A Paradigm for Design and Manufacturing Based on Additive Manufacturing Online Platform


Master's Thesis, 2021

107 Pages, Grade: 3.6


Excerpt

Table of Contents

Appendixl: InsideCover

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Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations

List of Figures

Listof Tables

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Research Background and Significance
1.2 Cloud (Online) Manufacturing Overview
1.2.1 CloudManufacturing
1.2.2 Conceptual Model of Cloud Manufacturing
1.2.3 Advantages of Cloud Manufacturing
1.3 Research Status at Home and Abroad
1.3.1 Research Status of Cloud Manufacturing
1.3.2 3D Printing Cloud Platform Research Status
1.4 The Main Research Content of the Paper
1.5 Conclusion

Chapter 2: 3D Printing Cloud Platform Overall Architecture..
2.1 The Functional Structure of 3D printing Cloud Platform
2.2 3D Printing Cloud Platform Architecture
2.3 Analysis of the functions of each layer of the 3D Printing Cloud Platform Architecture
2.3.1 Basic Technology Support Layer
2.3.2 3D Printing Resource Layer
2.3.3 Virtual Resource Layer
2.3.4 Service Resource Layer
2.3.5 ToolsLayer
2.3.6 Application Interface Layer
2.3.7 AccessLayer
2.3.8 UserLayer
2.4 Analysis of the service structure of the cloud service platform
2.4.1 3D Printing product resource, manufacturing capabilities and manufacturing cloud services
2.4.2 Analysis of the service model and participants of the AM cloud service platform
2.4.3 Analysis of the application mode of 3D Printing cloud service platform for printing products
2.5 Key Functional module structure of 3D printing cloud platform based on design and manufacturing
2.5.1 3D Model Acquisition Module
2.5.2 Printing Material Recommendation Module
2.5.3 Print Service Choosing Module
2.6 Advantages of 3D Printing Cloud Platform
2.7 Conclusion

Chapter 3: Several key technologies and methods of design for manufacturing service platform on 3D printing products
3.1 3D printing design and manufacturing resource package
3.1.1 Virtualization framework of 3D printing Mfg. resources
3.1.2 3D printing virtual manufacturing resources
3.2 Storage of manufacturing resources for 3D printing products
3.2.1 Distributed storage architecture of 3D printing resources
3.2.2 Storage of 3D printing product resources
3.2.3 Access mechanism of 3D printing product resources
3.3 Search matching for 3D printing product cloud services
3.3.1 3D printing product cloud service chooseing mode
3.3.2 3D printing product cloud service choosing process
3.4 Database analysis of service platform for 3D printing products
3.5 Conclusion

Chapter 4: 3D printing product Design and manufacturing through cloud service platform page design
4.1 Development environment of Design and Manufacturing based on AM cloud platform
4.2 Development tools for AM cloud service platforms
4.3 The establishment of cloud database and forms
4.4 Main functional modules of AM cloud platform
4.5 3D printing cloud platform Navigation (Main panel) interface
4.5.1 Design of the top page of the cloud service platform
4.5.2 Design of the main user interface navigation bar on the main page
4.5.3 Design of the main functional modules of the cloud service platform
4.5.4 Design of various service pages in the cloud service platform...
4.5.5 Design of the Shop module page of the cloud service platform.
4.5.6 Design of the Service module page of the cloud service platform
4.5.7 Design of the Education page of the cloud service platform
4.5.8 Design of the Contact page of the cloud service platform
4.5.9 Conclusion
4.6 3D printing cloud platform operating (User) interface
4.6.1 Design of the User registration page and upgrading of the cloud service platform
4.6.2 Design of the User Management of the cloud service platform .
4.6.3 Design of the Upload for 3D model design Request of the cloud service platform
4.6.4 Design of the 3D printing Task matching of the cloud service platform
4.6.5 3D Conclusion

Chapter 5: General Conclusion
5.1 Works Accomplished
5.2 Conclusions , Recommendations and limitations
5.3 Future Research Directions

Acknowledgements

References

Abstract

3D printing, as an important part of advanced manufacturing technology, will compensate for the manufacturing needs of complex components in many industries and fulfill the rising customized manufacturing needs of people. The growth of the domestic 3D printing industry is relatively slow due to the lack of a robust service model. Cloud manufacturing is a modem paradigm of intelligent, effective and service-oriented production that has been proposed in recent years. This paper applies the 3D printing industry to the cloud manufacturing model and takes as its research goal the collaborative design and manufacturing paradigm in the intelligent platform of additive manufacturing. The system design and key technologies of the additive manufacturing intelligent cloud platform are systematically analyzed on the basis of the cloud manufacturing concept. A prototype device has been developed. The paper's key primary research is as follows:

Combined with the concept and context of cloud 3D manufacturing, the research status of cloud manufacturing was analyzed, the description and benefits of cloud manufacturing were systematically summarized, the general structure of 3D printing cloud platform services was developed, and the module functions, application methods, and operating mechanisms were introduced.

An eight-layer architecture of the cloud platform is proposed based on the functional framework of the 3D printing cloud platform. Several key modules of the online cloud platform are analyzed and clarified, and through a comparative comparison with the conventional 3D printing network platform, the benefits of the 3D printing cloud platform are examined.

