The book Instructional Design, the ADDIE Approach was written by Robert Maribe Branch is Professor of Learning, Design, and Technology at the University of Georgia. He emphasizes student-centered learning; he teaches courses related to project management and instructional systems design. Branch taught secondary school and university lecturer in Botswana as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Technology Education Department. Branch worked as a Fulbright lecturer/researcher at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa, conducting research on the complexities of intentional learning spaces. Branch taught graduate courses and conducted research at Syracuse University prior to relocating to Athens. Branch edits the Educational Media and Technology Year book and published Instructional Design, the ADDIE Approach. Branch's published work focuses on diagramming complex conceptual relationships and other complex flow processes using the ADDIE model, organized under 5 chapters, which was introduced in 2009.
Over the years, a number of instructional design models and processes have been defined, but only a few have been widely accepted and implemented by most instructional design practitioners, among the most widely accepted instructional design ADDIE model is one. Robert Marbie Branch is one of the great scholars who contributed significantly to the development of the instructional design model. Branch is a fantastic analyst, and the best writer has done extensive research on instructional design, which has been divided into a five-phase process for curriculum specialists developing book called Instructional Design, the ADDIE Approach. The ADDIE Model use input, process and output (p.3), analyze is the input for the system design, development and evaluation are the process and implementation are the output. Branch's book develops deeply into each of the ADDIE model's five components.
Professor Branch, to compile the book Instructional Design: The ADDIE approach, the main methods used, apparently, were qualitative and quantitative methods of research based on
Kind and amount respectively (p.5). In addition, the author used a case-based approach by the series of cases can be categorized as beginning cases, middle cases, and ending cases (p.20). Data gathering tools like surveying, document reviews, interviews (pp.164-175) and self test were used. Following data collection, the author explains and analyzes the information using various analysis techniques such as Gantt chart(p.55), diagrams, figures, and tables and also provides various examples. Furthermore, authors used various literature sources such as published books, reputable scientific journals and articles, internet sources, and also, in order to develop the idea of the ADDIE model assesses Gagne nine events of instruction (p.88) and Blooms taxonomy (p.35), and, in sum, A close look at the206 pages of the book reveals that the author’s work could be put under two general themes first books sought to promote concepts and second common procedures of ADDIE model phases, such as
3. Theme of Book
Branch starts with the deal in chapter one by focusing on the analyze phase (pp.23-56). According to him, the main goal of the analyzing phase is to identify the probable causes for performance gap. In this regard, he points out if the performance gap is caused by a lack of knowledge and skill, then proceeds to propose instructional options and develop a Purpose Statement. Besides the analyze stage, it is the data gathering stage of instructional design. Here, the author points out any instructional designers assemble all the information they can possibly gather about the course before they consider anything else. Besides, the instructional designer clarifies the problem to be addressed with an instructional intervention, defines the training need and conducts an extensive audience analysis to determine the instructional environment, pre-existing knowledge, skills and abilities, opportunities and constraints. In addition, the author introduces to the readers in the analyze phase, determines the learners' needs, and creates learning goals and objectives. According to Professor Branch, the analyze phase includes six common procedures, which are as follows: first, validate the performance gap, second, determine instructional goals, third, confirm the intended audience, and fourth, evaluate the results Identify required resources fifth, identify potential delivery systems (including a cost estimate).sixth Compose a project management plan
In Chapter two, Branch pays attention to the design stage (pp.59-81). In his explanation, the purpose of the Design phase is to verify the desired performances and appropriate testing methods. The author agrees in the Design phase establishes the "Line of Sight" for progressing through the remaining ADDIE phases. Line of Sight refers to an imaginary line from the eye to a perceived object. Design is the blueprint stage of the instructional system during which instructional designers create the blue print for the course with all the specifications necessary to complete the course. Branch state during the design phase, the emphasis is needed on learning objectives, content, lesson planning, assessment tools used, and media. The author also listed four common procedures associated with the design phase by listing first, conducting a task inventory /curriculum mapping/; identifying the essential tasks required to achieve an instructional goal. Second, compose a performance objective; that includes a condition component, a performance component, and a criterion component. Third, generating testing strategies create item to test student performance. Lastly, calculate the return on investment; estimate the coast for completing the entire ADDIE process.
