Smart Renewable Energy System for the Island of Mozambique. Current Situation and Possibilities for the Future


Project Report, 2019

23 Pages, Grade: 85


Excerpt


Contents

1. Summary

2. Introduction
2.1 Island ofMozambique: Basicfacts

3. Analysis of current energy system
3.1 Energy Supply
3.2 Energy Demand & Use

4. Energy Demand Growth

5. Future renewable energy system
5.1 Scenario-Photovoltaic System & ‘Business as Usual

6. Implementation
6.1 ScenarioSupportand Incentives

7. Conclusion

8. Reference list

9. Appendices

Sankey diagram

Data of ISLA model

List of figures

Figure 1: Island of Mozambique country location map

Figure 2: Island of Mozambique figure ground map

Figure 3: Mozambique electric grid map

Figure 4: Sankey Diagram: current energy mix in the Island of Mozambique

Figure 5: Island of Mozambique electricity supply mix projection 2015-2050

Figure 6: Electricity produced by renewables in 2015

Figure 7: Island of Mozambique electricity supply per sector

Figure 8: Island of Mozambique population and household projection 2015-2050

Figure 9: Island of Mozambique domestic electricity consumption per household

Figure 10: Island of Mozambique domestic share of electricity consumption

Figure 11: Percentage of households with electric goods

Figure 12: Domestic energy supply and demand growth

Figure 13: Commercial (Tourism services) energy supply and demand growth

Figure 14: Mozambique global irradiation on horizontal plane

Figure 15: Mozambique solar PV project potential

Figure 16: Mozambique radiation map

Figure 17: Scenario I electricity supply mix

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Image 1: Island ofMozambique (Mozambique, 2019)

List of figures

Image 1: Island ofMozambique

Image 2: Makuti Town

Image 3: Island of Mozambique Stone & Lime Town

Image 4: Scenario proposal for Makuti Town

Image 5: Scenario proposal for Makuti Town

1. Summary

This report shall provide a clear insight & analysis of the current energy system and energy use and demand of the Island of Mozambique. It also provides an energy model of the existing energy system and a simulation model or scenario for a potential future smart renewable energy system for the island. The aim of this report is to identify a possible smart energy system for the island that will otherwise improve the overall energy demand and consumption for the island in a sustainable manner. This report shall also provide ways in which the system can be implemented, through a combination of policies and incentives existing or non-existing.

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Figure 1: Island of Mozambique country location map

2. Introduction

2.1 Island of Mozambique: Basic facts

Island of Mozambique is located in the coast of Nampula province in the northeast coast of Mozambique. It is situated in between the Mozambican Channel and Mossuril Bay. The islands total land area is equivalent to 1.5 km 2, 200 to 500 metres wide and 3 kilometres long. There was a total population of 14,988 people living permanently in the island in 2011 which has grown to 16,000 people in 2015 (Paträo and Vasconcelos-Raposo, 2011). The island is mainly comprised of residential facilities, informal settlements, historic monuments, local markets, religious buildings, bars and restaurants. Its economy is essentially based on activities such as commerce, tourism and fishing (Paträo and Vasconcelos-Raposo, 2011). Island of Mozambique has a tropical climate with humid wet and dry seasons; often clear skies, a lot of sunshine and no rainfall or a lot of rainfall and less sunshine. The average maximum temperature of the island is around 32 °C in warmer-dry season and the minimum is 18 °C in colder-wet season, with maximum average wind speeds of 17mph and an average minimum of 10mph (weather et al., 2019). Based on recent analysis, 54% of the overall population in Mozambique live below the poverty line (Chambal, 2010). The same can be said about the island, according to Gil the provincial municipal administrator of EDM, about 54.5% of the overall population living in the island are living in or below the poverty line (Gil, 2019). In addition, according to him 48.32% of the households in the island have less or no access to electric supplies and possible electric energy consumption (Gil, 2019).

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Figure 2: Island of Mozambique figure ground map (Openstreetmap)

3. Analysis of current energy system

3.1 Energy Supply

Island of Mozambique is currently powered by hydropower electricity generated by Cahora Bassa Dam. Cahora Bassa hydroelectric power Dam (HCB) is Mozambique’s main source of electricity. Cahora Bassa has an overall capacity to generate 2075 MW of electricity, of which 65% of the electricity generated is exported to South Africa (ESKOM), 19% is exported to Zimbabwe (ZESA)and 1% is exported to Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and Botswana (BPC) (Cuamba et al., 2012). Mozambique is left with a total of 15%, which 30% of this is consumed by the aluminium plant Mozal, and the rest is used for commercial, residential and industrial and service sectors (reegle - clean energy information gateway, 2019). As a result, Mozambique suffers from blackouts, unreliable source of electricity, very high electricity costs, and unstainable forms of electric power generation such as fuel generators which many businesses and high to medium income residential properties use. Established in 1995, the transmission, distribution and sale of electricity for the island and Mozambique as a whole is managed by the national power utility company Electricidade de Mozambique (EDM) which is owned by the government (Chambal, 2010).

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Figure 3: Mozambique electric grid map (Cuamba et al., 2012).

