COVID-19 Awareness and Compliance with Protocol in Selected Secondary Schools in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Forschungsarbeit, 2020

50 Seiten



1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Aim/objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope/Limitation of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms:

2.1 Coronavirus and it Origin
2.2 Covid-19
2.3 Causes of Coronaviruses
2.4 Symptoms of Covid-19
2.5 Transmission of Covid-19
2.6 Covid-19 Treatments
2.7 The Possible Complications From Covid-19
2.8 Prevention And Control Of Covid-19
2.9 Covid-19 Vaccines
2.10 The Different Types of Covid-19 Vaccines

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Validity of the Instruments
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Procedure for Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Demographic Information of the Respondents
4.3 Data Analysis Based on Covid-19 Awareness and Compliance with Protocol in Secondary School Students.
4.4 Summary of Findings.

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations





1.1 Background to the Study

In order to contain the spread of COVID-19 pandemic which has claimed many lives globally, authority across the globe have adopted strict measures aimed at protecting vulnerable individuals from contagion. These measures include enforcement of social distancing rules, total national lockdown, and ban on international flight, among others. According to recent estimates, complying with mitigation measures can save up to 20 million lives globally, and 38.7 million lives if the measures are adopted early (Walker et al., 2020). Closely related to this estimate is an excerpt of media briefing by WHO Director General on March 16, 2020.

“Social distancing measures can help to reduce transmission and enable health systems to cop. Hand-washing and coughing into your elbow can reduce the risk for yourself and others. But on their own, they are not enough to extinguish this pandemic. It's the combination that makes the difference. Washing your hands will help to reduce your risk of infection. But it's also an act of solidarity because it reduces the risk you will infect others into your community and around the world. Do it for yourself, do it for others”.

Despite the huge success of these measures across many countries, implementing them, and ensuring that people maintain social distance and refrain from unnecessary outdoor activities in authoritarian and liberal societies for weeks result into ultimate human challenge (Rooij et al., 2020). This is consistent with Soper's (1919) editorial review following the 1918 pandemic that killed millions of people worldwide: “It does not lie in human nature for a man who thinks he has only a slight cold to shut himself up in rigid isolation as a means of protecting others on the bare chance that his cold may turn out to be a really dangerous infection” (p. 502).

Following the first phase of gradual ease of lockdown in Nigeria on 4th May, 2020, the Federal Government approved the reopening of secondary schools for graduating classes starting from 4th August, 2020, with comprehensive guidelines and protocols. This reluctant measure was adopted to address the economic pressures and the negative impact of school closure onchild education, children with disabilities, children at risk, and those that were cut-off by barriers in digital learning (Ministry of Education, 2020). Unfortunately, a confirmed report indicates that 20 secondary school students tested positive for COVID-19 (Premium Times, 2020), questioning their behavioral compliance on school guidelines and protocols. Following presumptions on possible non-compliance across secondary schools nationwide, investigated students behavioral compliance towards COVID-19 guidelines for schools and learning facilities, and factors that shape such compliance. Finding reveal that there is no published empirical or theoretical evidence that examined people's compliance of COVID-19 guidelines in Nigeria, and factors that shape such compliance. However, related studies have been conducted to: track public perceptions towards the reality of the disease (Olapegba et al., 2020; Iorfa et al., 2020; Yusuf, Gusau and Maiyaki, 2020); examine its psychological distress and experiences (Olaseni, Akinsola, Agberotimi and Oguntayo, 2020); and forecast its spread (Joseph, Nweze, Sulaiman and Loko, 2020; Ibrahim and Oladipo, 2020), among others.

