Community Participation in Urban and Peri-Urban Forest Management in Sawla Town (SNNPRS, Ethiopia)

Master's Thesis, 2010

60 Pages, Grade: Very Good


Table of Content




Table of Content

List of Tables

List of Figures


1.0. Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2. Problem Statement
1.3. Objectives
1.3.1 General Objective
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1.3.3 Research Questions
1.4. The Significance of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Background of the Study Area
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8. Definition of Terms
1.9 Conclusion

2.0 Introduction
2.1 Conceptual Framework of Participatory Urban and Peri-urban Forest
2.1.1 Participatory Urban and Peri-urban Forest Management
2.1.2 Concept Community Participation
2.1.3 Typologies of Community Participation
2.3 Community Willingness to Participate in UPFM
2.2.1 Factors Affecting Community Participation
2.4 Forms of Community Participation in UPFM
2.5 Local Authority Incorporation Community Participation in UPFM
2.5.1 Current Practices Community Participation in UPFM in Ethiopia
2.5.2 Legal Framework on UPFM in Ethiopia
2.5.3 Participatory Urban and Peri-urban Forest Management in Sawla
2.6 Conclusions

3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Types of Data Sources
3.3 Sampling Techniques
3.4 Instrumentation/ Data Collection Methods
3.5 Data Analysis/ Treatment of Data
3.6 Conclusion

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Response Rate
4.2 Respondent's Socio-economic Characteristics
4.2.1. Knowledge, Perception and Consumption Pattern of Forest in Respondents-
4.3 Community Willingness to Participation in UPFM
4.3.1 Community Interest in UPFM
4.3.2 Conditions that Foster Community Participation in UPFM
4.3.3 Factors Affecting Community Willingness to Participate UPFM
4.4 Forms Local Community Participation UPFM Programs
4.5 Institutionalization and Community Participation in UPFM
4.5.1 Community Participation in UPF Co-management Activities
4.5.2 Legal and Institutional Framework
4.6 Conclusion

5.0 Introduction
5.1 Conclusions
5.1.1 Community Willingness to Participate in UPFM
5.1.2. Local community Practices in UPFM
5.1.3 Institutionalization and Community Participation in UPFM
4.2 Recommendation


Appendix I: Questionnaire for Local Community

Appendix II: Questionnaires for Officials

Appendix III: Interview Guide for Community Respondents

Appendix IV: Result Tables

Appendix V: Map of Study Town Location

List of Tables

Table 2.1 Aref's Typology of Participation

Table 2.2 Reed's Typologies of participation

Table 3.1: Household by Sample Kebeles

Table 4.8: Experience of community participation in UPFM

Table 4.10: Respondents Preferences on Forms of Participation in UPFM

Table 4.11 Respondents Willingness Preferences to Contribute UPFM

Table 4.12: Respondent perception Community participation in LG UPFMP

Table 4.13: Respondents Knowledge on community participation in UPFM

Table 4.14 Respondents Perception towards level of Community participation UPFM ---

List of Figures

Figure 2.2: Wilcox's Level participation

Figure 2.3: Forms of community participation

Figure 4.1 Local Community Perception on Willingness to participate in UPFM

Figure 4.2: Level of community Willingness to participate in UPFM


Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


1.0. Introduction

This study explores the community participation in urban and peri-urban forest management in Sawla town, southwest Ethiopia. It assesses the willingness and non-willingness and existing practices of community in forest management. It also identifies local government action and institutional setting for forest management.

Chapter One begins with introduction the study and begins with background information of urban and peri-urban forest management and the important roles for social, economical, aesthetical and environmental health. It also describes the statement of problems, objectives, the significances, scopes, and limitation of the study and the background of the study area.

Chapter Three describes the methods used in the study research design, data sources, data manipulation, and the subsequent analysis. Chapter four present results and findings from the assessment urban and peri-urban environmental condition regarding deforestation and forest management and the role of community in forest management Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation for the findings in Chapter Four. Prior to dealing with these, it is important to take a look at the picture of introductory chapter of the study.