The 3D printing cloud platform development environment was created, the prototype system data sheet was designed, and the prototype system of the 3D printing cloud platform was developed. The prototype system's key functional modules are evaluated, and the prototype system's functional pages are explained.

Finally, the study findings of this article are summarized, and further study work is suggested.

Keywords: 3D Printing, Cloud Printing, Cloud Platform, Modeling Method ofResources and Tasks, Collaborative design and manufacturing

List of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

List of Figures

Figure 1-1 Cloud manufacturing conceptual model

Figure 1-2 Basic schematic view of 3D printing cloud platform over view

Figure 1-3 Online AM network platform schematic view

Figure 2-lSchematic diagram of cloud manufacturing service platform

Figure 2-2 3D printing cloud service platform architecture diagram

Figure 2-33D printing product resource structure diagram

Figure 2-43D printing manufacturing capability component map

Figure 2-5 3D printing cloud service release flowchart

Figure 2-6 3D printing cloud service platform service application model diagram

Figure 2-7 3D printing cloud service platform participation object relationship diagram

Figure 2-8 3D printing cloud service platform service portfolio application example diagram

Figure 2-9 The functional module structure diagram of the3D Printing cloud service platform

Figure 2-10 3D printing cloud service usage flow chart

Figure 2-11 3D model file acquisition process

Figure 2-12 3D printing material decision process

Figure 2-13 Service choosing process for basic printing requirements

Figure 3-lVirtualization framework diagram of3D printing product manufacturing resources

Figure 3-23D printing product resource storage server

Figure 3-3 Distributed storage map of3D printing product resources

Figure 3-4 Access flow chart of 3D printing product design to manufacturing resources

Figure 3-5 Cloud 3D printing requirements and resource matching diagram

Figure 3-6 Cloud 3D printing demand and resource matching flowchart

Figure 3-7 Matching flowchart for 3D printing products through cloud platform

Figure 3-8 3D printing product design and manufacturing resource demand database model diagram

Figure 3-9 3D printing Cloud platform product resource service library system block diagram

Figure 4-1 User information model file table

Figure 4-2 Three-dimensional model file table

Figure 4-3 3D printing equipment model file table

Figure 4-4 3D printing order form model file table

Figure 4-5 User functional module through the online 3D platform

Figure 4-6 The main navigation map of the cloud manufacturing service platform

Figure 4-7 Schematic diagram of main functional module of navigation panel

Figure 4-8 Different Service Type model

Figure 4-9 Shop module page of the cloud service platform

Figure 4-10 Service module page of the cloud service platform

Figure 4-11 Education page of the cloud service platform

Figure 4-12 Contact page of the cloud service platform

Figure 4-13 User registration page and upgrading of the cloud service platform

Figure 4-14 Login interface of the cloud platform

Figure 4-15 3D model design of the cloud service platform (1)

Figure 4-163D model design of the cloud service platform (2)

Figure 4-17 3D model design of the cloud service platform (3)

Figure 4-18 Design of the Task matching of cloud service platform (1)

Figure 4-19 Design of the Task matching of cloud service platform (2)

Figure 5-1 AM online platform SWOT Analysis

List ofTables

Table 1-1 Comparison of Cloud Manufacturing, Agile Manufacturing, ASP and Industry 4.0

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Research Background and Significance

In recent decades, with the improvement of the overall level of China's manufacturing industry, many industries have increasingly demanded some parts with high precision requirements and unusually complicated spatial shapes. The production of these parts using traditional manufacturing methods usually requires a lot of Process is more difficult. Not only that, the national demand for personalized manufacturing is getting higher and higher, and the traditional manufacturing methods are generally suitable for mass production, the production method is relatively single, it is difficult to meet the flexible and personalized production needs. With the continuous improvement of the level of 3D printing technology, the supplementary effect of 3D printing on the above-mentioned traditional manufacturing deficiencies is more and more obvious, and the market demand for 3D printing is also expanding. 3D printing [1-2] As one of the representatives of emerging intelligent manufacturing technology in the 21st century, it combines advanced material technology and digital manufacturing technology, which is an important content of advanced manufacturing and smart manufacturing. At the end of the 19th century, the core idea of 3D printing originated in the United States 3 By the late 1980s, 3D printing gradually became mature and began to be commercialized. Nowadays, 3D printing has been widely used in molds, automobiles, aviation, medical, Many industries and fields such as cultural creation and education are indispensable processing methods in the manufacturing industry. 3D printing first performs layered slice processing on the three-dimensional model of the entity to be printed, and then stacks the target entity by adding printing materials layer by layer, which is an advanced digital additive manufacturing technology. Compared with the traditional subtractive manufacturing method, 3D printing has the following advantages:

(1) The utilization rate of raw materials is high and the pollution to the environment is small. The traditional manufacturing process is a process that continuously removes raw materials. With the increase in the number of processes, the higher the waste rate of raw materials, the greater the pollution to the environment. 3D printing is a manufacturing method that generates products by continuously adding raw materials, which can reduce energy consumption with a very low material waste rate, and thus make a beneficial contribution to reducing environmental pollution.
(2) Wide printing range, suitable for manufacturing complex products. For some entities with complex shapes and structures, traditional manufacturing methods often require a large number of processes and are difficult to manufacture. 3D printing prints entities based on three-dimensional model data. All three­dimensional models designed by a computer can theoretically generate entities through 3D printing, thereby reducing the difficulty of manufacturing complex parts.
(3) Low storage pressure and short delivery time. 3D printing is inherently a customized production model. This model reduces the storage pressure of the enterprise on the one hand, and can quickly respond to the user's manufacturing needs on the other hand. It does not require professional molds and various kinds of traditional manufacturing. Professional processing equipment, fixtures, etc., product delivery time is much shorter than traditional manufacturing.

