supplemented by careful monitoring”(Suleman & Hussain, 2013). “The desks are usually in straight rows and there are no deviations””. “Students must be in their seats at the beginning of class and they frequently remain there throughout the period”. “This teacher rarely gives hall passes or recognizes excused absences”.

3. Behavior modification approach”

“Behavior modification approach views Classroom environment as the process of modifying student behavior”. “The role of the teacher is to foster desirable student behavior and to eliminate undesirable behavior”(Asad & Hassan, 2013). “Likewise, a behavioral approach to Classroom environment focuses on establishing clear expectation for appropriate behavior, monitoring behavior, and redirecting inappropriate behavior”. “It is especially important to create the desirable classroom climate”.

4. Instructional approach:

“Instructional strategies are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners”. “These strategies become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals”. “Instructional strategies can motivate students and help them focus attention, organize information for understanding, remembering and monitor and assess learning”. “The instructional approach to Classroom environment-is based on the premise that carefully planned and executed instruction will prevent most student behavior problems and will solve those it does not prevent”. “This approach advocates the use of instructional teacher behaviors to prevent or to stop inappropriate student behaviors”(Ami, Majid, & Yasin, 2016). “Effective instructional and learning strategies can be used across grade levels and subject areas, and can accommodate a range of student differences”.

5. Group process approach”

Classrooms are social settings; teaching and learning occur through social interaction between teachers and students”. “As teaching and learning take place, they are complicated processes and are affected by peer-group relationships”(YÜKSEL-ŞAHİN & TABANCALI, 2016). “The interactions and relationships between teachers and students, and among students, as they work side by side, constitute the group processes of the classroom”. “Group processes are especially significant in twenty-first century schools”. “Group projects and cooperative teamwork are the foundations of effective teaching, creative curriculum, and positive classroom climate”. “Interpersonal skills, group work, and empathy are important ingredients of modern business, where employees must communicate well for their business to be productive and profitable”(Fanmei, 2015).

6. Permissiveness”

“This strategy sometimes called democratic strategy, which allows the students to guide what and how they are learning”. “Permissiveness is the extreme opposite of intimidation”. “The Permissive teacher promotes maximum student freedom in order to foster natural development of each individual’s full potential”(Rogers, 2015). “In short, the major theme of the Permissive Classroom environment approach is that the teacher should allow students to do what they want whenever and whenever they want”.

2.10 Classroom environment Strategies”

“Classroom environment refers to the strategies that teachers use to create a safe, orderly and conducive learning environment in the classroom”(Akalin & Sucuoglu, 2015). “Classroom environment is the actions and strategies teachers use to solve the problem of order in classrooms”. “Effective teachers also use rules, procedures, and routines to ensure that students are actively involved in learning”. “In essence, they use environment not to control student behavior, but to influence and direct it in a constructive manner to set the stage for instruction”. “Furthermore, the term classroom environment refers to the procedures, strategies, and instructional techniques teachers use to manage student behavior and learning activities”(Hinckson et al., 2016).

“There are many Classroom environment strategies to effective Classroom environment. “Some of these strategies are used both in Public and Private schools. “The important Classroom environment strategies are following.

3 Organization:

“Organization is one of the most important component in Classroom environment”. “It is also the one component hard to do as a first year teacher”. “ OrganiZing Local Government Area is the toughest battle in the classroom because teacher needs to be organized with many tasks in and out of classes”. “Furthermore, Classroom organization affects the physical elements of the classroom, making it a mo“re productive environment for its users”. “They strategically place furniture, learning centers, and materials in order to optimize student learning and reduce distractions” (www.schools.fesd.org). “Organization focuses on the physical environment. Effective teachers organize a safe classroom environment”. “They strategically place furniture, learning centers, and materials in order to optimize student learning and reduce distractions”.

