Granit Outcrops and their Reception by Residents

Academic Paper, 2017

15 Pages


Table of contents

1.0 Introduction

2.0 Methodology

3.0 Results and Discussions
3.1 Residents’ perceptions about the granite outcrops in parts of Winneba
3.1.1 Traditional belief related to granite outcrops
3.1.2 Respondents side with scientific explanation
3.1.3 Respondents ’ age and their perceived causes of granite outcrop
3.1.4 Respondent ’s duration of stay and their perceived causes of granite outcrops
3.1.5 Respondents ’ gender and their perceived perceptional cause of granite outcrops
3.2 Residents’ perception and scientific explanation of granite outcrops in Winneba

4.0 Conclusion


Abstract: Some coastal and inland residential areas in Ghana have deposits of granite outcrops, such as those found in Winneba, a coastal town in Ghana’s Central Region. Residential granite outcrop deposits mostly draw the people’s perception about their origin and why they appeared in such areas. The study was therefore aimed at finding out the perception of residents about the existence of granite outcrops in parts of Winneba Township. The study was mainly descriptive using total respondents of 60 residents from three communities within the Winneba Township. These were selected through systematic and purposive sampling and were interviewed. The study also relied on first-hand information as well as documented literature. The results confirmed that the perception of most residents was influenced by their level of education and also traditional beliefs. Even those with higher education relied on historical myths and folk tales handed to them by their grandparents, either than scientific-based research. It however appeared that the varying perceptions of the residents mostly did not fit into the scientific explanation of the origin of the granite outcrops in the communities. Based on these findings, it was recommended that public education be carried out to create awareness about these outcrops, their preservation and utilization.

Keywords: Residents, Perception, Granite outcrop, Igneous rock, Traditional Beliefs.

1.0 Introduction

Granite is a type of plutonic igneous rock which is formed as a process of volcanic activities. It is an intrusive igneous rock which is granular and phaneritic in texture.

Granites are formed as the ‘end product’ of volcanic eruption. Volcanic eruption occurs when molten magma under intense pressure in the earth’s core finds its way to the earth’s surface through fractures in the lithosphere. This molten magma when present on the earth is called lava. In the process of eruption, some lava founds its self on the surface of the earth, they cool, solidify and crystallize. This type of volcanic rock is known as the extrusive igneous rock. They mostly form mountains, hills and inselbergs. During the eruption some lava also remains within the lithosphere, they cool and solidify to form intrusive or plutonic igneous rocks. Through the process of massive erosion and weathering, plutonic igneous rocks are exposed to the surface of the earth. During erosion and weathering, weaker rocks are broken down to form smaller particles and soil while stronger rocks forming residual outcrops which may include granite rocks forming outcrops in some parts of the world. (Odame-Adu, 2012)

Granite outcrops and granite gneiss are present in many countries in the world. They frequently occur as extensive areas of exposed rock (Brady & Bradley, 2014). The best known granite outcrop in the world is the Stone Mountain in DeKalb County east of Atlanta, U.S.A. In some parts of Atlanta and North Carolina, granite outcrops are found in some residential areas which serve as a conducive and relaxing place for many people as well as a favorable place for the siting of hotels, resort centers, and spas (Burbanck & Platte, 1964). In Africa most granite outcrops are found in the southern part of the continent. The low velvet in Mpumalanga (South Africa) is made up of mostly intrusive igneous rocks. Some coastal areas in Ghana also have deposit of granite outcrops (Afrifa, 2014). Places in the Eastern region of Ghana, especially around Koforidua, Ashanti-Mampong, Akuapim-Larteh and the Kwahu ridge have extensive outcrops of granite present in some residential areas (Geocaching, 2016). Some granite outcrops are also located in Apemso and Nkyerepoaso in the Ashanti region; in this area the rocks are pinkish whilst others are grey in color (Afrifa, 2014).

Winneba is a coastal area in the Central Region of Ghana. It has a low lying slope area except some distinctive areas with granite outcrops. These areas include; area about 1km behind the municipal hospital, the water work area, and the main Roman church area. The residents of these areas have varying perception about the origin of these granite outcrops. Some residents attribute it to lesser gods while others may presume it to be caused by some unknown spiritual beings. Lack of scientific knowledge and understanding about the erupted granite outcrops in some parts of Winneba has led to a huge misconception of these outcrops in the minds of residents. This misconception has led to the under-utilization of these outcrops and has hindered their exploitation to the development of the society and the region as a whole. This has led to the over reliance on fishing activities such as fishing, fish processing, trading etc. in the community as their main means of survival, hence any climatic failure which may affect fishing activities affects their living conditions greatly. This circumstance has made the residents of the society poorer and poorer, while they sit beside valuable resources which could be exploited to their benefit and advantage.

