The Reading Habits among the Basic Science and Technology Students in Akoko South-West in Ondo State, Nigeria

Bachelor Thesis, 2019

56 Pages, Grade: A


Table of contents

Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions : The following questions were raised to guide the study
Significance of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms

The Concept of Basic Science and Technology
The Concept of Reading Habit
Empirical studies on Reading Habit
Reading Habits among Basic Science and Technology students
School Library and Reading Habit
Effective Reading Skills as a Prerequisite of Students Development
Strategies for Improving Reading Habit in Schools
Influence of New Technology in Child Development
Summary of Literature Reviewed



Recommendations Based on the findings the following recommendations were made:





Background to the Study

Reading is vital in the life of every student, because it is the fundamental process of learning. Adeyinka and Samson (2007) defined reading as the practice of comprehending and acquiring knowledge for personal growth and development. It is an essential process that aids the conception of thoughts and knowledge in ones chosen field of study or specialization. It can be said that the ability to read is at the heart of self-education and lifelong learning and that it is an art capable of transforming life and society. Therefore, for students to perform well in their academic pursuit, reading is the basis. Reading habits will enable students to have effective study skills, knowledge of different information resources, and effective retention capacity. Reading is an essential tool for knowledge transfer and the habit of reading is an academic activity that increases skills in reading strategies. Thereof, cultivating reading habits is tantamount to students’ academic performance.

According to Akabuike and Asika (2012), academic success at any level is likely a multi-dimensional phenomenon that includes languages proficiency, learning, study strategies and certain personal characteristics. And this could be achieving when one imbibes a good reading habits which will make him/her a lifelong learner. Early imbibing of reading habits is an essential skill necessary in the acquisition of knowledge which is highly demanding in the life of every student in the academic environment. No wonder Greene, (2001) asserts that, it is best formed at a young impressionable age in school, but once formed it can last one’s life time. Hitherto, when young people miss the opportunity of appreciating and loving to read, atearly stage, they will find it challenging to imbibe reading habit in later years.

Study on reading habits revealed that, whenever a student adopts effective reading habit, his learning skills, his understanding of learning materials and his memory processing both test and examination are improved appreciably. Also Onyejiaku(1987) maintains that people's achievement is functional to her perception of the self and the individual is motivated by a need to achieve at a level which is consisted with his or her current habits. Roth (1992) asserts that the credit of an educational system depends on the learning of its learners. As this depend on the ability of students to effectively comprehend with high concentration ability through cultivating good reading habit. Denga (2001), further described man as a creator of habits. He states that man has the ability to create habits that will enable him achieve pressing needs hence; he can form habits of study, emotional control, habitual attitudes and habit of consumption. Therein, “success in college depends to a considerable degree upon students’ ability to engage in strategic reading of extensive academic or informational (Caverly, Nicholson, and Radcliffe, 2004). The improvement of academic performance of students is one of the fundamental objectives of any educational institution whose core vision is to develop human in character and excellence through teaching and research.

The study of Basic Science and Technology is a new way of studying science. According to Omiko, (2012) Basic Science and Technology was introduced into this country Nigeria a few decades ago. It started with few schools, and now all the junior secondary schools in the country have adopted it According to the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) the aims of Basic Science and Technology (Formerly Integrated Science) should be directed at enabling students who are exposed in it, to acquire how to observe carefully and thoroughly, reporting completely and accurately what is observed, organize information acquired, generalizing on the basis of the acquired information and predicting the result of generalization to mention a few. To achieve these objectives, reading is essential for every student taking Basic Science and Technology in junior secondary schools and healthy reading habits is important in enabling them use skills acquired in Basic Science and Technology in being innovative, discovery- prone, problem-solving and among others. From observation, it was discovered that many students do not use the library facilities in their academic environment and this could be a major factor which is responsible for poor academic performances. It is against this background therefore that this study intends to assess the reading habit in the learning of Basic Science and Technology among junior secondary schools in Akoko South-West Local Government area of Ondo State.

Statement of the Problem

The desire of every parent and teacher is for their children and students to achieve great result in their academic pursuits. The desire to achieve self­improvement both at school and later in life is tantamount to healthy reading habit. Reading helps in equipping the students to live effectively in this modern age of rapid technological development. It has been observed that students especially those in junior secondary schools have poor reading habit. This might have be attributed to non-existence of library, teacher, reading culture, lack of text books and so on. This study therefore, attempts to assess the reading habit among Basic Science and Technology students in Junior Secondary school students in Akoko South-West Local Area of Ondo State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to assess the reading habit among Basic Science and Technology Students in Junior Secondary Schools. It also aims at:-

1. examining how non-existence of a functional library affect students reading habit
2. to identify the influence of teachers on students reading habit
3. examining reading culture among Basic Science and Technology students

Research Questions : The following questions were raised to guide the study

1. How does non-existence of libraries affects students reading habit?
2. Do teacher’s activities influence the reading habit of their students?
3. How vibrant is the reading habits among Basic Science and Technology students?
4. How do students contribute to their inability to develop good reading habit?