With the widespread application of 3D printing technology, its contribution to China's economic and social development is increasing. However, due to the lack of uniform industry standards and perfect business models, most domestic 3D printing companies and scientific research institutions are generally facing the following problems in the process of seeking better survival and development 4:

(1) The development of industrial technology is backward. First of all, the overall domestic support for 3D printing technology research and development is insufficient, and it has not produced a strong impetus; second, there is a lack of active scientific research cooperation between domestic 3D printing companies and scientific research institutions, and the technical cooperation has not been promoted enough; Finally, there is a gap between China's large-scale high- precision equipment manufacturing technology and foreign advanced level, so that most 3D printing equipment can only rely on foreign imports, and independent research and development capabilities need to be strengthened.
(2) The consumer market urgently needs to be expanded. Although 3D printing technology is highly respected, due to its inherent characteristics of digital design,, and on-demand production, these properties determine that 3D printing is generally more difficult to promote than traditional manufacturing methods. . On the one hand, the immature business model makes the price of 3D printing difficult, and the consumer group is relatively small; on the other hand, personalized manufacturing is often a way for multi-user small orders, and a good information display and communication platform is essential However, most 3D printing companies and scientific research institutions do not have strong funds to build a good external service information platform, which to a certain extent makes it difficult for the majority of users to obtain suitable printing services, and it is difficult to expand the consumer market.
(3) The industrial chain is not perfect. At present, most domestic 3D printing enterprises and scientific research institutions lack active cooperation and communication, which makes the upstream and downstream resources of the 3D printing industry have a low degree of polymerization, making it difficult to form a perfect 3D printing service industry chain, resulting in an uneven development of the overall 3D printing industry.

Cloud Manufacturing [5-7] is a new manufacturing model developed under the background of highly developed information technology. It draws on the idea of servicing computing resources in cloud computing, encapsulates manufacturing resources through advanced information technology, and provides them externally through the cloud. On-demand, intelligent and efficient manufacturing services have a positive role in promoting manufacturing informatization, service and intelligence. The cloud manufacturing model is different from the traditional networked manufacturing model (such as ASP, agile manufacturing, etc.). The cloud platform based on the cloud manufacturing model is a highly open, comprehensive IoT, service-oriented new network manufacturing platform, which is not subject to geographical factors, The constraints of factors such as the size of the enterprise can accommodate a rich variety of manufacturing resources and a huge amount of resources. Cloud manufacturing has the advantages of wider business scope, stronger collaborative operation capability, better service fault tolerance, and better personalized service than traditional network manufacturing.

In view of the above-mentioned difficulties in the development of the domestic 3D printing industry, this paper uses the advantages of cloud manufacturing to apply the cloud manufacturing model to the 3D printing field and build a 3D printing cloud platform with free access to resources and efficient scheduling. The cloud platform organically integrates the scattered 3D printing resources to form a huge virtual resource pool, using the cloud platform system's efficient resource management and scheduling mechanism to maximize idle resource utilization and minimize user service rent-seeking costs , To expand the 3D printing consumer market, and then promote the rapid development of the entire 3D printing industry.

1.2 Cloud (Online) Manufacturing Overview

1.2.1 Cloud Manufacturing

In recent decades, with the continuous improvement of China's overall manufacturing level, this country has become a "world factory" with a real name, and Chinese manufacturing has had a huge impact on a global scale. Despite this, China's manufacturing industry has been at the bottom of the global industrial value chain for a long time. The problem of "big but not strong" is still very prominent. The main performances are as follows:

(1) The capacity for independent innovation is insufficient. Compared with the international advanced manufacturing industry, China's manufacturing industry generally suffers from shortcomings of independent innovation and insufficient design and R&D capabilities. High-end equipment, precision devices and key raw materials rely heavily on foreign imports.
(2) The manufacturing mode of the manufacturing industry is backward. In the context of the rapid development of manufacturing, global manufacturing is undergoing an evolution from "production-oriented" to "production + service- oriented." The proportion of services in the manufacturing industries of some major developed countries in Europe and America is steadily increasing. The United States has reached 58% and is the world's largest service country. In China, the vast majority of manufacturing enterprises still remain in a single production stage for a long time, and the proportion of services is seriously insufficient.
(3) Low utilization of manufacturing resources. A survey report shows that the domestic manufacturing equipment utilization rate is only about 70%, while in some basic raw material production departments, the equipment idle rate is as high as 50%, and the waste of resources is very alarming. At the same time, many small and medium-sized enterprises are lagging behind in production equipment due to insufficient investment, and manufacturing resources are in urgent need of integration, sharing and optimization.
(4) Serious damage to the environment. In China, the manufacturing industry is one of the industries that cause the most damage to the natural environment. The causes of such damage come from many aspects. Among them, the imperfect industrial structure, backward manufacturing technology, as well as production, transportation, maintenance and destruction, etc. Extensive management of the links is an important reason for the manufacturing industry to damage the environment.