1.1 Background of the Study

Urbanization is both opportunity and threat for the environment, particularly in developing countries. This ongoing urbanization has brought about a wide range of challenges across the globe, and not only in terms of population growth. More land is needed for urban areas as well to cater for their needs in terms of inputs and outputs of resources and energy, with a detrimental effect on forests and other green areas (Konijnendijk, et al, 2002). Urban and peri-urban forestry and greening (UPFG) receives little attention on political agendas despite its importance for the social, economic, aesthetic and environmental benefits for society (Knuth, 2005).

In the context of Ethiopia, as in most developing countries, environmental problems are rampant (Ammanuel, 2001). These environmental problems in Ethiopia occur mainly due to anthropogenic impacts in the terms of misguided and unregulated modification of Ethiopian environment, in particularly the vegetation, soils and natural ecological processes. Past governmental and institutional changes, insecurity of land tenure, resettlement programs, population pressure, agricultural and infrastructure developments have worsened these problems (Gatzweiler, 2007).

According to NUPI (2002), in Sawla urban and peri-urban area, deforestation is caused by anthropogenic impacts like agricultural land use, housing, overgrazing, firewood, quarry and excavation of construction material provisions. These in turn yielded physical hazards, infrastructure deterioration, land use planning and implementation problems, temperature change, ground water depletion.

To restrain these urban and peri-urban misuse and mismanagement of urban and peri-urban forest the traditional way of addressing the issues in a reactive, ad hoc, end-of-pipe top-down manner has become highly inefficient. It needs popular participation of local community and design of urban environmental management system and ensuring local community participation in managing urban and peri-urban forest. Therefore, genuine community participation associated with sustainable urban and peri-urban forest management is vital to correct the situation. However, willingness and unwillingness of community to participate should not be taken granted. The ecological, aesthetical, economic and social benefits of urban and peri-urban forests are strong forces, which prompt urban citizens to adopt urban and peri-urban forest stewardship attitudes of practices. Thus, community participation in urban and peri-urban forest stewardship is a matter of both individual and collective coordinated effort to sustain the system in the study.

1.2. Problem Statement

While community participation has been hailed as key vehicle in environmental management, it should not be taken for granted or given that the community will engage itself as and when required by technocrats. Participatory practices stems from pro-participatory attitude and responsible citizenship. Hence there is a need for gauge the willingness and/or unwillingness of Sawla residents to manage and protect the town's ecological infrastructure and services.

Moreover, it is not always the case that these willing to contribute to the town's environmental management efforts, will automatically participate in, for example, urban and peri-urban forest management. There is the need to understand possibilities of willing citizens who may not participate, so as to address the hindrances on participatory urban and peri-urban forest management. It is after this that the local government may be able to meaningfully incorporate and engage the citizen, when the participatory field is known.

The local government has given less attention to public participation and consultation procedures incorporating in planning, implementation and evaluation of urban and peri-urban forest management and the elite view toward centralized management decision-making and the ignorance to periodic or regular overall participation. Besides, there is lack of institutional arrangements and clear legal provisions for urban and peri-urban forest management within their jurisdiction, and decision-making for the livelihood of the community and reclamation of the environment.

Therefore it is necessary to explore willingness or unwillingness and the existing practices of community participation in assessing, planning, implementing and evaluation of urban and peri­urban forest management issues in Sawla town. It is also time to assess the scale of the problems, the stakes of the community and the institutional setting of local government. Thus it is worth studying and appropriate recommendation is needed in approach and practice.

1.3. Objectives

1.3.1 General Objective

The general objective is to explore and identify the existing level of community awareness to participate in urban and periurban forest management in Sawla town and to recommend possible solution.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

The specific objectives of the study are:

- To assess the willingness of community to participate in urban and peri-urban forest management and assess the reason for their non-willingness;
- To identify the existing practices of community in urban and peri-urban forest management
- To assess how the local government incorporate the community in planning, implementation and evaluation of urban and peri-urban forest management

1.3.3 Research Questions

The following research questions are designed to analyze the role of local community and the partner engagements of the local government in urban and peri-urban forest management in Sawla town:

- Does the community have willingness or non-willingness to participate in urban and peri­urban forest management?
- What are the existing practices of community in urban & periurban forest management?
- Does the local government incorporate community in assessing, planning, implementation, and evaluation of development activities urban and periurban forestry of the town?
- What strategic solutions are raised by the community to improve these problems and to enhance partnership with local government?