Similar studies had been conducted in country-specific settings, employing different analytic methods. For example, Folmer et al. (2020), investigated the level of compliance and adherence to social distancing measures in the Netherlands, with a view to understanding the processes that sustained citizens' compliance; how their compliance with mitigation measures developed; and how resources that sustained their compliance developed throughout the study period. Using two waves of online surveys administered on 2087 nationally representative samples between 7-10 (first wave; n = 1064) and 21-23 (second wave; n = 1023) July, 2020, the authors reported increase in compliance as opposed to decline in their previous study between May-June. Overall, they found important predictors of compliance, including capacity to comply, perceived health threat, and support for mitigation measures. Similarly, Rooij et al (2020), examined the level of compliance with COVID-19 mitigation measures in the United States. Using an online survey administered to 570 participants across 35 states that adopted such measures, the authors found that while perceptual deterrence was not associated with compliance, the later does depend on people's capacity to obey rules, opportunity to break rules, self-control, moral support and social norms.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Prior to the WHO pronouncement of COVID-19 as a global public health challenge and pandemic, many Nigerians regarded the disease as a distant white man’s infirmity that could never spread to their abode. Without recourse to expert advice and recommendations, Nigerians and their government downplayed the emergence of COVID-19 in their territory thereby hesitating the adoption of initial preventive measures which would have saved costs while protecting the citizenry from undue exposure to the virus. With the confirmation of the index COVID-19 case in Lagos, Nigeria on February 20, 2020, other parts of the country includingAkwanga Local Government of Nasarawa state in north-central region continued their normal routines and social activities without observing the sketchy preventive measures initially outlined by Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC, 2020). The public opinion within Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa state in central Nigeria was that COVID-19 is a “big man disease” (i.e. disease of the highly influential persons). With the low level of education within this region of Nigeria( Ige A.M,2014) their immediate conclusion and misinformation on those vulnerable to the disease were expected. As the number of COVID-19 cases gradually rises among the Nigerian population, mainly of metropolitan areas including Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) situated in central Nigeria, unfound uncertainties, palpable fear amidst misinformation regarding COVID-19 characterized the state of the inhabitants of the region.

Furthermore, the prevailing presence of urban slums, dense population, inadequate access to potable water, fragile healthcare system, sharing of sanitation facilities with a high degree of social mixing among the inhabitants of Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa state will make the implementation of hygiene and other public health measures necessary for the curbing of the coronavirus impossible(Winter S, 2019). Also, the spread of misinformation and tales regarding the COVID-19 and promotion of unscientific traditional treatment within the Area further jeopardized the implementation of preventive measures (Vigdor, N. (2020). Government inability to sustain the social distancing policy and ban on large gatherings including religious and cultural activities, funerals, weddings and sports may undoubtedly create accelerated COVID-19 super-spreading scenarios in Akwanga area,(SARS, and Ebola,2015). Based on this background that this study sort to investigates COVID-19 awareness and compliance with protocol in some selected secondary schools in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

1.3 Aim/objectives of the study

The aim of the study is to investigates COVID-19 awareness and compliance with protocol in some selected secondary schools in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study is to;

1. Know whether secondary school students have Knowledge about COVID-19 in Akwanga Local Government Area.
2. Know whether secondary school students in Akwanga Local Government Area comply with the COVID19 protocol.

1.4 Research Questions

1. Do secondary school students have knowledge about COVID-19 in Akwanga Local Government Area?
2. Do secondary school students in Akwanga Local Government Area comply with COVID-19 protocol?

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

1. Secondary school students in Akwanga Local Government Area have knowledge about Covid-19.
2. Secondary school students in Akwanga Local Government Area comply with Covid-19 protocol.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study benefits students, teachers, government, researchers and textbook authors. The findings suggest that students and teachers who participated and have access to this study will have good level of knowledge on COVID-19 with a positive attitude and compliance with the necessary measures outlined, which are necessary for mitigating the spread of COVID-19 in the area and Nigeria at large.

Despite their demerits, social media and the internet contributed significantly to the acquisition of the needed knowledge. There was no remarkable satisfaction in the government efforts in curtailing COVID-19 especially the involvement of Chinese doctors.

To the Government, this study will assist them in formulating policies that will further help in control and prevents spread of Covid19 in the area, it will also extending the awareness and protocol of Covid-19 to every group of the Nigerian population would constitute holistic and viable approach in curtailing COVID-19.

The study will be of help to researchers and textbook author in our primary, secondary, tertiary and society within and outside the nation for research purpose.

1.7 Scope/Limitation of the Study

The study on Covid-19 awareness and compliance with protocol in Nigeria, carryout in Nasarawa state. The study restricted to some selected secondary school in Akwanga Local Area of the state.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms:

Covid-19: Is an illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

Awareness: is the state of being conscious of something. More specifically, it is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.