Facing the above challenges, Academician Li Bohu and his team first proposed the core concept of cloud manufacturing in 2009, aiming to promote the transformation of China's manufacturing industry into a "product + service" economic model, accelerate the pace of China's manufacturing informatization, and promote China is marching from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.

1.2.2 Conceptual Model of Cloud Manufacturing

Cloud manufacturing cross-integrates manufacturing technology with current advanced information technology (such as cloud computing, Internet of Things, service computing, intelligent science, etc.) to provide real-time available, intelligent and efficient manufacturing services through the cloud manufacturing platform. Create a new model [9-10], Among them, the cloud manufacturing platform is the supporting environment and tool set that supports the perception and access, virtualization, serviceization, comprehensive management and on- demand use of various manufacturing resources in the cloud manufacturing system, and is the core of the cloud manufacturing system.

As shown in Figure 1-1 8, the role of the cloud manufacturing mode during the operation mainly includes resource providers, cloud manufacturing platform operators, and service demanders. The resource provider connects various idle manufacturing resources to the cloud manufacturing platform for centralized optimization management to improve the utilization rate of its own idle resources; the cloud manufacturing platform operator, as the resource manager, needs to access the cloud manufacturing platform The various resources of the company are informatized and regularly reviewed, maintained, and optimized for configuration. With the support of the cloud manufacturing platform, service demanders can realize the intelligent and convenient use of various manufacturing services on demand to achieve optimal user Cost and satisfaction. In the cloud manufacturing platform, knowledge plays a vital role. The perception of various manufacturing resources, virtualization, serviceization, efficient management of cloud services, and intelligent matching all require knowledge to provide effective support.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1-1 Cloud manufacturing conceptual model

1.2.3 Advantages of Cloud Manufacturing

In order to improve the market competitiveness of manufacturing enterprises, agile manufacturing, ASP/Networked Manufacturing, Industry 4.0 and other manufacturing modes. These manufacturing models were proposed in the context of their technical capabilities and market demand. Although they played a certain role in promoting the development of the manufacturing industry at that time, they also had some era limitations. The cloud manufacturing model is a new manufacturing model proposed today. It draws on the advantages of these previous manufacturing models and combines the current advanced information technology.

Full-featured, advanced wisdom, green and efficient manufacturing mode. Table 1-1 shows cloud manufacturing and agile manufacturing 11, ASP/Networked Manufacturing [12 - 13], Industry 4.0 14 Comparison of manufacturing mode, means and supporting technology.

Table 1-1 Comparison ofCloud Manufacturing, Agile Manufacturing, ASP and Industry4.0

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Compared with the above manufacturing modes, cloud manufacturing has the following characteristics:

(1) Strong resource gathering ability. The cloud manufacturing platform gathers manufacturing resources scattered in various places into a virtual cloud service pool that is not constrained by physical space. As long as enough computer equipment is added, the cloud service pool can theoretically expand indefinitely.
(2) Ability to provide services on demand. The cloud manufacturing platform virtualizes and encapsulates manufacturing resources into a cloud service pool, and provides cloud services of various granularities in the cloud service pool to the outside world. Users can obtain various manufacturing services on-demand through the network in real time.
(3) Strong knowledge gathering and innovation ability. The cloud manufacturing platform can gather all kinds of data resources such as data, models, and experience involved in the full life cycle of manufacturing. These knowledge resources can support the intelligentization of the manufacturing process, and are also very important for improving the innovation ability of enterprises.
(4) Support social manufacturing. As the division of labor in the manufacturing industry has become increasingly refined and specialized, and collaboration and cooperation among enterprises have become increasingly frequent, the manufacturing industry is showing a trend towards socialization. The cloud manufacturing platform can refine and decompose complex manufacturing tasks according to the granularity of user needs, and then match high-quality manufacturing services for each subtask in the cloud service pool to collaboratively complete user tasks.
(5) The ability to support green manufacturing. The cloud manufacturing platform can realize the assessment of the green indicators of all links in the full life cycle of the manufacturing. Because the cloud manufacturing platform gathers all or most of the manufacturing resources of an industry or a region, it can realize the overall manufacturing of the entire industry or region. Comprehensive assessment and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and other environmentally relevant indicators.

It can be seen that cloud manufacturing will bring unprecedented changes to the 3D printing industry: promote the evolution of 3D printing companies to a "product + service" model, improve the market competitiveness of 3D printing companies; support personalized use on demand, improve 3D printing The utilization rate of resources, thereby achieving the rapid growth of the 3D printing economy; supporting process manufacturing collaborative group collaboration, improving the enterprise's independent innovation capabilities, accelerating 3D printing to achieve "smart manufacturing"; lowering the threshold of 3D printing, so that many small enterprises do not even have enough Individuals with manufacturing experience can also produce their own ideal products with the support of the cloud platform. All these will bring great impetus to the development of the 3D printing industry.