Residents of nearby communities with similar granite outcrops such as Gomoa-Okyereko, Gomoa-Dominasi, and Gomoa-Potsin are extensively exploiting the granite outcrops in their area to the development of their communities. This utilization has created a huge number of employments for the youth of these communities and has decreased the rate of social vices such as robbery, stealing, pick pocketing, and prostitution within the communities. Though residents of these areas also use to have traditional beliefs ascribed to this outcrops, extensive education and scientific interpretations have changed their perceptions about the outcrops in the communities. This has contributed largely to the utilization and the development of the resource in the communities.

The objective of this study was to investigate residents’ perception about the existence of granite outcrops in parts of Winneba. It also sought to compare residents’ perception with the scientific knowledge about the erupted granite outcrops in parts of Winneba.

2.0 Methodology

The research design used for this study was the descriptive survey. The researcher took into consideration only residents who have stayed in the areas for more than 10 years. This was largely to eliminate the student population in the Winneba Township (students from the University of Education, Winneba) who could influence the data. Sixty people were considered that is; twenty people from each community. The twenty people from each community consisted of eight males and twelve females. There were also fifteen respondents (i.e. five (5) people from each area) above fifty (50) years who were purposively selected for historical information. The simple random sampling was used for selectin the other participants who fell within the prerequisite.

3.0 Results and Discussions

3.1 Residents’ perceptions about the granite outcrops in parts of Winneba

3.1.1 Traditional belief related to granite outcrops

The study sought to acquire the response of the participant’s whether the granite outcrops has something to do with their traditional belief. Though the responses of the participants seemed to vary, 81.7% of them confirmed that the outcrops had a strong setting in their traditional endeavors such as worship, festival etc. as well as their inter relationship with this outcrops being sacred while 18.3% stood against the notion that the outcrops had something to do with their traditional belief.

The researcher probed further to re-enforce evidence in the traditional beliefs concerning the granite outcrops. Respondents said the local names given to these rocks were a reflection in their traditional belief. Those names included;

1. ‘Oboton’ which literally means mighty rock or mountain.
2. ‘Oboba’ which literally means stone.
3. ‘Penkye Otu’ ne ‘Penkye mmba’ which means penkye otu (the biggest outcrop rock) which is the mother rock and her children (the smaller surrounding outcrops).

From data gathered, 30% stated ‘Oboton’ as the local name used to call the outcrops, 31.7% called the outcrops ‘Oboba’ while 38.3% said the outcrops are called ‘Penkye Otu’ for the parent rock and ‘Penkye mmba’ for the surrounding smaller outcrops.

3.1.2 Respondents side with scientific explanation

The study also probed the respondents on what they think about the scientific explanation to the origin of the granite outcrops. The researcher wanted to seek whether the respondents side with the scientific explanation or not. The result in Table 4.5 indicates that out of the 60 participants, 37 agreed with the scientific explanation with 20 of them objecting while 3 people were not sure of themselves. This represented 61.7%, 33.3%, and 5% respectively.

3.1.3 Respondents’ age and their perceived causes of granite outcrop

The research probed the respondents on their thought and understanding of the origin and cause of the granite outcrops in their areas. The researcher hence categorized those responses as either being scientific or traditional. This was to help know whether the respondents had any scientific understanding of the outcrops in their communities. The results indicates that 22 of the respondents had some level of scientific understanding about the origin of the outcrop while 38 responses were related to traditional and superstitious beliefs which could not be proven scientifically.

Majority of the respondents who answered the question on the causes of the granite outcrops gave more traditional reasons and response than scientific ones. From the data it was released that 38 out of the 60 respondents representing 63.3% gave traditional explanations to the causes of the outcrops. Majority of that traditional response (that is 14 out of 38 representing 36.84%) came from the people between the ages of 26-35. Also out of the 21 respondents within this age group (that is 26-35), only 7 people (that is 33.33%) gave scientific explanation while 14 of them representing 66.66% gave traditional reasons. Most of those people within this age group assigned reasons similar to that of those within the 46-55 and 56 and above age groups. These reasons include;

1. The rocks were created by God and they were just inhabitant of it.
2. It was a phenomenon they came to meet and hence contributes it to the creation of their art of worship; ‘penkye-otu’.
3. It was created by spiritual beings that one’s lived before our generation.
4. It was by nature and that they came to meet and hence assigned it to their fore fathers inheritance.


Excerpt out of 15 pages


Granit Outcrops and their Reception by Residents
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ISBN (eBook)
ISBN (Book)
granit, outcrops, reception, residents
Quote paper
Ezekiel Otoo (Author), 2017, Granit Outcrops and their Reception by Residents, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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