Mozambique has large amounts of fossil fuels, hydropower resources and a growing potential for renewable energy (Chambal, 2010). However, due to the large investment costs for installation of these, not much is being utilised nor exploited (Chambal, 2010). Mozambique is a developing country with insufficient finances to support such projects. According to a study carried out by Dr Vanesa Castan Brot and published by the British Academy, Mozambique has one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa with only one fifth of the total 23 million inhabitants having access to electricity (The British Academy, 2019). The same can be seen in the island of Mozambique, where only around 52% of the households have good access to electricity in the island while the rest have very little or no access to electricity (Gil, 2019). These households with very little or no access to electricity supply from the grid use other sources of energy generation for their daily lives. The main source of energy generation for these households include the use of wood and oils such as kerosene, paraffin and petrol which they use for cooking, lighting, and hot water (Gil, 2019).

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Figure 4: SankeyDiagram: CurrentEnergyMix in the Island ofMozambique

At present all oil products in Mozambique are imported and as stated by Cuamba, Cipriano and Turatsinze (2013) this accounts for 15 % of the country’s total imports. As a result, Mozambique is highly vulnerable to oil price increase. Mozambique has great potential to develop biofuel production which could substantially reduce domestic demand for imported oil products (Cuamba, Cipriano and Turatsinze, 2013). However, this has not yet been exploited. Mozambique also has the 51st largest natural gas proven reserves in the world and a coal reserve that estimates 4 billion tons and only 1% of this is used in the country and the rest is exported (Cuamba et Furthermore,

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Figure 5: Island of Mozambique electricity supply mix projection 2015-2050

As can be seen on figure 5, Island of Mozambique’s’ electricity supply mix is formed of Biomass (wood and charcoal) which meets 52% of the electricity mix, followed by 34% of oil (Kerosene, petrol, and paraffin), hydro (13.8%) and other (0.2%) solar (Estatisticas do Distrito de llha De Mozambique, 2010).

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Figure 6: Electricity produced by renewables in 2015

Since the island is mainly composed of residential facilities, most of the electricity is supplied to the domestic sector as seen on figure 7. Although a large amount of energy produced in the island is met by renewables such as burning biofuels, a large amount of fossil fuels mainly oil, are currently substantially being consumed by the domestic and commercial sectors as can be seen from figure 6. In addition, although biomass is a renewable form of energy, studies conducted by the Energy and Sustainable Development Forum have established that the use of biomass has greatly contributed towards deforestation in the country. At present there is a licencing system managed by the Ministry of Agriculture for the production and sale of charcoal. However, the overexploitation is prevalent. charcoal (Chambal,2010)

3.2 Energy Demand & Use

Island of Mozambique is divided into two areas the north (The Stone and Lime Old Town) and the south (Makuti Town). The north side called the Stone and Lime Old Town is where most of the important and architectural attributes and masonry buildings are situated. In this part of the island, residential facilities, historic monuments, restaurants, bars, religious and administrative buildings are found. On the south side called the Makuti Town is where a population influx settled at the end of the war. This part of the island has deteriorated due to overcrowding and is mostly occupied by informal settlements/households with poor structures and very little or no use of or access to electric energy supplies from the grid. According to information provided by the island’s municipality, the islands energy demand in the south side is mainly met by burning traditional biofuels such as charcoal, and wood. Whereas the north side of the island’s energy demand is met by the electric power grid sourced by the electric energy generated by HCB. According to the same sources of information, in the domestic sector, 20% of the overall domestic energy is used in the south in Makuti which accounts to a yearly amount of 506.16 MWh. Whilst, 80% of the overall domestic energy demand is consumed in the north, in the Stone and Lime Old Town and this accounts for a yearly amount of 2024.64 MWh. Based on data provided by the islands municipality, 48.32% of the households have very little access to and use of electric energy. Energy demand is mainly consumed by 51.68% households located on the northern part of the island.

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Figure 8: Island ofMozambiquepopulation and householdprojection 2015-2050

The use of electricity in the island is mostly for lighting, appliances, air condition, heating water(boilers), and cooking. However as can be seen from the figures of electricity consumption most of the electricity consumption is for cooking and lighting. However, lighting in these graphs demonstrate overall lighting usage although lighting provision on the south is relatively lower due to limited lighting availability. Lighting in the poorer zones of the island is mainly sustained using oil, candles or burning wood or charcoal to provide illumination. Cooking and heating water are also attained the same way.

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Figure 9: Island ofMozambique domestic electricity consumption perhousehold

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Excerpt out of 23 pages

Details

Title
Smart Renewable Energy System for the Island of Mozambique. Current Situation and Possibilities for the Future
College
University College London  (Institute for Environmental Design)
Course
Sustainable urbanism
Grade
85
Author
Year
2019
Pages
23
Catalog Number
V1061223
ISBN (eBook)
9783346476784
Language
English
Notes
This report shall provide a clear insight & analysis of the current energy system and energy use and demand of the Island of Mozambique. It also provides an energy model of the existing energy system and a simulation model or scenario for a potential future smart renewable energy system for the island. The aim of this report is to identify a possible smart energy system for the island that will otherwise improve the overall energy demand and consumption for the island in a sustainable manner.
Keywords
Sustainable, Energy, Systems, Solar, Africa, Mozambique
Quote paper
Ludmila Kom (Author), 2019, Smart Renewable Energy System for the Island of Mozambique. Current Situation and Possibilities for the Future, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1061223

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