“The following is a collection of ideas to help with this type of organization”

4 Seating Arrangements”

- “Zing Local Government Area material (www.para.unl.edu)”
- “Managing the Physical Environment (www.sasked.gov.sk) ”
- “Bulletin board”
- “Organization and care of instruction equipment”
- “Classroom rules, routines and procedure”

5 Communication”

“People interact through communication”. “Teaching and Classroom environment take place by means of communication”. “Communication is a means by which the varying needs, feelings and attitudes of teachers and learners are conveyed to each other in order to establish cooperation and achieve the learning outcomes”. “If communication is not effective, the objectives of education cannot be attained”. “ Therefore, the classroom manager must know exactly what good communication is and what the principles and conditions for effective communication are, and which factors might impede these”. “Successful communication happens when the message is understood correctly by the receiver and the feedback given to the sender is acceptable”(Bradshaw, Pas, Debnam, Bottiani, & Rosenberg, 2018).

“ They can be broken into two categories: Sending Skills and Receiving Skills”.

(a) Sending skills
- Deal is present. “Information is most useful when used at earliest opportunity”.
- “Talk directly to students, not about them”.
- Speak politely. “This helps create positive role models in the eyes of the students”.
- “Make statements rather than asking questions”.

(b) Receiving skill
- “Receiving skills is essential for effective instruction”.
- “Forceful listening should be used to help the speaker feel their comments expressed are acceptable and clearly heard”.
- “Use paraphrasing, active listening or reflecting to make the speaker feel heard”.
- “Make eye contact”.
- “Suggest strong leadership skills through body carriage, facial expressions & gestures”.

6 Monitoring:

“Monitoring is a Classroom environment technique loosely defined as listening to the learners for their accuracy and fluency, or checking to see whether activities are going to plan and that the learners are 'on task'”. “However, monitoring is often carried out as a vague listening and looking exercise by the teacher, and sometimes not done at all, whereas in fact effective monitoring is a skill that needs to be developed if learners are to benefit fully from activities, particularly those of the information gap and group interactive types”(Oliver, Wehby, & Nelson, 2015). “Monitoring is an activity that involves continuous and systematic checking or observing of programme and project implementation to ensure that it is going to plan”. “Good monitoring of the classroom is essential as many students find 'acting out' more involved in the activity, don't understand the task, or cannot get help when needed”(Burden, 2016). “

7 “Lesson strategies and lesson delivery”

“Lesson planning helps teachers deliver lessons that are effective and focused”. “A well-planned lesson is also more engaging, stimulating, and interesting for your students”. “They will enjoy the lesson more and educational outcomes will be improved when lessons are well-structured”. “Lesson planning can also help teachers gradually improve the effectiveness of each lesson and avoid past mistakes”. “Here are some simple tips that will help you perfect your lesson planning”(Whitton, Barker, Nosworthy, Humphries, & Sinclair, 2016). “Good lesson planning is essential to the process of teaching and learning”. “The development of interesting lessons takes a great deal of time and effort”. “It is also important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interesting delivery procedures, along with good Classroom environment techniques, are not in evidence”(Tomlinson, 2014). “It includes lesson preparation, lesson structure, lesson delivery and delivery strategies”.

8 Questioning:

“In order to engage all learners in the classroom, ensuring everyone has the opportunity to participate in discussions and do the important thinking when a question is posed, teachers use a variety of questioning strategies”. “In addition, teachers strategically vary the types of questions they ask to generate meaningful dialog that supports the development of high-order thinking skills”.“Questioning is one of the most important devices of teaching. “It is said that that the success and efficiency of teaching depends more on skill and judgment with which we put questions than any other single circumstance”. “In fact, questioning is for the child a natural and enjoyable means of intellectual and social growth”(Temple, Ogle, Crawford, & Freppon, 2018). “Some researchers have simplified classification of questions into lower and higher cognitive questions”. “Lower cognitive questions (fact, closed, direct, recall, and knowledge questions) involve the recall of information”. “Higher cognitive questions (open-ended, interpretive, evaluative, inquiry, inferential, and synthesis questions) involve the mental manipulation of information to produce or support an answer”.

2.11 Review of Related Literature

In any classroom irrespective of grade-level, the potential for conflict is inescapable. It is the responsibilities of the teacher to handle such conflicts. Wong, Wong, Rogers and Brooks (2012) explain three elements for an effective teacher. In addition to teaching for lesson mastery and practicing positive expectations, Classroom environment makes real teacher. For that reason, a teacher cannot be effective without the capability to handle with behavioral issues. In the absence of Classroom environment skills, the efficiency of excellence instruction is compromised as well leading to poor outcome based learning.

