Free online reading
2 INFLUENCES ON THE SPANISH CULTURE
2.1 REGIONAL DIFFERENCES
3 GENERAL ASSESSMENT
3.1 SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL
3.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF TIME
3.4 THE CONCEPT OF HONOR
3.5 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
3.5.1 Verbal 8
3.5.2 Paralanguage 8
3.5.3 Nonverbal 9
3.6 ENTERTAINMENT/ SOCIALIZING
4 BUSINESS IMPACTS
5 BUSINESS ETIQUETTE
5.1 NAMES AND GREETINGS
5.2 DRESS AND APPEARANCE
5.4 GIFT GIVING
Already Alfons X (1252-1284) said about Spain “This land is the paradise of the lord.”1 Even though this might seem overstated many people visiting Spain and getting to know the Spanish culture fall into a love affair with the country and its people. I myself was unable to escape this certain atmosphere of Spain.
This essay therefore intents to explain this uniqueness of Spain in the business context. In order for doing business successfully in a country the understanding of economic, political, demographic and cultural factors is necessary according to Mark E. Mendenhall. 2 This essay focuses only on the cultural factors.
First of all critical influences to the Spanish culture are clarified such as its regionalism, history and the role of the church.
A general assessment follows because it is the foundation to the business culture. Here topics like the role of the individual, the concept of relationships and honor are emphasized. The meanings of time and interpersonal communication are discussed as well. Socializing and entertainment is an integral part of life in Spain and therefore also reflected on.
In the fourth paragraph the Spanish business culture is discussed in detail. First general principles are explained. On the grounds of scientific discussion the organization and leadership conceptions are evaluated. Furthermore decision-making and negotiation as other aspects of business life are elaborated on.
The last part of this essay is a short introduction to business etiquette as a mean to avoid potential pitfalls in doing business with Spaniards.
2 Influences on the Spanish Culture
In order to understand today’s Spanish culture certain underlying aspects have to be considered that have shaped the Spanish way of thinking and acting. The following paragraphs concentrate on regional differences, the role of early Spanish history and religion.
2.1 Regional differences
Today Spain consists of 17 regions with their own capital, flags and law. The responsibilities of the regions vary. While some collect their own taxes others differ from Madrid merely in their name.3
This regionalism plays an important role in Spain because the distinctiveness of the regions influences the behavior of locales. An indicator for this diversity is the language variety. Even though the official tongue in Spain is Castilian; Callego, Euskera, Catalan and Valencian are spoken and taught in school as well.4
According to me there exists a North-South divine in Spain. The further south one is travelling the more relaxed becomes the life style of the people.
The countries in the North are Eus kadi or the Bask country, Galicía and Cataluña. The uniqueness of Euskadi is its aim to obtain independence from Spain. The ETA makes this clear by its continuous terror acts. On the other hand Cataluña - bordering to France - is one of the most prosperous areas in Spain. Its people consider it more cosmopolitan, futureoriented and industrialized than the rest of Spain.
As already pointed out the South of Spain is totally different. Andalucía stands for Flamenco and is generally more concerned about the quality of life than seriousness. Unlike the poor Castilla de la Mancha, Castilla de Leon and Extremadura Madrid seems like an island of prosperity in its middle.
Spaniards are very aware and proud of their regional heritage. They are distinctive in their behavior due to regional differences. Hence, they have to be considered when doing business in Spain.
The history 5 of a country always influences the behavior of its people. This essay focuses on the early history of Spain until the 15th century since the origins for today’s culture are mainly shaped by the people settling in Spain in this period.