Compliance: Compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy, standard or law.

Protocol: The official procedure or system of rules governing affairs of state or diplomatic occasions.

Secondary School: A school intermediate between elementary school and college and usually offering general, technical, vocational, or college-preparatory courses.



2.1 Coronavirus and it Origin

At the end of 2019, scientists identified a coronavirus outbreak in China. Experts named the newly identified virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the illness that it causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19).

There are many types of coronavirus. Some cause mild illnesses, such as the common cold. Others can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which can be life threatening.Many coronaviruses are present in animals but do not affect humans. Sometimes, however, a virus mutates in a way that allows it to infect humans. Scientists call these human coronaviruses, or “HCoVs.”

This article looks at a few coronaviruses that can infect humans, the illnesses they cause, and how they transmit. Specifically, we focus on three dangerous diseases caused by coronaviruses: COVID-19, SARS, and MER Researchers first identified a coronavirus in 1937. They isolated one that was responsible for a type of bronchitis in birds and had the potential to devastate poultry stocks(Aaron K., 2020).

Scientists found evidence of human coronaviruses in the 1960s, in the noses of people with the common cold. Several human coronaviruses cause mild illnesses, including colds.

The name “coronavirus” refers to the crown-like projections on the pathogen’s surface. “Corona” in Latin means “halo” or “crown.”In humans, coronavirus infections most often occur in the winter and early spring, but they can happen at any time(Aaron K., 2020).

2.2 Covid-19

Late in 2019, scientists started monitoring the outbreak of a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. They first identified the virus in Wuhan, China.The virus spread rapidly around the world, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a pandemic in March 2020.

The new coronavirus has been responsible for millions of infections globally, and it has caused more than 2 million deaths. The mortality rate varies from country to country. In the United States, it is around 1.7%.

Many researchers believe SARS-CoV-2 first infected bats before spreading to other animals, including humans. Some of the first people with COVID-19 had links to a live animal and seafood market. Overall, however, there is little conclusive information about the origins of the virus. Scientists are still investigating its source and initial pattern of spreading(Aaron K., 2020).

Many people with COVID-19 experience a relatively mild form of the disease that does not require specialist treatment. Others develop severe breathing problems and need to spend time in the hospital. In some cases, it is fatal.Some people who do not have severe symptoms initially go on to develop health issues that continue for weeks or months, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).People with a higher risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms include older adults and those with underlying medical conditions, including high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes, and cancer(Aaron K., 2020).

According to the CDC, most children with COVID-19 have mild or no symptoms. Fewer children have developed COVID-19 than adults. That said, infants and children with certain medical conditions may have an increased risk of severe illness and death.There may also be a higher risk of severe COVID-19 during pregnancy, as well as an increased risk of issues such as preterm birth. However, the role of the virus in these circumstances remains unclear(Aaron K., 2020).

2.3 Causes of Coronaviruses

Coronaviruses are zoonotic. This means they first develop in animals before being transmitted to humans.For the virus to be transmitted from animals to humans, a person has to come into close contact with an animal that has the infection(Aaron K., 2020).

Once the virus develops in people, coronaviruses can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets. This is a technical name for the wet stuff that moves through the air when you exhale, cough, sneeze, or talk.The viral material hangs out in these droplets and can be breathed into the respiratory tract (your windpipe and lungs), where the virus can then lead to an infection(Aaron K., 2020).

It’s possible that you could acquire SARS-CoV-2 if you touch your mouth, nose, or eyes after touching a surface or object that has the virus on it. However, this is not thoughtTrusted Source to be the main way that the virus is passed on.

SARS-CoV-2 can also be passed on via airborne transmission of small infectious particles that may linger in the air for minutes to hours.However, infection through close contact with people with SARS-CoV-2 and their respiratory droplets is currently thought to be much more common.

The 2019 coronavirus hasn’t been definitively linked to a specific animal.

Researchers believe that the virus may have been passed from bats to another animal either snakes or pangolins and then transmitted to humans.