1.4. The Significance of the Study

The management of urban and peri-urban forest is becoming key environmental issues that need attention in Sawla town. It is time to assess the scale of the problems, the stakeholders and the local government. In this regard the study is useful for policy and the findings would show micro level issues related to forest management in urban centers and periurban land. This study also useful for policy makers, specifically benefits Sawla town administration and municipality to take action on environmental problems related to urban and peri-urban forest management and its effects on the environs The research is also useful to scholars who are interested in the debate of participatory environmental management issues related to deforestation, urban and periurban forest management at micro levels and processes of participatory intervention to managing the negative aspects of urbanization in poor cities such as Sawla. This study also makes the community and the local government aware of the problems by filling the gap in knowledge during the research process; thus it can be assumed as an empowering activity in the town.

1.5 Scope of the Study

This research is concerned with the community participation in forest management. It specifically focuses on the analysis and exploration of community willingness or unwillingness to participate in urban and peri-urban forest management and identifies the current practices and preferential forms of participation. It peruses and elucidates the local elite action on urban and peri-urban co-management activities. The study also is delimited to interview responses of the study population and institutions involving in community participation based on the gauges of factors affecting community willingness to participate in urban and peri-urban forest management.

The study is spatially confined to the administrative boundary of Sawla town that includes inner and peri-urban landscapes and so is the validity of the findings. The study covers the community of the three Kebeles from the town. The delimitation is discernment has been decided with the concern of time, budget, objective of the study, external influences from local administration and the researcher's personal observations working as expert.

1.6 Background of the Study Area

Establishment of the Town : Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State Trade and Industry Bureau (SNNPR-TIB) report 2007 on resource assessment potential and project identification of Sawla Town revealed that Sawla town has been developed out of the Yella settlement. This settlement early began as mid of 1950's and Yella as a place of seasonal gathering and worship. As it was cited in the report, the most important factor for the development was the presence of airfield in 1932 to welcome Princess Roman Work and during Italian occupation, Italian use sporadically. Sawla was established in 1959 with total 200 hectares of the territory and the municipality is found in 1964 and as seat of Woreda and Awraja Administrative Council of Gofa (NUPI, 2002). According to SNNPR-TIB and NUPI the Master Plan of Sawla is the first in history of town during Haile Silassie first regime by Italian consultants under auspicious of Ministry of Interior of Ethiopia in 1967.

Location: The town is located in SNNPR State, Gamo Gofa zone. It is found in 518 km from Addis Ababa, 305km from Regional capital, Hawassa and 250 km from zonal capital, Arba Minch. Astronomically, it is located in 6047'50” North Latitude and 360 52'50” East longitude directions and with the elevation of 1265m above sea level. It is low landed with annual rainfall of 1309.4 mm, average annual temperature of 23.50c.

Land escape of the town is slant, near the mountain, which is highly exposed for flooding and dissected by crossing two streams Womba and Cholea which divided the town into four parts. The town is founded on the south-facing slope of mountain Woyla (2394m a. s. l) east-facing Dakisho-Subo Mt (2220m a. s. l) and at south Duza Hill (1411m a. l. s). The physical environment elements of the town include physiological, surface water drainage and climatic condition (SNNPR-TIB, 2007; NUPI, 2002). (See Map of Study Town Location in Appendix V)

Population and Administrative Structure: According to SNNPR-TIB (2007), total population of the Sawla town was 27,265. The most dominant ethnic groups living in the town are Gofa, Gamo, Wolayta, Dawro, Amhara, Mesketo, Oromo and Gurage (NNUPI, 2002). The Town administration was re-established by Proc. No. 103/2004 as one of the twenty-one reform town and cities with full local government administrative structures. The town administratively divided into two Subcities and six Kebeles SNNPR Constitution 1995 and Proc. No. 103/2004 the town has legal rights to exercise political, economical, social development power and function without prejudice of Federal and Regional Constitutions provisions and laws and can pass bylaws and implementation procedure, prepare socioeconomic plan, implement laws, regulations, policies, directives and programs enacted upper tiers of government. The town has power to preserve, protect, develop natural resources and mobilize the inhabitance for the development activities in its territory. It has the legislative body (municipal council), executive body (the Mayor and different department) and judiciary.