Significance of the Study

The importance of this study is centered on the centrality of reading and its contribution to academic achievement and self-development of students. This study would contribute positively to the knowledge of students reading habit especially in Basic Science and Technology. This study would be beneficial to students in developing reading habit, the teachers to encourage reading culture and the parents to support both the students and teachers in making reading part of everyday activities of their children.

Delimitation of the Study

This study focuses on assessment of reading habit among Basic Science and Technology students in Junior Secondary school. The study area is Akoko South­West Local Government Area of Ondo State.

Definition of Terms

Reading Habit: -This is a well-planned and deliberate pattern of study which has attained a form of consistency on the part of students toward understanding academic subjects and passing at examinations. In this study the emphasis is on studying habit in Basic Science and Technology.

Basic Science and Technology:- Refers to science subject in Junior secondary school, that is undifferentiated form which stresses the fundamental unity of science. Basic Science and Technology involves the study of elementary biology, anatomy, earth/solar system, ecology, genetics, chemistry and physics as a single science subject in the Junior Secondary school

Library:-This is a portion in the school where books are kept for reading. Libraries provide access to reading materials through which school children and youths can gain and improve their skills. Libraries help introduce the use of reading for information, pleasure, passing examinations, and personal growth through lifelong learning.

Assessment: - This has to do with evaluating and examining the reading habit among the Basic Science and Technology students.



This chapter review literature under the following sub-headings;

- The concept of Basic Science and Technology
- The concept of Reading Habit
- Empirical Studies on Reading Habit
- Reading Habits among Basic Science and Technology students
- School Library and Reading Habit
- Effective Reading Skills as a Prerequisite of Students Development
- Strategies for Improving Reading Habit in Schools
- Influence of New Technology in Child Development
- Summary of Literature Reviewed

The Concept of Basic Science and Technology

Basic Science and Technology formerly known as Integrated Science is the first form of science a child comes across at the secondary school level. Basic Science and Technology is a core subject in the National curriculum at the upper basic level (Kim, 2008). All students from upper basic I-III classes must offer and study the subject. Basic Science and Technology is considered the bedrock of all science subjects at the senior secondary school (SSS) level. The subject prepares students at the upper basic level for the study of core science subjects (biology, chemistry and physics) at the senior secondary school level (Olanrewaju in Oludipe, 2012). That is why Oludipe (2012) further emphasized that for a student to be able to study single science subjects at the senior secondary level successfully; such a student has to be well grounded in Basic Science and Technology at the upper basic level. Based on this, it is generally taught as a single science subject, until in the SSS level, and then split into specialized science subjects (Biology, Chemistry and Physics). It is expected that those students who achieve well in Basic Science and Technology should be given the opportunity to study the separate science subjects at the SSS level.

According to Trustees of Princeton University (2013), Basic Science and Technology is a revolutionary new introductory science curriculum developed at Princeton intended for students considering a career in science. Basic Science and Technology emphasizes scientific literacy and research oriented learning (Eyles, 2009). The subject encourages exploration of student’s immediate environment. As a result, basic science teachers continue to learn along with their students. The teaching of Basic Science and Technology is therefore, based on the philosophy of active learner-participation in the process whereby, students are encouraged to learn by constructing their own knowledge based on what they already understand as they make connections between new information and old information, guided or facilitated by the teacher (Piaget, 1956). Under this philosophy, students are encouraged and led to discover concepts and generalizations based on their experiments. Akinmade (1996) in his research rightly pointed out that, when children learn science using the process and activity approaches, they improve their ability to apply intellectual skills to solve problems, improve their language development, become more creative, master science content better and develop positive attitude towards science and scientists. Research by Bello (2007) has shown that the above desires are not being achieved as expected. The learning environment is expected to be democratic, the activities are interactive and student- centered and the teacher facilitates the process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous. Though the curriculum of Basic Science and Technology specifies “hands-on” and “minds-on” activities and skill acquisition, most students are not exposed to these real situations in the schools (FRN 2004). Emaikwu (2012), in his research discovered that Basic Science and Technology is generally taught using conventional strategy which does not follow the theories put forth by Kolb (1984) and the theory of learning process.