Around 3000 B. C. the Iberians from North Africa started arriving in Southern Spain. The North was settled by Celts beginning about 900 B. C. Characteristic of them were “their hospitality, their grand manners, their arrogance, and above all, their love of freedom”6 which can be even noticed in today’s Spaniards. The Greeks came to Spain circa 600 B. C. and enhanced the region with their music and musical instruments. Their dominance did not last long. Already in 200 B. C. they lost their influence to the Romans in the Second Punic War. Their heritage is the language derived from spoken Latin, the Roman law, the Christian religion and their concept of art, architecture, political organizations and customs. Since then two contrary inclinations evolved: the “Roman feeling for union, centralization, and imperium” and the “African tendency toward disunion, tribalism, and separatism.”7
Already in the 5th century various German tribes poured into Spain, the Suevi, the Vandals, the Alani and the Visigoths. With their arrival the days of Roman domination had finished. They ruled the country for three centuries trying to imitate the Romans even though according to Crow “they could neither organize, nor rule, nor build as had the Romans”.8 In 711 the last Visigoth King Roderick lost Spain to the Moors. Until 1492 the country prospered under their guidance. They allowed religious freedom, improved agriculture and architecture, promoted sciences and arts. The Moors’ were unique because of their “fierce character, pride, roughness, and jealousy of one another, especially in political matters, [what] made them the most difficult people to lead.”9
Over the following centuries kings changed in Spain, two republics existed, a civil war befell the country. Finally in 1975 - after 37 years of Franco’s dictatorship - the government system changed into a constitutional monarchy under the chief of state King Juan Carlos I.
Since then the country is called the modern Spain because it adapted the new idea of democracy. Still, the heritage of their ancestors is an integral part of today’s new Spaniard.
Religion is another crucial aspect that shapes the development of cultural values especially in the day-to-day behavior of people in a society.10
Today officially 99 percent of all Spaniards are roman-catholic. But surveys prove that the dominance of the catholic church is declining. From 1965 to 1983 the percentage of Spaniards practicing the roman-catholic religion fell from 83 to 31. Furthermore catholic moral standards like the prohibition of contraceptives, divorces, the marriage of priests are no longer supported by the vast majority.11
Even though the influence of the church is declining its role should not be underestimated. To put it into a nutshell “everybody in Spain follows the church, half of them with a candle the other half with a club”.12
3 General Assessment
In this chapter basic cultural values of Spaniards are explained. Those are the role of the individual in the society and the importance of relationships. Furthermore the Spanish concepts of time and honor are clarified. It is elaborated on the communication style because when misunderstood it is one of the potential pitfalls. Socializing and entertainment is discussed as well because it is absolutely crucial to the establishment of relations.
The understanding of these fundamental concepts is essential to comprehending the business culture in Spain.
3.1 Society and the Individual
According to the Grid-Group-Model of Mary Douglas Spain can be perceived a hierarchical culture. This means that individuals are bound in social groups and relationships. Inequality is necessary to maintain the system, and loyalty is desirable. Furthermore the hierarchical culture is characterized by bureaucracy and autocracy.13
The social groups Spaniards are bound to are clearly their families. They are viewed their social and economic support system. Relationships in this social system are maintained through loyalty and obligation. Therefore status is important. This attitude evolved from the time of the reconquest when supporters of the Roman-Catholics were rewarded with land and have lived of it ever since. Even though today an educated middle class is deriving status is still advantageous.
Another interesting case in point is the Spaniards’ attitude towards the law. Throughout history laws were imposed from above without clarifying the benefits for the ruled. Therefore the disregard and circumvention of regulations were the only means to overcome this injustice. This spirit can be described by the following saying “obedezco pero no cumplo” (I obey but do not comply). Hence, Spaniards do have an aversion to obeying rules and regulations. In their opinion authority means repression. A personal request is more important.14
Relationships in Spain are based on “confianza”, which means trust. It is therefore essential to trust someone in order to establish a relationship. Furthermore relationships are made for life. This implies that advances occur much slower, this means that time is allowed for the ripening of a friendship.
In the workplace often good relationships between coworkers develop. This is so because of the low job mobility in Spain. Furthermore Spanish employees are 10 hours per day in their workplace and have lunch together. In many cases they even become close friends or in the Spanish sense family. This relationship is essential in order to achieve the cooperation of coworkers.15 When reaching a decision the trustworthiness of a person is considered as well as rational aspects.16
3.3 The Importance of Time
Juan Carlos I once said “yo voy a mi aire” (I go at my pace). Indeed in Spain time is viewed differently. Hence, this distinctiveness when unknown can lead to serious misunderstandings and problems.