Socio-economic Situation: The town is the second commercial and administrative town in Gamo Gofa zone next to Arba Minch. People in the town engaged in commercial, government employee and agricultural activities. The usual commercial activity of the town is coffee marketing, cereal crops trading, textile exchange, shopping, hotel service activities and other petty and informal trading.

According to Town Administration Education Office, there are two kindergartens, three elementary schools, two junior secondary schools and one comprehensive and preparatory schools and two colleges (one government TEVT and privately owned). Sawla is served with one governmental owned district hospital, health center, five privately owned clinics and three pharmacies and drug venders. The health coverage is 70% and family planning aptly 90%

Rural-Urban Linkage: There is high rate of rural-urban migration for the search of job and service (Davidson, 2008). The actual and potential role of small and medium sized towns strengthen rural-urban linkages is enmeshed in the dual character of the settlement type. As Davidson (2008), Sawla is cluster as envisaged potential for development including being in the center of key agricultural area as its rural-urban linkage. However, Sawla is the biggest of all nine Woreda (Melo, Basketo, Gelila, Geze Gofa, Oyda, Zala, Uba D/tsehay, Kucha and Daramalo) towns around.

History of community participation in UPFM in Sawla: During 1960's the inner and periurban parts of Sawla town was covered by natural forest like acacia etbica, acacia tortolis, and acacia albida, balinaitus egyptica, cordia Africana, ficus vasta, ficus sur and other species of trees and vegetations. The parts of mountainous sides of the town were covered by broad-leafed natural forest which best adapts humid (NUPI, 2002) and the 243.0987 hectares total land (849.61 ha) of Sawla town is forest land (SNNP-TIB, 2007).

The traditional worshiping place considered as “Warship God's Forest” like Koora and Tsoosa is inherent to the local community for conservation and management of forests through ages. The local community in Gofa/Sawla has preserved Koora and Tsoosa forests in the name of God for centuries and is considered as central part of the socio-cultural philosophy of local people. Local communities believe that not only logging live trees from these areas but also removal of dead wood for fuel or charcoal is perceived as transgression and sin. However, traditional cemeteries (such as Gora and Doopo) and churchyard were very important part of forest conservation.

Local people communally carryout socio-economic activities, building houses including construction material provision, carryout agricultural activities and other activities in the form of Debo, Wonfel, Jigi, Idir, and other socio-cultural and self-help organizations The practice of conservation and management of forest resources is intrinsically shaped by the traditional ecological knowledge, culture and religious beliefs of local community.

Environmental Management: Urban environmental problems are widespread in Sawla. These environmental problems affected physical infrastructure deterioration, reduction in peri-urban agriculture production, siltation in the flood plains; physical hazards of flooding, temperature

change, ground water depletion, natural waterway degradation endangered the development of the proposed town land use planning and other socio-economic issues (NUPI, 2002). According to Sawla Town Finance and Economic Development office (2009), unemployment, poverty, urbanization and rapid growth of population, rapid rural-urban migration, homelessness, HIV/AIDS, orphans, street children, elderly, prostitution, juvenile delinquency some socio- environmental factors.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

There is shortage of finance and time. Poor internet access and lack of reference materials on the study area, since it is a remote region, are likely limiting but the objective and boundary of the research subject is delimited to ease the effects of these pitfalls. The data were obtained from local communities of particular Kebeles in the town; hence the findings cannot be generalized to other groups in other forest locations. The respondents may be biased towards co-management activities of urban and peri-urban forest due to over dependence on forest resources. The emphasis of the micro­level study is likely essential for the observation community participation and the role of the government in participating the community in its endeavors.