The Concept of Reading Habit

The concept of study habit according to Husain (2000) is broad, as it combines nearly all other sub-concepts such as study attitude, study methods and study skills. Attitude is a mental and natural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a direct influence on the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which is related. Attitude towards study has great contribution on achievement, and good study pattern. Successful learners adopt positive attitude towards study, and do not waste time or energy over what they have to do. If the learning experience is pleasant, the learner’s attitude and motivation is usually positive, and if the learning experience is not pleasant he tends to avoid it. Negative attitude towards study sometimes finds expression in comment such as “I study but cannot remember what I study” or “the lessons are too long”. Attitude serves as index on how we think and feel about people, objects and issues in our environment. Study attitude, according to Husain (2000), refers to the predispositions which students have developed towards private readings through a period of time. According to him, study attitude offers great possibilities for successful achievement in studies. Study method is the knowledge and application of effective study skills or techniques by students. Several study methods have been identified several effective study methods and skills that could be used by students based on the learning environment (Husain, 2000). Kelli (2009) posits that for students to succeed in their studies, they must be able to appropriately assimilate course content, digest it, reflect on it and be able to articulate the information in written and/or oral form. What is fundamental is the ability of a student to acquire effective study habits. Many students feel that the hours of study are the most important.

However, students can study for hours on end and retain very little. The more appropriate question is how students should study more effectively. Developing good time management skills is very important. Students must realize that there is a time to be in class, a time for study, time for family, time to socialize and time to just be alone. The critical issue is recognition that there must be an appropriate balance. Students should also have vision. A clearly articulated picture of the future they intend to create for themselves is very important and contributes to students’ success in school. This will promote a passion for what they wish to do. Passion is critical and leads to an intense interest, dedication and commitment to achieving career goals and objectives.

Marc (2011) explains that students with learning problems, however, may still have generally inefficient and ineffective study habits and skills. Becoming aware of your learning habits or styles will help students to understand why they sometimes get frustrated with common study methods. He observes that good study habits are essential to educational success; as they contribute to a successful academic future. Good study habits lead to good grades while good grades lead to admissions to better colleges and universities, possibly with a scholarship thrown in. This in turn, will lead to a great career. Developing good study habits to Marc is very crucial for every student irrespective of his level of education. It boosts students’ ability to be self-disciplined, self-directed and ultimately successful in their degree programs. The sooner a student starts practicing and developing good habits, the better chance he will have that he will continue with them. Procrastination can be overcome with proper study habits and improving one’s study habits is the key to better studying. Being organized and having homework routines are the most important things in helping a child/student develop good study habits for life. Developing good study habits help spell success and a student will find himself working more efficiently and experiencing lesser stress in the process. He adds that having effective study habits creates a more efficient academic environment. Planning your study schedule as a student in advance and faithfully sticking to it saves time. When students have good study habits, they tend to be less stressed. Students who are anxious on exam day are typically the procrastinators who come unprepared. Students who organize their lives and stick to their established study schedules are confident and relaxed at test-taking time (Marc, 2011). Ashish (2013) opines that if students must ensure academic success throughout the entire year, it is important to ditch bad study habits and establish good ones. He further maintains that no matter what age or academic level, employing effective study strategies can make all the difference between acing a class, barely passing or worse and failing miserably. She admits that many of today’s most common study methods or habits can lead to utter disappointment despite best efforts and intentions. To Ashish (2013), knowing exactly what does and does not work on a personal level, even tracking study patterns and correlating it with related grades and then proactively creating a study plan and schedule around the proven effective methods, is the most powerful study tool of all. Adeninyi (2011) maintains that good study habits allows students to study independently at home and aspire for higher educational career. The formation of good study habits in secondary school level further serves as the basis for students’ performance in external examinations such as West African Examinations Council (WAEC), National Examinations Council (NECO) and Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB).

In the view of Agba (2013), unserious students do study anyhow without specific techniques, and he submits that such students are most likely to perform below average. Thus, he concludes that good study habits help students to: attend classes very often and do so on time. It also helps them to submit their assignment on time, read or prepare very well for tests and exams, take down notes and develop the points independently, ask relevant questions in class; thereby having good grades at the end of the term or semester. Monday (2008) writing on bad study habits maintains that developing good study habits in school will help students succeed in class and achieve educational goals. Similarly, Bolling (2000) asserts that good study habit through planning helps students prepare for what is ahead, and accomplish their academic goals. Thus, lack of study habits clearly puts students at a disadvantage, and is one of the main reasons students need remedial classes, fall behind in coursework and drop out of school.

Developing good study habits drastically lowers students’ risk of academic struggles, and failure to complete a college degree. Hence, Bolling (2000) submits that students who tend to perform high across most of their subjects can be considered to have good study habits by being actively involved in their own learning process, continuous planning and carefully monitoring of the educational task that they are required to complete.


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The Reading Habits among the Basic Science and Technology Students in Akoko South-West in Ondo State, Nigeria
Adekunle Ajasin University
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reading, habits, basic, science, technology, students, akoko, south-west, ondo, state, nigeria
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Tomiwa Ogunrinde (Author), 2019, The Reading Habits among the Basic Science and Technology Students in Akoko South-West in Ondo State, Nigeria, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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