According to Edward T. Hall Spain belongs to the polychronic or fluid-time cultures. This means that many things happen at the same time. The termination of tasks and communication with people is always stressed.17 That implies that punctuality and deadlines are less important - and schedules and agendas are flexible.18
Garhammer says that the Spanish way of time belongs to the typical Southern European time cultures. Those are characterized by the attitude of mañana (things can be left until tomorrow), a slower pace of social life, the long siesta break for lunch time and a high flexibility in the usage of time norms. However in his opinion this profile is converging with other European values due to modernization and globalization.19
To sum it up time is viewed as something rather artificial and theoretical. Therefore actions should not be predominated by aspects of time. Nonetheless in critical matters Spaniards will definitely be on time.20
3.4 The Concept of Honor
The21 Spanish word “honra” can be translated as honor or dignity. It has to be maintained at all times because it secures the social mobility in society. It is even regarded a “manner or approach to life”.
Open or direct confrontation is a potential threat to the “honra” and has to be avoided under any circumstances.
If it is failed to do so this can result in serious anger and even resentment by the Spanish counterpart.
3.5 Interpersonal Communication
Generally interpersonal communication can be divided into three areas: verbal, paraverbal and nonverbal communication. These different shapes are explained in this paragraph.22
„Verbal communication has to do with words and the meaning of words.“23
When going to Spain some knowledge of Castilian is absolutely necessary. Once in the country the further studies of the language are also essential. It does not only show respect to Spain and its people but furthermore smoothes the development of relation to coworkers. It is also perceived a good public relations step.24
It has to be taken into account that Spain belongs to the high-context cultures. Communication occurs rapidly because background information is already spread due to the existence of extensive networks. It is therefore not necessary to spell it out explicitly.25 Hence, there can be a difference in what Spaniards say and what they actually mean.26
Another uniqueness of verbal communication is the significance of “no”. Since this word expresses disagreement and Spaniards despise direct confrontation its usage is avoided. Instead the term “mañana” is applied which means some time in the future.27
„Paraverbal language refers to how loudly we speak those words, the meaning of silence and the signification of conversational overlap.“28
Spain is one of the very expressive cultures. That means that the vocal volume is high and the speaking voice is raised in order to inflect on important details.
The Spanish conversational behavior is shown in figure 1. It is characterized by overlapping. This indicates that the counterparts in a discussion constantly interrupt each other. Silence is not appreciated. It rather makes a Spaniard feel uncomfortable. 29
In some cases silence means disagreement. It is used to avoid an open confrontation because it is perceived impolite.30
„With Nonverbal communication (also called body language) we communicate without using any words at all.“31
When investigating into nonverbal behavior four key elements have to be considered: proxemics, haptics, oculesics, kinesics.
Proxemics comprises the spatial behavior or interpersonal distance. In Spain the so-called “space bubble” in discussions is about 20 to 35 cm.
Haptics indicate the touch behavior. Since Spain is a high contact culture physical contact is regarded appropriate. Hand shakes are obligatory in the beginning and end of a meeting. They should be firm and frequent. Friends exchange two kisses on the cheek.32
Gaze behavior and eye contact belong to oculesics. In Spain intense eye contact is made use of. Indeed, strong and direct eye contact is valued and an integral part of correct body language.
Kinetics include body movement and gestures. In expressive cultures like Spain hand gestures and facial expression are used excessively. Body language is used in order to emphasize what was said. The same gestures can have different connotations in distinctive cultures. For example the head tap means ”you are absolutely stupid” in Germany, but “I am so clever!” in Spain.33 Therefore gestures should be used carefully. The best way would be to inquiry about their meaning with locals.
3.6 Entertainment/ Socializing
To a34 Spaniard his home is his private retreat. The first time an invitation to a Spanish house is offered it should be declined because it is only proposed for the sake of politeness. Generally social activities take place outside the home.