1.8. Definition of Terms

Urban forestry is a relatively new multidisciplinary approach in international forest research. It has been defined as the art, science, and technology of managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems for the physiological, sociological, economic and aesthetic benefits trees provides society (Clark, et al, 1997; Helms, 1998; Knuth, 2005; Konijnendijk, 2005; FAO, 2002; Konijnendijk, 2003 in Christopoulou, Polyzos and Minetos, 2007; Wolf & Kruger, 2008) through “ planned, integrated and systematic approach” (Horst, 2006; Knuth, 2005; Clark, et al, 1997) that merges arboriculture, ornamental horticulture and forest management. It is gradually being accepted that urban forests are an integral part of the basic infrastructure, economically, ecologically, socially and aesthetics of urban cities and urbanizing areas (Erickson, 2004; Knuth, 2005).

Peri-urban refers to the urban fringe and the geographic edge of cities as a place. Peri-urban. regions are those areas on the urban periphery into which cities expand or which cities influence (‘peri': around, about or beyond) and areas that the population growth rate is highest, environmental degradation and controlled planning by municipal governments lowest, jurisdiction is unclear or duplicated in matters of planning, land tenure and land transfer; service infrastructure is inadequate; social infrastructure does not meet basic needs; a significant proportion of residents are in lower income categories and unplanned settlements to cater to the growing rental market, the rental market alone catering to demand (Marshall, et al, 2009).

The typologies of peri-urban areas are: (1) village periurban (VPU)- non-proximate to the city either geographically or in travel time; (2) diffuse periurban (DPU)- geographically urban fringe; (3) c hain periurban (CPU)- geographically urban fringe; (4) in-place periurban (IPU) - geographically close to the city; urban fringe; and (5) absorbed periurban (APU)- geographically within the city, having been absorbed (Iaquinta & Drescher, 2000)

Urban and peri-urban forest is an ecosystem that not only includes vegetation but also soil, water, animals, utilities, buildings, transportation systems and people, which often has complex interrelationships. Urban and peri-urban forest found within a built-up environment, although an urban and peri-urban forest comprises natural woodlands within the zone of influence of urbanization as well (Knuth, 2005).

A community refers to a group of people with diverse characteristics who are linked by social ties, share common perspectives and engage in joint actions in a geographical locations or settings (UNEP-IETC, 2004) or through coming together on the basis of a geographical area, a work place, even an idea or a theme/issue, or on the basis of gender/age (ESCAP, 1997).

Community participation means a readiness on the part of both local governments and the citizens to accept equal responsibilities and activities in managing their surroundings and commitment to bring to the table resources, skills and knowledge for this purpose (UNEP-IETC, 2004) and of the key ingredients of an empowered community (Reid,2000).

Peasant forestry refers to trees managed by individuals/peasants living in the farmland or village Functional group forestry refers to trees or forests managed by functional groups such as cooperatives, schools, churches and mosques, women union, youth association, etc.

Fundamental group forestry refers to trees managed by fundamental groups such as natural villages, indigenous cultural communities like Tsoosa, Koora and Gimiza in Gofa ethnicity.

Village forestry refers to managed by an executive body of formal village or Kebele Administration.

Public forestry refers to managed by town administration in parts open spaces, roadsides, monuments, boulevards etc and regional and national governments.

Local Terms

Debo, Wonfel and Jigi is community association in which rural people come together to work or solve their common problems.

Idir is a community-based insurance scheme in which a household contributes a predetermined amount of money to be insulated from cash shortfalls in the event of death.

Gora refers to royal family cemeteries place of Gofa ethnicity covered dense forest

Doopo refers to cemeteries for common family place of Gofa ethnicity covered dense forest Tsoosa , Koora and Gimiza refer traditional worshiping forest or God forest in Gofa/Sawla Kebele is the lowest administrative unit in an urban centre and rural areas in Ethiopia. Woreda is a sub-district (the lowest administrative unit).

Zone is the administration between region (kilil) and district (woreda) in Ethiopia.

1.9 Conclusion

Ridiculous annihilation of UPF in recent years at an unprecedented pace both in quality and quantity has resulted not only in serious economic and environmental degradation but also threatened the livelihood security of people. These all call for the significance of extensive community participation in urban and peri-urban forest management in the micro-level.