1.3 Research Status at Home and Abroad

1.3.1 Research Status of Cloud Manufacturing

Since Li Bohu and others put forward the core concept of cloud manufacturing in 2009, the Chinese government and science and technology departments have vigorously supported research on cloud manufacturing related technologies. In August 2010, the National Natural Science Foundation of China funded the first cloud manufacturing project. In 2010, the research project of "Cloud Manufacturing" was approved by the National Science and Technology Ministry's 863 Program. With the support of this program, dozens of units, including production, learning, research, and use, jointly achieved phased results. Cloud manufacturing has also received extensive attention abroad, and the EU has almost kept pace with China in cloud manufacturing technology research. The EU has spent a lot of money to launch the first cloud manufacturing project Cloud Mfg in 2010. Its main goal is to build a service-oriented IT infrastructure based on SAAS (software as a service) and provide users with different requirements and services through the network. 5. After the successful acceptance of the Cloud Manufacturing project, the European Union launched a new and more complete manufacturing cloud project CAPP-4-SMEs in 2013. The project began to formally adopt the concept of cloud manufacturing and took cloud manufacturing as a modular and configurable An integrated solution for process planning, so that users can access various pay-as-you-go services through the network.

With the proposal of the concept of cloud manufacturing, there are more and more researches on cloud manufacturing at home and abroad. Cloud manufacturing has become a new field of research in the international academic community. After years of continuous research and practice of cloud manufacturing by many researchers at home and abroad, considerable achievements have been achieved. These research results mainly focus on the application model and platform architecture of cloud manufacturing, resource virtualization and intelligent service choosing.

(1) Application mode and platform architecture

Qanbari et al. 16 have proposed a convenient cloud manufacturing platform called "CloudMfg", which forms an elastic and reconfigurable production line and responds to changes in demand and market dynamics through optimal resource allocation, thereby improving production efficiency; Akbaripour et al. 17 Developed a conceptual model of cloud-based global supply chain (CBGSC), which can overcome or mitigate the problems and risks associated with the global supply chain process in order to improve market vitality and ensure that enterprises in the traditional supply chain Profit; Buckholtz et al. 18 introduced the current status and development prospects of cloud manufacturing, and defined the key technologies needed to overcome the development of cloud platforms; Zhang et al. 19 addressed the problem of building a virtual environment under cloud simulation, and proposed based on virtualization The construction technology of the cloud simulation system of the company quickly packages the models, software and computing systems into virtual machines and provides them to users as needed; Li et al. [20,21] have built a set of component-based components for complex engineering simulation applications in the manufacturing process A meta-model framework for virtual prototypes of complex products to solve the problem of unified modeling of complex systems; Zhan Dechen et al. 22 discussed the key ways for manufacturing resources to be serviced and constructed corresponding service models; Gu Xinjian et al. 23 Studied the standardization method of mass information under cloud environment based on group technology to achieve efficient management of manufacturing resources; Yang Chen et al. 24 established a cloud-oriented simulation technology support framework for the needs of large-scale simulation to overcome Key technologies for cloud simulation resource management; Meng Xiangxu et al 25 analyzed the key technologies under the cloud manufacturing platform, then designed the cloud platform architecture, and carried out implementation verification in the automotive industry; Wang Shilong et al 26 studied cloud Manufacturing platform construction technology, and proposed corresponding implementation strategies from the aspects of business model and safety management, and designed a manufacturing cloud solution for gear manufacturing; Zheng Meng et al 27 aimed at the characteristics of design resources in the cloud manufacturing environment, Constructed a cloud design service platform that can realize the sharing of design resources; Fan Wenhui et al. [28,29] Aiming at the requirements of dynamic service collaboration in a cloud environment, a cloud service integration access method was designed based on the model-driven concept to support rapid To build a federal collaborative cloud manufacturing environment.

(2) Resource virtualization

Rajaram et al. 30 adopted the Web service resource framework WSRF as the virtualization mechanism of enterprise resources, and verified the virtualization effect of the mechanism by virtualizing an AGV; Tang et al. 31 designed the manufacturing resources and their granularity model in the cloud environment, and Virtualization of manufacturing resources is realized based on ontology; Morariu et al. 32 aim at the requirements of flexibility and scalability of manufacturing enterprises in the new era, and regard virtual MES and workshop system as the middle layer of manufacturing enterprises, taking into account the distributed intelligence level and Virtualization overhead, introduces a virtualization technology for various types of equipment on the shop floor, and discusses the advantages of this method for manufacturing companies; Ren Lei et al. 33 proposed a virtualization framework for soft and hard resources, In order to achieve a more complete soft and hard resource sharing mechanism; Zhou Jingtao et al 34 established a mapping model of manufacturing resources and virtual capabilities, and proposed a resource virtualization method based on the model; Wang Weixing et al 35 studied cloud The characteristics of processing equipment resources in the manufacturing environment, and based on the classification of processing equipment resources combined with semantic knowledge, a virtual description model of processing equipment was established; Liu Ning 36 aimed at various types of heterogeneous and heterogeneous functions under the cloud manufacturing platform Manufacturing resources, designed a resource standardized description template and corresponding semantic filling method; Hu Zhinan 37 analyzed the difference between manufacturing resources in cloud manufacturing environment and traditional network environment, and proposed a resource virtualization based on virtual resource description class template Model

