Mansfield, Katherine - The Garden Party

Pre-University Paper, 2002

15 Pages

Free online reading

"The Garden Party" by Katherine Mansfield

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1. Biographical notes

1.1. Significant dates

Katherine Mansfield was born as Kathleen Mansfield Beauchamp in Wellington, New Zealand on October 14,18881 as the daughter of the banker Harold Mansfield, one of the wealthiest men in the country. Among various renowned schools in New Zealand she attended Queen’s College in London from 1903 to 1906.2

After spending two discontented years with her family enforced by her father she turned her back on New Zealand for good in 1908.3; 4

Mansfield left her first husband John Browden one day after their wedding, was impregnated by another man, yet lost the baby and finally married the literature critic John Middleton Murry on the 3rd of May, 1918.5; 6

After an extended separation she met her brother Leshe just some months before he died in October 1915 in World War I.7

The following years Mansfield spent in various European countries such as Germany, Switzerland and Southern France in order to recuperate from pneumonia, but finally succumbed to her disease in Avon, France on January 9, 1923 at the age of 34.8

1.2. Vita

Lines can be drawn parallel to her own life in the majority of Mansfield’s narrations, consequently I consider mentioning briefly some personal background information as useful.

Katherine Mansfield was brought up in a very conservative manner, received an outstanding education and felt devoted to writing at a really young age.

After her return to New Zealand she felt out of place and could not adapt to her parents’ way of life and values any longer. Having experienced the fascination of another lifestyle during her time in Europe, the resulting discrepancies led to a problematically tensed relationship with her parents. 9

During the following years she led a turbulant life in England pervaded by affairs and wild experiences which went along with the desire to perfect her literary work.

A visit by her brother, with whom she had a really close relationship, brought back memories of their childhood in New Zealand. When he unexpectedly died Katherine was deeply distressed and from that day on changed her mind and decided to completely switch directions in her style of writing. In tribute to her brother she focused on reviving her youth and the memories of her mother country in her stories.10

Meanwhile Katherine suffered from tuberculosis,- her physical ability went from bad to worse during the last five years of her life.11

Only three of her books were published during her lifetime, including “In a German Pension” (1911), “Bliss- and Other Stories” (1920) and “The Garden Party, and Other Stories” (1922). The latter is seen as her best literary work.12 A simple form mixed with brilliant and stirring content is typical of Mansfield’s stories which usually deal with moments of decision, failure but also victory.13

2. Summary

The short story “The Garden Party” written in 1923 by Katherine Mansfield deals with an upper class teenage girl who faces the issue of class distinctions when she is unexpectedly broken the news of the death of an underprivileged neighbour who perishes while she is busy with the preparations of a huge party.

Laura, one of the teenage daughters of the Sheridans’, is engaged in arranging the garden party which will be given in the afternoon. Laura welcomes the workmen who arrive to build up the marquee, her initial scepticism in view of their lower social class is expelled by fascination and attraction of their way of life. In the course of the preparations they are unexpectedly interrupted by the deliverer who delightfully presents the news of a riding accident which caused the death of a young man from the indigent neighbourhood. Deeply shocked by this incident Laura sets her mind on cancelling the party and tries to convince her sister Jose and her mother of her intention, but they refuse to agree with this idea. Mrs Sheridan even seems to be amused about the commiseration of her daughter. Trying to divert Laura’s attention from the uncomfortable thoughts Mrs Sheridan gives her a beautiful hat to avoid a discussion. Angrily Laura leaves to her own room where she looks at herself in the mirror wearing the new hat, whose beauty sparks off a softening and bending to her mother’s words and a driving away of her concern about the occurrence. When Laurie returns from the office Laura’s desire to find a confederate in him by telling him about the incident, is subdued by him complimenting her on her fabulous hat. Meanwhile the first guests arrive and the perfect afternoon takes its course,- the garden party is a marvelous success. Later in the evening after all the invitees have left, the family comes together in the marquee and reflects on the day. It is then that Mr Sheridan mentions the accident mistakenly thinking it will be news to the family. Mrs Sheridan does not feel fine talking about all this again and gets nervous and awkward as a result. Preventing reproach she suggests to arrange a basket filled with uneaten rests from the party for the widow. Laura is not in line with this idea but reluctantly accomplishes her mothers directions and sets off to the wretched place.Walking through the dark streets she notices the skeptical gazes of the poor that follow her till she arrives at the widow’s lodge. A small woman who later turns out to be the widow’s sister opens the door and invites Laura to take a look at the corpse. She is under the impression that he looks marvelous and far away from everything, in spite of this idea she cannot control herself, thus starts to cry and flees from the cabin to get out of the situation. Meeting Laurie who has been sent by their mom she attempts to voice her feelings about her unfamiliar experience and the awareness she gained about life but is not able to express her thoughts. Despite this her brother understands what she is trying to say.