This transmission likely occurred in the open food market in Wuhan

2.4 Symptoms of Covid-19

Doctors and scientists are learning new things about this virus every day. So far, we know that COVID-19 may not cause any symptoms for some people.You may carry the virus for 2 days or up to 2 weeksTrusted Source before you notice symptoms.According to (WHO, 2020). Some common symptoms that have been specifically linked to COVID-19 include:

- shortness of breath
- a cough that gets more severe over time
- a low-grade fever that gradually increases in temperature
- chills
- fatigue

Less common symptoms include:

- repeated shaking with chills
- sore throat
- headache
- muscle aches and pains
- loss of taste or smell
- a stuffy or runny nose
- gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
- discoloration of fingers or toes
- pink eye
- rash

However, individuals with COVID-19 may have some, all, or none of the above symptoms.

These symptoms may become more severe in some people. Call emergency medical services if you have or someone you care for has any of the following symptoms:

- trouble breathing
- blue lips or a blue face
- persistent pain or pressure in the chest
- confusion
- excessive drowsiness

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source is still investigating the full range of symptoms.

2.5 Transmission of Covid-19

Coronavirus infections are contagious, and some of these viruses, including the one that causes COVID-19, spread easily between people. Researchers believe that the viruses transmit via fluids from the respiratory system.

According to (Aaron K., 2020).Transmission may happen when a person:

- coughs or sneezes without covering their mouth, dispersing droplets containing the virus into the air
- has physical contact with someone who has the infection
- touches a surface that contains the virus, then touches their nose, eyes, or mouth

Ways of preventing transmission include:

- wearing a face covering in public
- avoiding touching the face, especially the mouth and nose
- always coughing or sneezing into a tissue, then disposing of it and washing the hands right away
- regularly and thoroughly washing the hands

During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, people should also do the following, even if they are well:

- Stay home whenever possible.
- Avoid contact with others.
- Wear a face covering in public.
- Stay at least 6 feet away from others in public.

Anyone with symptoms of COVID-19 should isolate at home and rest until the symptoms have passed. Contact a doctor for more information, and let them know if the symptoms seem to be worsening.

2.6 Covid-19 Treatments

There’s currently no cure for an infection with the new coronavirus. However, many treatments and vaccines are currently under study.

On October 22, 2020, the FDATrusted Source approved its first COVID-19 treatment, the medication remdesivir (Veklury). It’s available by prescription for people ages 12 years and older who’ve been hospitalized. It’s administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion.

In November 2020, the FDA also granted EUAs to monoclonal antibody medications. Monoclonal antibodies are human-made proteins that help to fight off foreign-made substances, such as viruses.

These medications are:

- bamlanivimab, from Eli LillyTrusted Source
- casirivimab and imdevimab, which must be administered together, from RegeneronPharmaceuticalsTrusted Source

Like remdesivir, they’re also administered by IV infusion and intended for people ages 12 years and older. These medications are used for outpatient therapy.

The FDA has also issued EUAs to a few other treatments, such as convalescent plasma, that are intended for people who are hospitalized or at high risk for hospitalization.

Most COVID-19 treatment focuses on managing symptoms as the virus runs its course.

Seek medical help if you think you have COVID-19. Your doctor will recommend treatment for any symptoms or complications that develop and let you know if you need to seek emergency treatment.

2.7 The Possible Complications From Covid-19

The most serious complication of COVID-19 is a type of pneumonia that’s been called 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP).

Results from a 2020 studyTrusted Source of 138 people admitted into hospitals in Wuhan with NCIP found that 26 percent of those admitted had severe cases and needed to be treated in the ICU.

The percentage of people who died from NCIP after being admitted to the hospital was 4.3 percent.

It should be noted that people who were admitted to the ICU were, on average, older and had more underlying health conditions than people who didn’t go to the ICU.


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COVID-19 Awareness and Compliance with Protocol in Selected Secondary Schools in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria
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covid-19, awareness, compliance, protocol, selected, secondary, schools, akwanga, local, government, area, nasarawa, state, nigeria
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Namo Danjuma NAMO DANJUMA Akpazi (Autor:in), 2020, COVID-19 Awareness and Compliance with Protocol in Selected Secondary Schools in Akwanga Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria, München, GRIN Verlag,


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