(3) Service selection and choosing

Thekinen et al 38 have considered the preference ofboth service demanders and service providers, and designed a binary matching mechanism adapted to different scenarios to produce better matching; Morariu et al. 39 proposed an extended queuing resource allocation bus system Structure and use genetic algorithm for intelligent resource allocation; Faruk et al 40 have proposed an improved genetic particle swarm optimization algorithm for intelligent service choosing in cloud manufacturing environment; Zhang et al.41 in cloud simulation environment, aiming at HLA system Under the simulation platform, a set of simulation service optimization configuration technology is given; Zhao Nan et al. 42 proposed a knowledge evaluation model, and designed a quantum search optimization algorithm to solve the knowledge combination optimization model; Lin Tingyu et al. 43 proposed A model automatic combination technology in the cloud manufacturing environment, using planning technology to solve the automatic combination problem of heterogeneous models in the modeling and simulation stage; Li Huifang et al. 44 proposed a service optimization recommendation method based on cloud service type, status and attribute information Xiaoying Ying et al 45 proposed a more convergent improved hybrid leapfrog algorithm for cloud service portfolio intelligent recommendation; Yin Chao et al. 46 used the gray correlation analysis method to solve the service portfolio optimization problem for new product development.

The above research results of cloud manufacturing and related studies based on 3d printing provide useful reference and reference for the research in this paper.

Aside to what had been mentioned in the above studies , there are many advantages and disadvantages mentioned in the above studies such as performing a 3d model file, lack of user interfaces for connivence of the users such as a request panels for clients to have better contact whit the service providers , and still there are some issues that had not been resolved yet such as security and data ownership in through the web.

1.3.2 3D Printing Cloud Platform Research Status

As the 3D printing (AM) technology continues to mature and the advantages of 3D printing are gradually highlighted, more and more theoretical research on 3D printing cloud platforms at home and abroad. In terms of building a specific network platform, although there is no complete cloud manufacturing-based 3D printing cloud platform, some more mature 3D printing network platforms have also appeared.

(1) Theoretical research

Liu et al. 47 analyzed the services provided by the 3D printing cloud platform and the corresponding profit methods to support the commercial operation of the cloud platform; Yao et al. 48 studied the methods of 3D model acquisition, processing and online display, and constructed 3D printing Cloud platform architecture; He et al. 49 proposed an implementation of a wireless monitoring terminal suitable for 3D printing cloud platforms; Wu et al. 50 In order to achieve 3D printing production integration and product customization, a method was proposed 3D printing cloud integrated platform architecture based on the cloud manufacturing model; Kurmantai et al. 51 constructed an order allocation model of the 3D printing cloud platform and optimized it using genetic algorithms; Zhou Jun et al. 52 SI studied the cloud manufacturing operation of 3D printing valves Model, and designed the corresponding platform architecture; Shao Xiuli et al 53 constructed the architecture of the 3D printing cloud platform, and analyzed the cloud platform's business processes, system functions, and related technology implementation; Liu Yonghui et al. [ 54] The functional structure of the 3D printing cloud platform is explained, and the overall architecture of the platform is constructed; Zhou Bo 55 designed the device access system of the 3D printing cloud platform and verified the access system from multiple perspectives Feasibility; Lu Yu 56 introduced the overall architecture and core functions of the 3D printing cloud platform, and studied the printing task optimization scheduling technology; Li Changchun et al 57 designed a set of efficient 3D printing cloud services based on Arena simulation software Optimize the system.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1-2 Basic schematic view of 3D printing cloud platform over view

Although the total number of theoretical research on 3D printing cloud platforms is not large at present, as the concept of cloud manufacturing becomes more and more mature, the theoretical research on 3D printing cloud platforms has shown explosive growth in recent years, and it has become the current A research hotspot. At present, the theoretical research on the 3D printing cloud platform is still in the early stage of exploration. The research content mainly focuses on the feasibility, architecture and profit model analysis of the 3D printing cloud platform, and the key technologies such as 3D printing resource virtualization and service choosing. Research is not rich enough.

(2) Network platform

Quickparts 58 is the largest leading supplier of rapid prototyping and low- volume customization in North America. According to the 3D drawings of parts provided by customers, it processes the entire process from plastic parts to metal parts, from rapid prototyping to production; Sandboxr 59 invites Designers and artistsjoin, designers upload their own 3D models, users can pay to download, or users can choose the template of the desired product, and then select the corresponding program to complete the product design, then you can choose to use the 3D printer output at home, or It is sent to the 3D printing service merchant to make the product; 3DHubs 60 It is the largest 3D printing network alliance in the world. It can help users quickly find idle 3D printing resources nearby; Shapeways 61 is a large online 3D printing website whose goal is to help users with design capabilities to sell their designs. Three-dimensional model files, mainly through the centralized printing of orders to obtain profits; Yizuo SI 62 is a large e­commerce website in China that provides one-stop 3D printing services. Users only need to provide good ideas to print through the cloud factory; Sandi Time 63 and Space Network SI is committed to building a world-class, China's largest and most influential 3D printing industry service brand. Currently, we have established a number of new technology integrated Maker Experience Centers-Magic Factory in China with 3D printing as the core , With the help of foreign advanced scientific and technological resources, focus on creating a first-class 3D printing service brand for China under the new economic situation; Mohou.com 64 reduces the printing cost of users by optimizing the process of 3D printing services, and provides users with personality through the Internet 3D printing services.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1-3 Online AM network platform schematic view