The study undertake with the objectives of local community willingness to participate urban and peri-urban forests management and factor affecting community willingness to participate, the existing situation of local community participative practices, evaluating the local government by incorporate local community potential on urban forest management in the study area. The significant of study is pertinent for local community to fill gap in UPFM, researchers and practitioners. The study limited in certain constrained and delimited in the study area. The next chapter deals with literature reviews on UPFM


2.0 Introduction

In this chapter deals with the conceptual framework and historical base for urban and peri-urban forest and its participatory management approaches were determined. It deals with the conceptual framework and historical background of participatory urban and peri-urban forest management. It describes concepts and forms of community participation in urban and peri­urban forest management and the co-management of urban and peri-urban forest management. It also deals with community willingness and unwillingness, and factors affecting community to participate in urban and peri-urban forest management contemporary and legal aspects in urban forest management of forest in Ethiopia.

2.1 Conceptual Framework of Participatory Urban and Peri-urban Forest

2.1.1 Participatory Urban and Peri-urban Forest Management

The concept of participation originally grew out of radical criticism of mainstream development projects in the 1960s and 1970s. Critics who asked why development projects often failed to meet their objectives came to the conclusion that a lack of participation was the reason (Isage, Theilade & Thomson, nd). For example, the origins of participatory forest management in West Africa can be traced to the late 1970s and early 1980s to three concerns such as Sahelian droughts of the 1970s, the energy crisis of the 1970s and the failings of forestry policies throughout the world (Westoby 1987; Peloso 1992) cited in (Amanor, 2003). People's participation in forestry and natural resources programmes is widely favored, generously pronounced and passionately embraced, particularly at international meetings, conferences and workshops. However, once people leave the conference hall, the actual nature of public participation varies a great deal since participatory approaches, a detailed plan were prepared by traditional technicians and decision-makers and beneficiaries participated by providing formal comments on the plan, but the power to accept or reject comments remained within the control of the professionals (Burch, & Grove,1993).

According to EMPAFORM - Uganda (2006), participatory forest management refers to all forest management approaches where all stakeholders actively take part in forest management to attain sustainable forest management. It is the involvement of local communities and/or groups of and/or households in forest management, protection and utilization, community forestry covers wide range of activities, which link local people with forests, trees as well as products and benefits from the forests (Giang, 2004). However, the pioneering urban forestry partnerships have evolved, involving committed citizens and community-based organizations, adopting vulnerable groups as partners and clients, incorporating public-private partnerships and/or city partnerships, and fostering decentralized responsibilities (Konijnendijk, Sadio, Randrup, and Schipperijn, 2003). Aspects affecting urban forest management failure or success are determined by gender sensitivity, property rights, community organization, community perception and technological changes (Burch & Grove, 1993).

2.1.2 Concept Community Participation

According to Reed (2008) ,stakeholder participation have progressed through a series of recognizable phases: from awareness raising in the late 1960s (the anti-modernization critique of the transfer of technology paradigm); incorporating local perspectives in data collection and planning in the 1970s; the development of techniques that recognized local knowledge and “put the last first” such as farming systems research and rapid and participatory rural appraisal in the 1980s; increasing use of participation as a norm in the sustainable development agenda of the 1990s; the subsequent critique of participation and disillusionment over its limitations and failings; and finally to a growing “post-participation” consensus over best practice, learning from the mistakes and successes of this long history (Reed, 2008, pp.5). Many researchers have their own phraseology for defining community participation the debate on development, especially with poverty concerns, began to place the question of participation as a critical variable in the mid and late 1970s in forms such as people participation, women participation, community participation, etc. Lammerink et al., (2003) cited in (Osti, 2004).