Through the 20th century, it was revealed that not all Classroom environment approaches worked for all students. Classroom environment consisted of a teacher having “wittiness”, comprising effective transitioning and challenging lessons. Research shows that during this time, effective environment strategies were linked to student behavior and academic achievement (Roskos& Neumann, 2012). Classroom environment in the 21st century has totally changed along with society. Physical punishment and shouting are Classroom environment approaches of the history. Nowadays teachers need to be proficient and caring. The schedules of the classroom need to be set with include student input. Positive relation between teacher and student is need of the hour (Marzano, Marzano& Pickering, 2003). Many theorists have presented their ideas as to what they think works when it comes to Classroom environment. The major ideas adjoining Classroom environment consisted of student engagement, responsibility of students, and student/teacher collaboration.

Conferring to Jacob Kounin (1970), a teacher needs to have “withitness” (pg. 64). Withitness means that a teacher is aware of what is going on in the classroom atmosphere. Withitness can be achieved through repetitive eye contact with students. (Kounin, 1970). Student engagement was also addressed by Jones, Jones and Jones (2000). They noted that approximately 50 percent of the time wasted in classrooms is due to disturbing behaviors due to poor Classroom environment. Those disruptive behaviors include students being out of their seats, conversation, goofing off, inattentive, and making random noise. Though these behaviors may not seem significant, it is these types of behaviors that disrupt teaching and learning.

In order for students to have educational success, teachers must first create an optimal learning environment. The term optimal learning environment centers on the way in which teacher’s set-up their classrooms with regard to physical space, academic prospect, social interactions and growth. When arguing effective Classroom environment techniques exposed by researchers, it is important to be aware of how scholars define effective Classroom environment. Researchers usually use two components to conclude if a Classroom environment approach is fruitful. The first is a lack of unsuitable behavior. The other element is whether or not students are on-task such outcome based learning (Babkie, 2006; Kounin, 1970; Rischer, 2008; Smart &Igo, 2010).

Kane, Taylor, Tyler and Wooten (2011) discuss that student behavior is impacted by teachers’ practices. A teacher’s efficiency is directly related to the academic achievement of his or her students. Teachers are the key central factor in student grooming (Ferguson, 1991; Kane, Taylor, Tyler, & Wooten, 2011). Many aspects can affect a teacher to be believed useless. One side is a teacher’s capability to effectively cope the environment in the classroom. If a teacher is ineffective the impact can affect a student’s behavior and academic career for long time. (Ferguson, 1991).

2.12 Summary

“Various studies have been analyzed critically after which it is concluded that (Abata, 2014; Barnor & Odonkor, 2012; Olweny & Shipho, 2011; Sufian & Chong, 2008) Classroom environment strategies have greater impact on Private School and Public School”. “This study intended to set aside the previous researches and included various Classroom strategies impact on students achievement of public and private schools in Zing Local Government Area”.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

In methodology sections the researcher emphases on instrument and procedures of data collection, how to analyzed and measured it. This chapter also describes in detail about the research philosophy, approach, methodology, research design, time horizon, target population of the study, sampling frame and techniques, data collection procedures, measures and ethical consideration.

3.1Research design:

It is descriptive and survey research about the impact of Classroom environment strategies on the students’ behavior. Descriptive research is “aimed at casting light on current issues or problems through a process of data collection that enables them to describe the situation more completely than was possible without employing this method.”

3.2 Population:

A population is otherwise called an all-around characterized gathering of people or questions known to have comparative attributes. All people or protests inside a specific population typically have a typical, restricting trademark or characteristic. The target population of this study was the students of public schools Sialkot Zing Local Government Area. The data was collected from student’s in public schools of by filling up the questionnaire. The targeted population is about 400.

3.3 Sample and sampling techniques:

In research a sample is a gathering of individuals, articles, or things that are taken from a bigger population for estimation. The example ought to be illustrative of the population to guarantee that we can sum up the discoveries from the exploration test to the population all in all. 50 students were selected from government schools and (5 students from each school). So, total sample size was 150 respondents.

