Educational System of New Zealand and Philippines. A Comparative Study

Scientific Essay, 2021

15 Pages

Free online reading


Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Research Design
Rationale of the Study
Theoretical Background
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the Study
The Research Methodology

Chapter 2: Presentation, Data Analysis, and Interpretation
Presentation of Data

Chapter 3: Summary and Conclusion


Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Research Design

Rationale of the Study

Education is discipline that concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments. Education is the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation. Children whether conceived among New Guinea tribes people, the Renaissance Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan are born without culture. Education is designed to guide them in learning a culture, molding their behavior in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward their eventual role in society. In the most primitive culture, there is often little formal learning of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or teachers. Instead, the entire environment and all activities are frequently viewed as school and classes, and adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission. The outcome is formal education- the school and the specialist called the teacher.

New Zealand is part Australia and Oceania with land area of 268,680 square kilometer. The total population of 4,290,347. Wellington is the capital city. New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy. The country is a member of Commonwealth and has three official languages: English, Maori (the language of the Tangata whenua, indigenous people of the land) and New Zealand Sign Language. The native of New Zealand is called “Kiwis” named after their endemic bird.

On the other hand, Philippines is part of Southeast Asia region with land area of 300,000 square kilometer. It has almost hundred million total populations. Manila is the capital city. The native of the Philippines is called Pinoy but can be further distinguished from the island they came from. The Philippines was a Spanish colony for over 300 years, after which it was colony of the USA for nearly 5 decades. Influences of both Spanish and American culture found in the educational system of the Philippines.

As such, the Department of Education (DepEd) is the main government agency in the country responsible for the implementation of the basic education. These includes Kindergarten, primary, secondary and non-formal education, including culture and sports. Republic Act 9155 known as the Governance of Basic Education Act that transformed the previous Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to Department of Education (DepEd) which provided the overall framework for the management of Education within the context of accountability and transparency.

The difference between the educational system of New Zealand and Philippines is the funding by the government given to their public schools. In New Zealand their public school is heavily funded. They have small teacher-pupil ratio. There educational system caters to the needs of their citizen. Whereas, Philippines budget for the public school is not enough for the needs and demands. They have bigger number of teacher-pupil ratio. Nowadays, the educational system of Philippines is slowly evolving under the new government. Building of classrooms were done in shorter time than in the past which of great help in addressing the classroom shortage. The Department of Education uses the web to get correct data of the crucial needs of the school.

Theoretical Background

Based upon fundamental beliefs that arise from theories of Education, curricular decisions involve consideration of several topics and issues. Precisely for this reason, consider theories as one of the major foundation areas in curriculum. In this section, you shall explore several different theories of education that influence curricular decisions.

Informational Processing Theory

The information processing theory can be applied to the comparison of educational systems of two countries by explaining the process and development via research in the Internet through mental processes such as attention, perception, comprehension, memory, and problem solving (Johnson, 2006). Meta-cognitive processes such as planning, searching strategies and evaluation of information are exercised when using the Internet in congruence with the nature of the Internet as a multimodel interactive tool for both input and output (Johnson, 2006; Tarpley, 2001). Internet use has been described in regard to its benefits including enhancing “visual processing of information, increase language and literacy skills, build knowledge base, and promote meta-cognitive abilities such as planning and evaluation” (Johnson, 2006).


- Existentialism has gained greater popularity in recent years. Today, many educationists talk about focusing on the individual, promoting diversity in the curriculum and emphasizing the personal needs and interests of learners. Here, perhaps, we can recall the philosophy that underlies the open distance education system. Learner-autonomy, which the existentialists seem to suggest, has been and remains the prime characteristic feature of the distance mode of teaching-learning because of the explosion in knowledge and tremendous growth in information technology and the curriculum of the past seems to be obsolete (Kaufmann, 1975).


- Contemporary progressivism is expressed in several movements including those for a socially relevant curriculum, i.e., a match between subjects taught and student needs which is one of the theoretical bases of distance education. According to progressivist thought, the skills and tools of learning include problem solving methods and scientific inquiry.


- Reconstructionism views education as a means of reconstructing society. The reconstructionists believe that as school or college is attended by virtually all youth, it must be used as a means to shape the attitudes and values of each generation. As a result, when the youth become adults they will share certain common values, and thus the society will have reshaped itself (Brameld, 1987).

Uses and Gratifications Theory

- Uses and Gratifications Theory has been used to help explain the similarities and differences. The uses and gratifications framework has been applied to a wide range of mass media usage and interpersonal communication areas, has been used to explain expected positive outcomes associated with Internet use for educational purposes like research (LaRose, Mastro, & Eastin, 2001). According to the uses and gratifications framework, audiences seek out media, such as the Internet, in an attempt to gratify a variety of needs (LaRose, Mastro, & Eastin, 2001). Some Internet uses, considered factors of gratification including communication, information, and entertainment, have been identified as having strong explanatory power in individual Internet use (Charney & Greenberg, 2001; Eighmey & McCord, 1998; Flanagin & Metzger, 2001; Papacharissi & Rubin, 2000).

Observational Learning Theory

- The similarities and differences of educational system of two countries can be framed using the observational learning theory; which contends that information is stored in memory through the process of attention and retention.

Statement of the Problem

This research compares the educational system used in New Zealand and the Philippines as of 2018.

Specifically, this answers the following:

1. What are the distinctions of the two countries as to:
1.1 age requirement;
1.2 grading system;
1.3 school year;
1.4 medium of instruction;
1.5 organization and structure; and
1.6 levels of the educational system?

2. What are the problems and gaps of the educational system of the two countries?

3. What are the proposed solutions to address the problems and gaps of the educational system of the two countries?

Significance of the Study

This study revealed valuable insights and knowledge regarding the comparisoneducational system of New Zealand and Philippines.

School Heads . Effective empowered school heads/principals would be encouraged to serve as leaders and managers. They would be aware of their specific tasks, and provide follow-up assistance. The result of this study would serve as a guide of seen the school more efficiently and effectively.

DepEd Officials. The superintendent, supervisors, and other DepEd staff would be aware of the advantageous of supporting the public school system of the Philippines.

The School. Broad-based decision-making strengthens the role of all school personnel who would undergo significant changes.

Teacher. They would be motivated to improve their teaching competencies and compassion towards their learner with a strong administrator.

Future Researchers. This study is replicable, usable and valuable to future researchers who would intend to disseminate more information leading to innovative programs of education that could be classroom-based, school-based, division-based or region-based.

The Research Methodology

This section presents the research design, flow of the study, characteristics and data analysis.

Research Design

This research is descriptive in nature because it is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation.

Flow of the Research

The flow of the study made use of the input – process – output (IPO) continuum, which served as the structure and guide for the direction of the research.

The inputs of the research show the distinctions of the educational system of the two countries. These inputs are obtained from the module made researcher.

The process of this research includes the analyses of data obtained from the research. It includes the presenting the data and analyses in the interpretation of the data.

The output of this research is the recommendation relative to comparative education as an aid in improving educational system. The output would be proposed to for possible adoption and implementation.


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Educational System of New Zealand and Philippines. A Comparative Study
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educational, system, zealand, philippines, comparative, study
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Donna Mae Suraliza (Author), 2021, Educational System of New Zealand and Philippines. A Comparative Study, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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