Participation is a form of cooperation between agencies and the community, has been widely recognized as an efficient tool for analyzing and addressing social problems in a sustainable manner (Osti, 2004).According to Arnstein (1969) cited in Meng (2008), "participation of the governed in their government is the cornerstone of democracy." Wilcox (1994), Effective 21 participation identifies 10 key ideas which can aid thinking about community involvement are level of participation, initiation and process, control over position, power and purpose role of the practitioner stakeholders and community, partnership, peoples' commitment, ownership of ideas and confidence and capacity. According to Reid (2000), community participation is not an idle principle since participating community share the characteristics of open to involvement by all groups; involving many people, open to all ideas, inclusion and diverse and open mind and open process. The idea here was the community instead of being ignored, hidden, or changed human differences are celebrated as gifts. Without community participation, there are obviously no partnerships, no developments, and no program (Aref, 2009). Therefore, community participation is a vital component for political, social and economic development and ecological management.

UNEP-IETC (2004) environmental problems are typically complex, uncertain, and multi-scale and affect multiple actors and agencies. Community participation benefits is increasingly being sought and embedded into environmental decision-making processes, from local to international scales (Richards et al., 2004) including improvement of project design and effectiveness; enhancement of the impact and sustainability; improvement efficiency; building local capacities and capabilities; involvement in environmental decision-making; empower people the opportunity such as water supply, sanitation, forests, roads, schools and health clinics to devise and initiate strategies to improve their situation (Moningka, 2000; Narayan (2002) in Cohen, Rocchigiani & Garrett (2008)). "I participate, you participate, he participates, we participate, you participate...they profit”, French student poster in English (Arnstein, 1969) since participation without redistribution of power is an empty and frustrating process for the powerless. Citizen participation is citizen power.

2.1.3 Typologies of Community Participation

Community participation as a spectrum from passive to active involvement to full local participation, where there is active community participation and venture ownership (Ashley & Roe, (1998) in (Aref, 2009). Meanwhile, some scholar provided a typology of participation and Arnstein constructed a eight ladder of citizen participation.

According to Arnstein, (1969), manipulation and therapy rungs describe levels of "non­participation" that have been contrived by some to substitute for genuine participation. Their real objective is not to enable people to participate in planning or conducting programs, but to enable powerholders to "educate" or "cure" the participants. Informing and consultation rungs progress to levels of "tokenism" that allow the have-nots to hear and to have a voice. When participation is restricted to these levels, there is no follow-through, no "muscle," hence no assurance of changing the status quo. Placation is simply a higher level tokenism because the ground rules allow have-nots to advice, but retain for the power-holders the continued right to decide (Arnstein, 1969).When citizens enter into a partnership that enables them to negotiate and engage in trade-offs with traditional power holders. At the topmost rungs, delegated power and citizen Control, have-not citizens obtain the majority of decision-making seats, or full managerial power (Arnstein, 1969; Reed, 2008; Aref, 2009).

Figure 2.1: Arnstein's eight rungs on the ladder of citizen participation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Adopted from Arnstein (1969)

The next grouping encompasses three degrees of tokenism, which allow the participants to be heard, to have a voice. At the level of symbolic participation, citizens gain some degree of influence though it is still a form of tokenism as traditional power-holders continue to have the right to decide (Arnstein, 1969; Aref, 2009).

Table 2.1 Aref's Typology of Participation

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Adapted from Leksakundilok (2006) cited in Aref, F. 2009, pp.70)

According to Reed (2008) the typology based on different degrees of participation on a continuum, nature, theoretical basis and the objective for which participation is used. Reed clearly noted the typology based on different degrees of participation on a continuum. Numerous alternative terms suggested for different rungs of the ladder (Biggs, 1989; Pretty et al., 1995; Farrington, 1998; Goetz and Gaventa, 2001; Lawrence, 2006) cited in (Reed, 2008). Arnstein's (1969) cited in Reed (2008) “ladder of participation” described a continuum of increasing stakeholder involvement, from passive dissemination of information (which he called “manipulation”), to active engagement (“citizen control”).


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Community Participation in Urban and Peri-Urban Forest Management in Sawla Town (SNNPRS, Ethiopia)
Ethiopian Civil Service University  (Urban Development and Management)
Urban Management
Very Good
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community, participation, urban, peri-urban, forest, management, sawla, town, snnprs, ethiopia
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Shigute Tiyite Menesha (Author), 2010, Community Participation in Urban and Peri-Urban Forest Management in Sawla Town (SNNPRS, Ethiopia), Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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