3.4 Data collection procedure

Data was collected through questionnaires. Open ended and closed ended questions were used for the purpose of data collection. In closed ended questionnaires 5 Likert point scale questions were developed in the form of strongly agreed (SA=5), Agree (A=4), Undecided (UD=3), Disagree (DA=2) and strongly Disagree (DA=1).

3.5 Instruments:

The study used questionnaires as the main research instrument. Questionnaire is the form in which different questions asked by the sample of the study to complete the goal of the study.

Questionnaires were four in counting and labeled as:

1-Closed ended Questionnaire for students about Classroom environment and its impact on students behavior
2-Open ended Questionnaire for students about good Classroom environment
3-Questionnaire for students’ suggestions for good Classroom environment.

3.6 Data analysis

After the collection of the data it was tabulated. Questionnaires were analyzed. After collecting data the simple percentage and frequency model was applied to evaluate the score on different performance indicators to check the significance.

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CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS

This study was designed to analyze the “Impact of Classroom environment on student academic performance in Basic Science in government Primary schools of Bhara Kahu Sialkot and to recommend certain measures to improve the situation. This study was descriptive in nature. Likert type questionnaire and interview schedule were used for data collection. The data were collected from Junior Secondary School Students through questionnaire with both close-ended and open-ended questions. Tool development for collecting of data and sampling procedure were discussed in chapter III. This chapter deals with data analysis and its interpretation through using relevant statistical formulas. The detailed analysis of data is presented below.

4.1 Demographic Representation of Data

Table4.1.1: Detail of Respondents (Data collection through Questionnaire )

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Table 4.2.1 represents that the total number of Junior Secondary School Students was 50 with percentage of 100. Fifty selected students from pilot Primary school gave responses in the study. Hence, the frequency of students was 50 with 100 %.

4.2 Analysis of Data collected from Junior Secondary School Students

The data were collected from Junior Secondary School Students through a questionnaire which contained 22 questions with 20 close-ended questions and 2 open-ended questions (Appendix A). Analysis of opinions and suggestions of Junior Secondary School Students is presented below.

Table 4.2.1: Good environment of classroom develop critical thinking

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Table 4.2.1 represents that good environment of classroom enhance critical thinking of students at Junior secondary school . It showed that 44 % respondents agreed and 46% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop critical thinking, 6% respondents disagreed, 4% strongly disagreed with the statement while only

0% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom enhance critical thinking at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.2: Good environment of classroom develop problem-solving skills .

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Table 4.2.2 represents that good environment of classroom develop problem-solving skills in students at Junior secondary school It showed that 46% respondents agreed and 46% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop problem-solving skills in students while 2% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop problem-solving skills in students at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.3: Good environment of classroom develop punctuality

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Table 4.2.3 represents that good environment of classroom develop punctuality at Junior secondary school It showed that 46 % respondents agreed and 40% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop punctuality at Junior secondary school while 4% respondents disagreed, 8% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (86%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop punctuality at Junior secondary school at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.4: Good environment of classroom develop adaptability .

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Table 4.2.5 represents that good environment of classroom develop adaptability in students at Junior secondary school It showed that 50% respondents agreed and 30% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop adaptability in students at Junior secondary school while 10% respondents disagreed, 6% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (80%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop adaptability in students at at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.6: Good environment of classroom develops critical interpersonal skills

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Table 4.2.6 represents that good environment of classroom develops critical interpersonal skills at Junior secondary school It showed that 34% respondents agreed and 36% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develops critical interpersonal skills at Junior secondary school while 16% respondents disagreed, 6% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops critical interpersonal skills at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.7: Good environment of classroom develop self-discipline .

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Table 4.2.7 represents good environment of classroom develop self-discipline in students at Junior secondary school . It showed that 42% respondents agreed and 48% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop self-discipline at Junior secondary school while 4% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop self-discipline in students at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.8: Good environment of classroom develop Learning skills

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Table 4.2.8 represents that good environment of classroom develop learning skills in students at Junior secondary school . It showed that 40% respondents agreed and 42% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop social skills in students at Junior secondary school . While 12% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (82%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop social skills in students at Junior secondary school . at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.9: Good environment of classroom develop ability to set goals for the future.