After work Spaniards generally go shopping, to sports events, theaters, movies, out for dinner or dancing. A common thing to do is to go on a “chateo”, this is to go on search for the best “tapas”. Tapas are appetizer-sized dishes. They are consumed together with wine or sherry in a tapas bar. Another favorite meeting place of Spaniards is the coffee shop. In every city or even village there are plenty of them.
Few of those activities are prescheduled. This would be against the Spanish mentality. Surprising to many foreigners is the generosity of Spaniards. “Te invito” (I invite you) is common practice. Spaniards are literally fighting about who will be allowed to pay the bill.
Another source of entertainment are other people. When a Spaniard is bored he changes clothes and goes out to watch people and to be watched.
4 Business Impacts
It is now investigated into typical business behavior. It is by any means influenced by the general concepts explained in chapter three.
First general principles are explained, followed by the organization and leadership dimension in Spain. Styles of decision-making and negotiation are discussed in detail as well.
The Spanish work ethic is that a person works to live not vice versa. Therefore workaholism is not regarded fashionable. Work is also done at a more relaxed pace because Spaniards take their time to read the news-paper or go for a coffee break with a coworker. Due to this friendly work environment absenteeism is very low.35
Success is defined by the title a person is holding. A Spaniard would therefore rather stay in a job with a high title instead of changing his employment due to a higher salary. Promotion and therefore an increase in title will occur automatically because of the seniority principle. Hence, ambition of Spanish workers is viewed as relatively low by outsiders.36
Teamwork is an idea that has to be used carefully in Spain. Even though Spaniards rely to a great extent on their families they are trained to work as individuals. Also the US-American belief in open competition is regarded negative and destructive in Spain instead of positive and healthy.37
Another business principle is that of enchufe or nepotism. It refers to the concept of “confianza” in relationships. It means that only a trustworthy person will be employed. Trust is essential in order to enhance the work environment.38
The human touch is always important when doing business with Spaniards because relationships are viewed as a basis for business. By the same token a friendship does not automatically lead to the acceptance of any offered contract.39
Humor is used at almost every occasion. It signifies to be good company and again relaxes the work atmosphere. The only exception is the behavior of a subordinate at official meetings.40
Above all one should not forget one thing. Many business men assume that what is true for Mexicans or Latin Americans also applies to Spaniards. Even though they belong to the same cultural cluster the facets are distinctive41. Spanish people are for example more conservative.42
For analyzing cultures in terms of working environments Geert Hofstede developed an analytical framework with four dimensions. The “power distance” is one of them and describes the human equality in relation to social status, welfare, power and law. The higher the power distance the more likely are people to accept an unequal distribution of power in a society. Spain has a relatively high value of power distance of 57 (in comparison the value of power distance of Germany is 35). This attitude in turn influences the depth of organizational hierarchies. In the case of Spain its high power distance implies a many layered organization.43 Due to this hierarchical depth within the organization workers are highly compartmentalized in ranks; and the power is held by one or only a few.44 The key concept are personal hierarchies. An organization chart rather reflects a social than a functional system. Orders are passed from top down to the bottom. Because of this outlay many rules, systems and mechanisms have to exist. But Spaniards do not believe in those systems. They are rather perceived the last rescue. 45 Instead rules in such organizations are circumvented, and its real foundation are informal associations and alliances.46 This leads to a constant atmosphere of crisis and hopeless situations. To handle these situations is extremely appealing to a Spaniard instead of being a nobody in a company. 47
A British consultant John Mole conducted another study in the working area. In figure 2 its outcome: the Mole Map is shown. It is a matrix that comprises a leadership and organization dimension. The organization dimension is polarized into the organic and systematic organization. Spain’s position indicates that its organizations are mainly organic. This means that communication is informal and complex, nepotism is widespread, status is important and creativity is highly valued. 48