It can be seen that with the continuous popularization and development of 3D printing and Internet technology, all major enterprises are also trying to build a 3D printing network platform in order to pursue greater business benefits. Most of these platforms are 3D printing resource information display platforms of a certain or a few enterprises, but they are only the initial form of cloud manufacturing platforms. A complete cloud manufacturing model has not yet been formed, and the advantages of cloud manufacturing have not been fully utilized to bring new development to enterprises, power. Not only that, the division of labor of many companies is not clear, and some companies have a wide range of businesses but do not have advantages in core competitiveness. This way, Shapeways is doing very well. Shapeways only focuses on improving its own 3D printing technology, and hands the design to the majority of users. Completed, a good division oflabor and collaboration has been completed, but since all customer orders are printed centrally in the large factory of Shapeways, such a model is likely to cause users to wait longer because of the large number of orders, which affects the user experience.

In view of the above factors, this paper focuses on the key technologies of the 3D printing cloud platform architecture, resource virtualization of services and other technologies under the cloud manufacturing model to provide theoretical support for building a 3D printing cloud platform to promote the rapid development of the 3D printing industry and briefly shows the design and manufacturing process.

1.4 The Main Research Content of the Paper

Chapter 1: The design of the system architecture is the foundation ofbuilding a AM cloud platform, which affects the overall operation effect of the cloud platform. This study Explains the purpose and significance of the thesis research, explains the research status of cloud manufacturing, 3D printing technology and puts forward the deficiencies in related research. Finally, the research content and organizational structure of the thesis are carried out Introduction.

Chapter 2: Proposes the overall framework of the cloud service platform for of 3D printing products. First, it analyzes the functions of each module in the overall framework of the cloud service platform; then analyzes the service mode, application methods, and participation roles of the framework; finally, summarizes the characteristics of the cloud service platform.

Chapter 3: The AM cloud platform needs various basic technologies as support. These technologies affect the overall operating efficiency of the cloud platform this chapter introduces the key technologies and methods in the cloud service platform for 3D printing cloud platform, and analyzes and studies the technologies of 3D printing product resource virtualization, storage, and service choosing and etc based on a qualitative researching method and systematic review the analyzing data’s are collected and expanded into a web design form in order to utilize the online platform .

Chapter 4: Using PHP Language and MySQL Server a WordPress Webserver which represents the cloud platform has been developed in order to have a better understanding about the user interface for client and service provider which this section mainly plan and design the cloud service platform page for 3D printing products, introduce the operating environment of the cloud service platform and the software development tools that need to be used, establish the cloud database and forms, and explain the cloud service platform page Designed the technical support required, and finally implemented the platform page of 3D printing products.

Chapter 5: In this section based on Design and manufacturing through AM online platform recommendations , suggestions and limitation aside to the main analysis and finding of the project are pointed out, and the future research areas are discussed.

1.5 Conclusion

This chapter mainly introduces the research background and significance of this article. First, it systematically summarizes the background, definition and advantages of cloud manufacturing; then it analyzes several key technologies of cloud manufacturing and the research results of 3D printing cloud platform, and points out the significance of this research; finally, the research content of this paper Give a brief introduction.

Chapter2: 3D Printing Cloud Platform Overall Architecture

2.1 The Functional Structure of 3D printing Cloud Platform

As a communication hub between users and various 3D printing services, the 3D printing cloud platform plays an important media role. A well-functioning 3D printing cloud platform should be dedicated to enabling cloud platform users to easily obtain high-quality and low-cost services. At the same time, it should also ensure that all service resources on the cloud platform are fully and reasonably used to ensure service provision. Fang can obtain greater profits to achieve a benign state of mutual benefit. Generally speaking, the 3D printing cloud platform should have the following basic functions:

(1) Virtualization and service of3D printing resources

For various types of 3D printing resources in the cloud platform, it is necessary to use virtualization technology to convert them into logically existing 3D printing virtual manufacturing resources for the cloud platform to efficiently manage. For the massive 3D printing virtual resources after virtualization, it is necessary to form various 3D printing cloud services that adapt to market needs through unified service description specifications and packaging methods, and then publish them to the cloud service pool for having free access and its quite convenient service demanders to search through the pool.

(2) Cloud service transaction management function

In order to ensure the normal and orderly progress of the service transaction process in the 3D printing cloud platform, the cloud platform needs to provide consultation and communication management including service supply and demand parties, service billing, transaction and settlement management, transaction agreement management, service process monitoring, and credit evaluation of transaction entities , Service quality and utility evaluation and other functions.

(3) Security management function

Security management is very important for the promotion and application of the 3D printing cloud platform. From the perspective of the 3D printing resource provider, it is necessary to ensure that the accessed resources are not maliciously accessed or tampered with; from the perspective of the 3D printing service demander, it is necessary to ensure that the accessed service is credible and can be executed correctly. Various technologies such as network firewalls, network security management, access control, and anti-virus software can be used to ensure the security of the data center of the 3D printing cloud platform.