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Table 4.2.9 represents that good environment of classroom develop ability to set goals for the future at Junior secondary school it showed that 36% respondents agreed and 40% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop ability to set goals for the future while 10% respondents disagreed, 10% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (76%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop ability in students to set goals for the future at Junior secondary school.

Table 4.2.10: Good environment of classroom develop ability to better teamwork .

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Table 4.2.10 represents that good environment of classroom develop ability in students to better teamwork at Junior secondary school . It showed that 44% respondents agreed and 36% strongly agreed that that good environment of classroom develop ability in students to better teamwork at Junior secondary school while 12% respondents disagreed, 6% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (80%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop ability in students to better teamwork at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.11: Good environment of classroom develop negotiation skills.

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Table 4.2.11 represents that good environment of classroom develop negotiation skills in students at Junior secondary school . It showed that 32% respondents agreed and 30% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop negotiation skills in students while 12% respondents disagreed, 20% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 6% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (62%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop negotiation skills in students at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.12: Good environment of classroom develop understanding and respect for teachers and others students

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Table 4.2.12 represents that good environment of classroom develop understanding and respect for teachers and others in students. It showed that 36% respondents agreed and 34% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop understanding and respect for others in students while 14% respondents disagreed, 12% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop understanding and respect for others in students.

Table 4.2.13: Good environment of classroom develop leadership skills.

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Table 4.2.13 represents that well-managed classroom develop leadership skills in Junior secondary school students. It showed that 30% respondents agreed and 60% strongly agreed that well-managed classroom develop leadership skills in Junior secondary school students while 4% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that well-managed classroom develop leadership skills in Junior secondary school students.

Table 4.2.14: Good environment of classroom develop marvelous confidence.

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Table 4.2.14 represents that students ‘good environment of classroom develop marvelous confidence in student at Junior secondary school . It showed that 56% respondents agreed and 34% strongly agreed that students ‘good environment of classroom develop marvelous confidence in student while 4% respondents disagreed, 4% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed students ‘good environment of classroom develop marvelous confidence in student at Junior secondary school.

Table 4.2.15: Good environment of classroom develop honesty.

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Table 4.2.15 represents that good environment of classroom develop honesty in students at Junior secondary school . It showed that 36% respondents agreed and 60% strongly agreed that that good environment of classroom develop honesty in students while 2% respondents disagreed, none of them strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that that good environment of classroom develop honesty in students at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.16: Good environment of classroom develop integrity and belief

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Table 4.2.16 represents that good environment of classroom develop integrity and belief in students. It showed that 36% respondents agreed and 26% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop integrity and belief in students while 20% respondents disagreed, 12% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 6% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (62%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop integrity and belief in students at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.17: Good environment of classroom develop ability to take responsibility

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Table 4.2.17 represents good environment of classroom develop ability in students to take responsibility .It showed that 64% respondents agreed and 28% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develop ability in students to take responsibility while 4% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop ability in students to take responsibility at Junior secondary school .

Table4.2.18: Good environment of classroom improves Students’ academic performance.

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Table 4.2.18 represents that good environment of classroom improve students’ academic performance at Junior secondary school It showed that 30% respondents agreed and 64% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom improve students’ academic performance at Junior secondary school while 4% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only none of them respondent was undecided. Overall majority (94%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom improve students’ academic performance at Junior secondary school at Junior secondary school .

Table 4.2.19: Good environment of classroom support Students practically

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Table 4.2.19 represents that good environment of classroom support students practically in life. It showed that 46% respondents agreed and 42% strongly agreed that student’s that good environment of classroom support students practically in life. While 6% respondents disagreed, 4% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (88%) of the respondents agreed that that good environment of classroom support students practically in life.

Table 4.2.20: Good environment of classroom realizes the importance of education.

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Table 4.2.20 represents that good environment of classroom realize the importance of education in students at Junior secondary school . It showed that 42% respondents agreed and 50% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom realize the importance of education while 4% respondents disagreed, 2% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 2% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed good environment of classroom realizes the importance of education in students.