As was already mentioned in the paragraph above Spain’s value of power distance is relatively high. According to Hofstede that implies that the typical leadership style in Spain is patriarchal.49 This is supported on ground of the family relationship model in the Spanish culture. The head of the company is viewed a caring and decisive patron. Tannenbaum and Schmidt developed yet another model of leadership styles. They polarize into a directive and democratic style. Spain definitely belongs to the directive leaderships. This means that the superior decides without consulting his subordinates.50 In the Mole Map the second dimension is the leadership. As indicated by Spain’s position on the Mole Map in figure 2 its leadership style is highly individual. This indicates that planning is mainly done by the top management of a company. Only a few know the strategy. Furthermore authority is demonstrated by maintaining distant to groups and imposing one’s will on them. 51
Mole furthermore states that the ideal leader in Spain practices an autocratic management style. The most valued character of a Spanish leader is valor. Subordinates when consulting an expatriate expect him to solve problems on their behalf. Even though seniority guarantees status authority does not automatically depend on status but on the quality of relationships to subordinates. In turn their loyalty is yielded to persons not institutions. Evaluation systems of subordinates are uncommon. Criticism is understood a misusage of power in a higher position rather than real feedback52
The importance of an autocrat is indicated by its salary. In an international comparison Spanish expatriates receive the highest return on their work with 375,000 DM (in comparison a German manager receives 330,000 DM).53
Decisions are always made by individuals but the family or group interest are considered. Nonetheless do the individuals hold the full responsibilities for their judgments.54 In business life decisions are made by the top executive. The middle management merely prepares the reports, that are the basis for decisions. An expatriate always decides by himself on basis of intuitions rather than facts. Spaniards are generally conservative and resist any risky decisions.55 An expatriate does not rely on subordinates because this is seen as a sign of weakness or ineffectiveness. Furthermore he does not strive to meet a consent.56 A superior’s view always outweighs a subordinate’s.57
Because of this process decisions are slow. Therefore delegations should be precise and based on realistic short-term aims that can be achieved.58
Several face-to-face59 /60 meetings take place before the actual negotiation is carried out. This is due to the relationship focus in Spanish business. Spaniards want to get acquainted to their counterpart first before doing business.
The meeting should be conducted in an open protocol way because Spaniards rely rather on quick thinking and spontaneity than preparation or planning. During the meeting Spanish business men will rely on their “inner guidance” instead of facts. Therefore the negotiation can turn out be a lengthy affair.
Offending or opposing views should be handled with care since they are a threat to the Spanish “honra”.
Furthermore Spaniards are concerned about negotiating a fair price. Consequently they bargain intensively. Some foreigners even perceive it a bazaar haggling. In any case there should be space for give-and-take situations.
Decisions are made carefully. Spaniards abhor risky results because their public image depends on the outcome of the negotiation.
Once a decision is made many details are still missing. Those are to be settled in a contract. This written contract should contain every detail covered in the negotiation process. It is very important to know that information is perceived extremely valuable and is therefore subject to concealment.61
5 Business Etiquette
In general the social and business behavior in Spain is very relaxed. Like in all other facets of life relationships and human touch are important.62
Nonetheless the knowledge of some aspects of business etiquette can eliminate potential pitfalls. It furthermore shows respect and is therefore highly appreciated by Spaniards.
5.1 Names and Greetings
Friends usually63 address each other by their first names. Regardless unknown people should be called by their title and last name. If no title exists the formal form of Mister (Señor), Miss (Señorita) or Misses (Señora) should be used. Generally Spaniards have two last names. The one listed first is the father’s name and the second one that of the mother. When speaking to someone it is sufficient to address the person by the father’s last name. In written communication however both last names should be used.
Spaniards furthermore distinguish between the formal “usted” and informal “tú”. Usted indicates respect and is used when addressing strangers or domestic servants. On the other hand friends, children or coworkers are referred to in an informal manner.
5.2 Dress and Appearance
Spaniards are very aware of fashion. They wear the best-quality and most stylish clothes. They pay attention to the tidiness of their garments and are always concerned about matching outfits. A favored color with shoes and handbags is brown.