In the third chapter (pp.83-131), it covers the develop phase. Under this, Branch introduces his readers to explain this develop phase as material production and pilot testing are the hall marks of the develop phase. Robert Marbie Branch magnifying this stage as comprehensive set of learning resources by mentioning five common procedures such as generate content , Select or develop supporting media that will support the teaching and learning process, develop guidance for the Student , develop guidance for the teacher , conduct formative revisions and conduct a pilot testing all of the planned learning resource .Adding to this author pointing out Develop phase is a decision centered on the "Buy it or make it"
The fourth chapter (pp.133-149) Professor Branch presents the Implement phase of instructional design is emphasized, normally concerned with preparing the learning environment and providing any structure necessary for engaging students. By present two common procedures associated with the Implement phase are the following : Prepare the teacher: Identify and prepare teachers to facilitate the instructional strategies and the learning resources that have been newly developed. Prepare the student: Identify and prepare students to actively participate in the instruction and effectively interact with the newly developed learning resources.
The final chapter (pp.152-163) looks at the evaluating phase. The purpose of the evaluating phase, according to the author, is to assess the quality of instructional products and processes both before and after implementation. In this chapter, the author broadly explains the three common procedures associated with the evaluating phase are as follows: Determine evaluation criteria: Identify perception, learning, and performance as the three main levels of evaluation associated with instructional design, Select evaluation tools: Identify the primary attribute for each of the selected evaluation tools used in the ADDIE approach to instructional design. Conduct evaluations: Provide guidelines for conducting evaluation in instructional design at all three levels. Author finaly mentioned evaluation consists two phases formative/occurs all throughout the ADDIE process/ and summative /consists of tests that are done after the training material are delivered/
4. Concluding Remarks, Critique and implication
In this part of the review, I will reflect and comment on some of the issues that professor Branch had given further details about. My reflection will focus on the merits, critique and implications of the book for the field of curriculum. ADDIE is one of the oldest instructional design models used by educationalists and any sectors. This model helps content developers to create content in a systematic and organized manner. The ADDIE model is made up of five essential components. Analyze, Design, Develop, Implementation and Evaluation. The author's major philosophy is that intentional learning should be student-centered, innovative, authentic, and inspirational (pp.3-7). He presents detailed concepts and procedures related to ADDIE as applied to the systematic design of instruction (p.5). Professor Branch promotes an application of learning design that is generative, responsive, and validating (p.4), the following are major strengths of the author depicts in the book .
One of the merits of this book is the author's use of effective instructional design, which promotes high fidelity between learning environments and actual work settings. That is, effective instructional design focuses on performing authentic tasks, complex knowledge, and genuine problems by using systems and approach brings to the teaching-learning process a scientific approach for solving instructional problems and accomplishing desired objectives. Furthermore, the author affirmed there is no single correct set of ADDIE procedures or no single correct sequence of ADDIE procedures.i.e proven to be effective for human learning. The book's second merit is that the author acknowledges that the procedures associated with each phase of ADDIE, as well as their sequence, will differ depending on the designer's perspective, the backgrounds of the design team members, and the peculiarities of the context in which the ADDIE paradigm is being applied. Yet, the fundamental ADDIE components remain the same throughout various applications. The third merit author emphasizes ADDIE's ability to be both descriptive and prescriptive. Descriptive because it shows relationships, illustrates what happens during a process, Prescriptive because it guides, assigns methods and procedures, generates strategies, is goal oriented, active, and a variety of models can be applied to the ADDIE paradigm. The fourth merit author demonstrates how the ADDIE model can be implemented in combination with technology by following its 21 common procedures (pp.20-21). Fifth merit The ADDIE model book teaches step by step the whole process of instructional design and also points out the process or steps of curriculum development and provides possible suggestions about steps of curriculum development. Furthermore, while reading the book, I noticed that the ADDIE model has advantages such as good quality design, clear learning objectives, carefully structured content, controlled workloads for educational experts and students, integrated media, relevant student activities, and assessment that is strongly tied to desired learning outcomes, as well as being cost effective and saving time, also each phase builds on each other
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- TESHALE AKLILU (Autor:in), 2009, A Critical Reflection of "Instructional Design: The ADDIE Approach" by Robert Maribe Branch, München, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1037498