Table 4.2.21: Good environment of classroom develops spirit of healthy competition

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Table 4.2.21 represents that good environment of classroom develops spirit of healthy competition in students at Junior secondary school It showed that 40% respondents agreed and 26% strongly agreed that good environment of classroom develops spirit of healthy competition in students while 20% respondents disagreed, 10% strongly disagreed with the statement while only 4% respondents were undecided. Overall majority (66%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops spirit of healthy competition in students at Junior secondary school .

4.3 Overall Analysis of data

Table4.3

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Table 4.3 represents the overall analysis of data regarding effect of good environment of classroom on personality development of students. It showed that 42% of the respondents agreed, 41% of the respondents strongly agreed that of good environment of classroom effect on personality development of students while 9% the respondents disagreed and 6% of the respondents strongly disagreed..

4.4 Analysis of Open ended Questions

Table 4.4: effect of good environment of classroom on student’s personality development

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Table 4.4 represents the effect of good environment of classroom on student’s personality development as perceived by Junior Secondary School Students . It showed that the majority of the respondents reported good environment of classroom have a stronger effect on developing self-confidence, punctuality, problem solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, character development and adaptability. Few of the respondents expressed that good environment of classroom effect on developing sympathetic attitude, interpersonal skills and sociability. In the light of above mentioned responses major effects of good environment of classroom on student’s personality development are self-confidence, punctuality, problem solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, character development and adaptability

Table 4.4.1: Suggestions from Junior Secondary School Students to improve the environment of Classroom .

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Table 4.4.1 represents the suggestions from Junior Secondary School Students to improve the effect of good environment of classroom at Junior secondary school . It showed that the majority of the respondents suggested that the effect of good environment of classroom at Junior secondary school can be improved by taking measures like availability of physical facilities, should not be overcrowded classroom in good environment of classroom, activity based method of teaching, teachers should show good behavior of teacher and should be very management of schools . Few of the respondents expressed that should be good behavior of head teacher for students and other teachers as well, and involvement of students in social welfare activities also improves the effect of good environment of classroom in students. In the light of above mentioned responses major suggestions as perceived by Junior Secondary School Students to improve the effect of good environment of classroom compulsory physical education,

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

This study was investigated Impact of Classroom environment on student academic performance in Basic Science. The following objectives of the study were to study the perceptions of Junior Secondary School Students about effect of good environment of classroom on students’ personality development, and to recommend certain measures to improve the situation. The research was descriptive in nature. Population of the study was the Government Primary schools of Pasror, Sialkot. The random sampling technique was used to collect data. Fifty Junior Secondary School Students were selected as a sample. Questionnaire and interview was designed as a research tool. Liker type Questionnaire for Junior Secondary School Students was used. This study was descriptive and quantitative in nature. After designing research tools, these were distributed among teachers and other researchers for feedback. In light of the feedback, research tools were modified and redesigned. The data was collected from the Government Primary schools of Pasroru, Sialkot. The researcher visited to collect data. After data collection, it was analyzed through using arithmetic’s operations e.g. percentage. The detail of findings, conclusions and recommendation will be presented as follows.