In the office generally a formal and conservative dress code is required. Again it is always to the latest fashion. Men wear dark colored suits. For woman dresses and skirts are considered more appropriate than pants.64
In the65 first place formal greetings in form of a warm and friendly handshake are exchanged. This is always followed by small talk. This social exchange is fundamental since it is part of a relationship. And without the establishment of a relationship no business takes place.
How something is presented or said is just as important as what is said. Therefore arguments should be supported by nonverbal messages.
In no case should disagreement or an open confrontation be encouraged. This is an insult and destroys any cooperation.
Spaniards usually discuss each point extensively. Often statements are repeated. They do not appreciate to be rushed on that. But once an issue is covered it is summarized to get a holistic view.
If the expatriate is not present at a meeting reports will be passed on to him. Decisions on the spot cannot be expected.
The meeting is ended in the same way as it started with the exchange of handshakes.
5.4 Gift Giving
In Spain gifts are appropriate when a business deal is completed successfully. When receiving a gift it should be opened instantly in front of the giver.
In any case too valuable gifts should be avoided since they can be perceived an attempt of as bribing. Items with large advertisement of the company are considered impolite as well. On the other hand quality or name-brand items are appreciated. It could for example be something from the home region.66
Spain has come a long way to fulfill the seemingly impossible dream of learning the art of government and democracy.67 Today Spain is a dazzling example in the Spanish speaking world for the functioning of such a transition process. Therefore “Spain is different”68 in every facet of live.
I perceived three major influences on the behavior of Spaniards. First its regionalism that leads to a great extent of distinctiveness of locals. Secondly the opposing Roman and Arabic culture have mainly shaped the Spanish culture. Thirdly even though the dominance of the church is declining it still plays an important role in underlying moral values of Spaniards.
Fundamental beliefs are that the individual always acts in context to its family. Relationships are highly emphasized. Socializing is ver important since it is essential to establishing a relationship. Since Spain is a fluid-time culture people and the termination of tasks come before an abstract affair such as time. Honor and dignity is essential to every Spaniard and has to be maintained at all times. In terms of communication Spanish people are very expressive. Therefore excessive body language is part of the communication process, and words should not be taken literally.
Those fundamental beliefs impact clearly on business behavior. Organizations are highly hierarchical, leaders autocrats or patriarchs. Decisions are always made by this autocrat and are therefore slow. All those values are in turn displayed in negotiations.
The knowledge of a certain amount of business etiquette is absolutely necessary. The counterpart should be addressed in the correct form. Business dresses have to be conservative, fashionable and high quality. In meetings the basic rules of communication and the idea of relationships and honor has to be kept in mind. Gifts are expected at the successful outcome of a business relationship.
I have always been fascinated by other cultures. I have understood that there exist distinctive ways that can lead to the same outcome. My way of doing things is not the only or best way - just my way. I do think that with tolerance we can do business in just about every part of the world in any culture.
To me learning about other cultures is a mean to enhance my life.
Axtell, Roger E. Gesture: the do’s and taboos of body language around the world (1998). Rober E. Axtell
Apfelthaler, Gerhard. Interkulturelles Management (1999). MANZ Verlag Schulbuch GmbH
Bell, Arthur H. Intercultural business (1996). Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.
Crow A. John. Spain - The Root and the Flower (1985). 3rd edition. University of California Press
Garhammer, Manfred. Wie Europäer ihre Zeit nutzen: Zeitkulturen im Zeichen der Globalisierung (1999). Edition Sigma Rainer Bohn Verlag.
Gesteland, Richard R. Cross-Cultural Business Behavior (1999). 2nd edition. Handelsjojskolens Forlag
Hofstede, Geert. Interkulturelle Zusammenarbeit: Kulturen - Organisationen - Management (1993). Betriebswirtschaftlicher Verlag Dr. Th. Gabler GmbH Klingelhöfer, Jutta. Geschäftspartner Spanien (1997). Bundesstelle für Außenhandels- information
Launay, Drew. Die Spanier pauschal (1997). Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH
Mendenhall, Mark E; Punnett, Betty Jane and Ricks, David A. Global Management (1995). Blackwell Publishers
Mole, John. Euro-Knigge für Manager (1992). Campus Verlag GmbH
Morrison, Teresa C. Dun & Bradstreet’s guide to doing business around the world (1997). Prentice Hall, Inc.