(4) User-side human-computer interaction function

Customize the terminal user interface on demand, provide support for mainstream devices such as personal computer workstations, tablet computers, mobile terminals, etc., and customize the operating environment and dynamic interactive interface required by users according to the task requirements of different users throughout the manufacturing life cycle.

The cloud-based 3D printing platform adopts the browser/server model. The service center of this model is the Web server, the technology adopted is TCP/IP technology, and HTTP is used as the transmission protocol of the cloud service platform 41, the cloud client can access the web server of the cloud manufacturing service platform by using a browser. The Internet is the medium between the browser and the server. The cloud service platform is called as a service provider in order to provide customized 3D printing services and model ideas for cloud request users various types of cloud services such as design services and printing simulation software services. The schematic diagram of the cloud manufacturing service platform is shown in Figure 2-1 Participating users of the cloud service platform can choose to use mobile phones, tablets, computers and other terminals to access the cloud service platform for 3D printing products and call various cloud services provided in the cloud service platform.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2-1 Schematic diagram of cloud manufacturing service platform

2.2 3D Printing Cloud Platform Architecture

With reference to the multi-layer system architecture of cloud manufacturing [66,67], the system structure of service platform for 3D printing products is proposed. The cloud platform's architecture has a total of eight layers, which are the basic technology support layer, 3D printing resource layer, virtual resource layer, service resource layer, tool layer, application interface layer, access layer, and user layer. The architecture diagram of the cloud service platform is shown in Next page Figure 2-2. As an overall framework of the cloud experiment platform of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, the purpose is to provide users with various 3D printing Design and manufacturing cloud services. In the second subsection, each layer of the system architecture is analyzed in detail.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2-2 3D printing cloud service platform architecture diagram

2.3 Analysis of the functions of each layer of the 3D Printing Cloud Platform Architecture

2.3.1 Basic Technology Support Layer

The basic technology support layer is the basic layer of the cloud service platform 68, Cloud service platforms need to use infrastructure as a service The purpose of the management model is to provide a stable and smooth technical support for the operation of the cloud manufacturing service platform.

The specific analysis is as follows:

(1) Cloud network: the general term for the integration and application of Internet technology in the cloud era. From a technical point of view, the cloud network is divided into two parts, one part is cloud equipment, the other part is cloud service; from the perspective of deployment mode, cloud network includes three types, namely, public cloud, private cloud and hybrid cloud. , The three are interrelated but irreplaceable.
(2) Cloud server: It is a computing service that is simple, efficient, safe and reliable, and even has flexible processing capabilities. The emergence of cloud servers solves the problems of difficult management and poor business scalability between traditional physical hosts and VPS services. It can provide Internet infrastructure services between most small and medium-sized 3D printing companies and large companies, and is characterized by scalability.
(3) Cloud storage: It is an online storage mode that brings together different types of devices in the cloud to work together through application software. Cloud storage provides major functions such as data storage and access. It ensures the security of data information and saves storage space for data information, model data information of 3D printing products requires data storage and data security.

2.3.2 3D Printing Resource Layer

The 3D printing resource layer is the physical foundation of the entire cloud platform, providing support for the operation of various services in the cloud platform. Generally speaking, 3D printing resources can be divided into two categories: 3D printing hard and soft manufacturing resources. Among them, 3D printing hard manufacturing resources mainly include various types of equipment resources (such as printing equipment, scanning equipment, testing equipment, etc.), material resources (such as 3D printing materials, parts, etc.); 3D printing soft manufacturing resources mainly include various types of software resources (Such as 3D drawing software, service billing software, stress analysis software, etc.), human resources (such as model file designers, industry experts, managers, etc.), knowledge resources (such as 3D printing examples, industry standards, technical references, etc.).

2.3.3 Virtual Resource Layer

The main function of the virtual resource layer is to abstract and simplify the 3D printing resources connected to the cloud service platform 69, First, use the virtualization technology in the cloud service platform to abstractly describe the attribute information of various 3D printing physical resources and describe it as virtual resource information to form virtual data resources; secondly, the virtual data resources are encapsulated and released to the cloud service platform The resource service center module in, forms a virtual resource cloud pool, and finally users can choose various printing resources they need from the cloud.

The main functions of the virtual resource layer are as follows: (1) Describe, publish and schedule various 3D printing physical resources, and provide a method of direct or indirect invocation for cloud requesters; (2) Describe physical resources through virtualization Print resources, make them descriptive documents, and ensure users to search or match resources; (3) Realize the sharing of 3D printing resources.

[...]

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Details

Title
A Paradigm for Design and Manufacturing Based on Additive Manufacturing Online Platform
College
Nanjing University of Science and Technology  (Mechanical Engineering)
Course
Additive Manufacturing & 3D Printing
Grade
3.6
Author
Year
2021
Pages
107
Catalog Number
V1014086
ISBN (eBook)
9783346410214
ISBN (Book)
9783346410221
Language
English
Keywords
3D Printing, Cloud Printing, Cloud Platform, Modeling Method of Resources and Tasks, Collaborative design and manufacturing
Quote paper
Kianoush Haghsefat (Author), 2021, A Paradigm for Design and Manufacturing Based on Additive Manufacturing Online Platform, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1014086

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