5.2 Findings

1. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops critical thinking at Junior secondary school .(Table:4.2)
2. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops problem-solving skill at Junior secondary school .(Table:4.3)
3. Overall majority (86%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops punctuality at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.4)
4. Overall majority (80%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops adaptability at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.5)
5. Overall majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops interpersonal skills at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.6)
6. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops self-discipline at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.7)
7. Overall majority (82%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops learning skills at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.8)
8. Overall majority (76%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops ability to set goals for future at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.9)
9. Overall majority (80%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops team work at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.10)
10. Overall majority (62%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops negotiation skills at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.11)
11. Overall majority (70%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops understanding and respect for others at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.12)
12. . Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom leadership skills at Junior secondary school .(Table:4.13)
13. Overall majority (90%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops marvelous confidence at Junior secondary school .(Table:4.14)
14. Overall majority (96%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops honesty at Junior secondary school .(Table:4.15)
15. Overall majority (62%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops integrity and belief in students at Junior secondary school .(Table:4.16)
16. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops ability to take responsibility at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.17)
17. Overall majority (94%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom improve academic performance at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.18)
18. Overall majority (88%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops practicability at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.19)
19. Overall majority (92%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops importance of education at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.20)
20. Overall majority (66%) of the respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develops heathy competition at Junior secondary school . (Table:4.21)
21. As a whole, majority of the respondents agreed (82%) that good environment of classroom effect the personality developments of students at seconday level(Table:4.22)
22. Majority of the respondents agreed good environment of classroom have a stronger effect on developing self-confidence, punctuality, problem solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, character development and adaptability (Table:4.23)
23. Major suggestions for improving Classroom environment as perceived by Junior Secondary School Students like availability of physical facilities, not to be overcrowded classroom, good teachers behavior, good role of head teachers and good school management.(Table:4.24)

Q1. What are effects of good environment of classroom on student’s performance?

To find out the answers of research question, how to investigate the effect of good environment of classroom on student’s personality development at Junior secondary school , a Likert type questionnaire was designed to collect data from 50 Junior Secondary School Students . The data were analyzed through using arithmetic’s operations i.e. percentage.

In overall analysis (82%) respondents agreed that good environment of classroom effect the behavior of students at Junior secondary school (Table: 4.22). In which (96%) of respondents agreed that good environment of classroom develop honesty in students at Junior secondary school (Table: 4.15)

Q2.What are the recommendations to improve good environment of classroom on students performance ?.

To find out the answers of this question, a question was asked from 50 Junior Secondary School Students . The suggestions from Primary school Teachers were to taking measures that like compulsory availability of physical facilities, not to be overcrowded classroom in good environment of classroom, good teachers’ behavior, good behavior of head teacher and good management of schools.

5.3 Conclusions

The researcher in this study, from the findings concluded by analysis the following conclusion:

1. That good environment of classroom develop critical thinking, problem solving skill, punctuality, self-discipline, leadership skills, confidence and honesty in Junior Secondary School Students According to the perceptions of Junior Secondary School Students (in open-ended question), majority of the respondents (Junior Secondary School Students ) agreed that good environment of classroom have a stronger effect on developing self-confidence, punctuality, problem solving skill, leadership skill, teamwork, character development and adaptability.
2. Major suggestions as perceived by Junior Secondary School Students to improve the effect of good environment of classroom availability of physical facilities in classroom, teachers to students ratio should be as low as possible etc.

5.4 Recommendations

In this study, in the light of findings and conclusions certain measures and recommendations are presented to control dropout and to bring improvement in the current situation.

1) There should be some specific funds from the annual budget to enrich the department of physical facilities and Classroom environment.
2) All the school administration should have their own vision to provide special attention on Classroom environment in all government and private schools.
3) Administration of the schools should make some policies and plans to make the department of Classroom environment better in all government and private schools.
4) There should be a committee in every school which handle and resolve the different issues regarding Classroom environment.
5) Specific programs and seminars should be introduced and established at district level regarding the importance of Classroom environment.

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APPENDIX A

Questionnaire for Junior Secondary School Students

IMPACT OF CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BASIC SCIENCE

SIALKOT

Name (optional) School Name.

Tehsil… District…

Age: 12-14Years, 14-16Years, 16-18Years, 18-20Years

Area: Urban / Rural

Responses: A: Agree, SA: Strongly Agree, UD: Undecided, DA: Disagree, SDA: Strongly Disagree.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

21. Enlist five advantages of good environment of classroom?

22. Give some suggestions to improve academic performance of students through good environment of classroom?

[...]

49 von 49 Seiten

Details

Titel
Impact of Classroom Environment on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science
Autor
Jahr
2016
Seiten
49
Katalognummer
V1011211
ISBN (Buch)
9783346427090
Sprache
Deutsch
Schlagworte
impact, classroom, environment, student, academic, performance, basic, science
Arbeit zitieren
Philemon Patrick (Autor), 2016, Impact of Classroom Environment on Student Academic Performance in Basic Science, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1011211

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