Morrison, Terri. Kiss, Bow, or Shake Hands: how to do business in sixty countries (1994). Adams Media Corporation
Nohlen, Dieter and Hildenbrand Andreas. Spanien: Wirtschaft - Gesellschaft - Politik (1992) Leske + Budrich
Novas, Himilice and Silva, Rosemary E. Passport Spain (1997). World Trade Press
Rugman, Alan M. International business: a strategic management approach (1995). McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Schröder, Thomas. Spanien (1993). Verlag Michael Müller
Wattley-Ames, Helen. Spain is Different (1999). 2nd edition. Intercultural Press, Inc.
Watzlawick Paul. Gebrauchsanleitung für Amerika (1996). 20th edition. R. PiperGmbH & Co KG
Business Culture. www.globalroadwarrior.com/country/spain/07busculture.html (11/00) Business Customs. www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/english/geo/europe/84676-e.htm (11/00) España - una primera impresión. www.red2000.com/spain/primer/1index.html (10/00)
Executive Planet. www.executiveplanet.com/community/default.asp?section=Spain (12/00)
Macroeconomic Data. www.ine.es (10/00)
1 Crow (1985) p. 1
2 Mendenhall (1995) p. 100
3 Mole (1992) p. 161
4 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 4
5 Schröder (1993) p. 76-80
6 Crow (1985) p. 26
7 Crow (1985) p. 35
8 Crow (1985) p. 40
9 Crow (1985) p. 48
10 Mendenhall/ Punnett/ Ricks (1995) p. 84-8
11 Nohlen/ Hildenbrand (1992) p. 238/39
12 Crow (1985) p. 22
13 Apfelthaler (1999) p.93-100
14 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 23-45
15 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 47-54
16 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 41
17 Apfelthaler (1999) p. 48
18 Gesteland (1999) p. 55-62
19 Garhammer (1999) p. 131-137
20 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 48/9
21 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 76
22 Gesteland (1999) p. 63
23 Gesteland (1999) p. 63
24 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 65-8
25 Apfelthaler (1999) p. 47/8
26 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 76-9
27 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 66
28 Gesteland (1999) p. 63
29 Gesteland (1999) p. 66-8
30 Wattley-Ames (1999) p 78-9
31 Gesteland (1999) p. 63
32 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 72-5
33 Gesteland (1999) p. 76
34 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 109-18; Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 78-83; Executive Planet (12/00)
35 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 83-7
36 Wattley-Ames (1999) 87/8
37 Wattley-Ames (1999) p. 90-3
38 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 34
39 Klingelhöfer (1997) p. 60/1
40 Mole (1992) p. 178
41 Rugman (1995) p. 139
42 Business Customs (11/00)
43 Apfelthaler (1999) p. 50-3
44 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 36
45 Mole (1992) p. 166/7
46 Bell (1996) p. 35
47 Mole (1992) p. 166/7
48 Apfelthaler (1999) p. 81-5
49 Apfelthaler (1999) p. 51
50 Apfelthaler (1999) p. 83
51 Bell (1996) p. 36
52 Mole (1992) p. 169-70
53 Launay (1997) p. 105
54 Morris (1994) p. 351
55 Business culture (11/00)
56 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 36/7
57 Bell (1996) p. 36
58 Mole (1992) p. 170
59 Gesteland (1999) p. 213-6
60 Novas/ Silva (1997) p. 55-9
61 Morris (1994) p. 352
62 Mole (1992) p. 176-8
63 Morrison (1997) p. 381
64 Novas/ Silvas (1997) p. 74
65 Novas/ Silvas (1997) 50-4
66 Executive Planet (12/00)
67 Crow (1985) p. 399-434
68 Watlley-Ames (1999)