3. Analysis

3.1. Characterization

3.1.1. Laura

Laura Sheridan is a teenage girl growing up in an affluent family in an upper class neighborhood, who appears to be a dynamic character in the course of the story. To start with, one can say that she is a very creative, agile person who loves organizing things and is self conscious and aware of her skills, at least in her habitual surroundings.14 Laura seems to be different from all the other members of her family except for her brother Laurie who she gets along with very well.15 She has contempt for conventions16 which shows in her fascination about the workmen and the working class lifestyle as such.17 Moreover her character is very emotional, - her mood varies from high excitement to indignant depression within seconds.18 Getting lost in thoughts and dreams once in a while she also has a naively romantic side.19 Throughout the plot of the story she experiences an inner conflict between her upbringing in the upper class world and the snobbish views of her mother on the one hand and her own originating attitude and experiences on the other hand. Although her attempts to escape from her mother’s perspective fail due to her habitual compliancy,20 Laura reinforces the development of her own opinion perceivably.21

3.1.2. Mrs Sheridan

Mrs Sheridan lives with her husband and her six children in a homestead in a wealthy neighborhood. Her personality can be described as superficial which shows in her manner to care for clothes and exterior features only.22 Instead of being warm hearted and concerned about others, she is only worried about herself and her own property and prestige.Mrs Sheridan appreciates luxury greatly and enjoys abundance,23 thus she cannot imagine living in a state of need24 and even demonstrates this dull attitude in a snobby and superiority-showing manner.25 As a result of her preconceived opinion about the workers, she does not allow her children to have contact with them.26 Another characteristic is her way of refusing to admit her faults27 and of always placing blame on others.28 This is in line with her endeavor to evade discussions by changing the subject or simply taking advantage of her authority.29 Additionally, her capriciousness and hypocrisy shows in overacted affection for her children30 on the one hand and arbitrarily ordering them around31 on the other hand.

3.1.3. Oppositeness of the two characters

Although Laura grows up in the artificial world her mother seems to live in and has learned to adapt to her predetermined role,32 there are obvious differences in their characters. While Mrs Sheridan is captured in caring for superficialities only,33 Laura notices in the course of the story that there are other criterions that indicate the real worth and importance of a person.34Furthermore Mrs Sheridan’s lack of integrity35 forms another feature that distinguishes her from her daugther. In short, the relationship between Laura and her mother turns out to be marked by naïve assimilation36 but also growing opposition.37

3.2. Structure

To give a general view of the structure of the story I begin with illuminating its development.

For one thing there is a kind of introductory part on the first page from line 1 to 10 that resembles the opening of a movie when the camera pans in to the garden , where the setting is described. In the following pages hints can be found which lead to the actual complication that appears first on page 45 in line 17. To go into details, the complication is the news of the death of a man from the indigent neighborhood which Laura and her family are unexpectedly confronted with.38 Laura tries to convince the rest of the family to cancel the planned garden party, but is persuaded by the others of the reputed foolishness of her intention.39 So the resulting complication is her figuring out that the world she was raised in is missing profoundness and genuineness, hence she begins to seek sincerity and fulfilling happiness. An emotional climax can be found when Laura notices that none of the two worlds is able to provide the satifaction she longs for.40

Her struggle between these two sides to find her own identity is the main idea of “The Garden Party”.

3.3. Setting

As a matter of fact, the setting is divided into two completely different worlds that are clearly defined by a broad road.

Firstly, there is the world the Sheridans’ homestead is situated in. They live in a magnificent villa in the middle of a spacious garden41 on a little hill42 in a very affluent neighborhood. Apart from the huge hall43 and the summery porch44 there are many different rooms for any imaginable function, including a smoking-room,45 a roomy kitchen area46 and a drawing room where the piano has its place.47

Moreover the trimmed garden is covered with green lawns48, roses49 and also exotic flowers and trees like karakas50 or canna lilies51.A separate tennis court52 and a small lake53 are additional parts that belong to the Sheridans’ property.

The other side of the road,54 where the workers and the widow live, lies at the bottom of the hill55. Little brown cottages56 that consist of a few rooms only, presumably just of a passage,57 a low kitchen58 and a bedroom,59 are located in a line to themselves60. The rooms are dark and plain and hardly supplied with furniture at all. If ever, the garden patches61 fenced by shabby palings are only of use for planting cabbage or as a paddock for sick chickens.

3.4. Atmosphere

Just like the setting, the atmosphere of “The Garden Party” can be distinguished into two parts. While the world of the Sheridans’ is described in a colorful, shining way, the atmosphere in the poor neighborhood is depicted in gloomy, depressing words.

By using bright and luminous colours and expressions62 to emphasize the lightness of the environment of the Sheridans, 63 Mansfield conveys a warm and pleasant feeling so that one is almost under the impression of being in a marvelous fairyland. Everything in their house seems to be alive and open and radiates an inviting spirit,64exactly like the description of the nice weather of a perfect morning in early summer65 and the exotic plants and splendid trees with their broad, gleaming leaves66.

In contrast to this, the atmosphere suddenly changes completely when talking about the poor and their surroundings. The brown-painted shabby dwellings that are covered in deep shade,67 the dark lane68 Laura passes and also the pale sky69 leave behind a strong feeling of discomfort. This is in keeping with the frightening occurrence of dark and sluggish people,70 staring eyes71 and a big dog scurrying by like a shadow72. Additionally, the air is burdened with disease and sorrow,73 which underlines the dismal, uncanny atmosphere discribed above.

3.5. Point of view

The story is told from a third person narrator who has an insight into the feelings and thoughts of Laura74 which indicates his limited omniscient perspective. In some parts of the plot he expresses Laura’s emotions so specifically that the reader is almost under the impression that Laura and the narrator are the same person.75

4. Interpretation

In view of my previous consideration, I decided to subdivide the interpretation as follows. First of all I am going to summarily present the main idea and message of the text, before I am to go into the particulars of the two worlds, which lead up to Laura’s struggle of being torn between them. After that, I am going to explain the significance of the dead man and the following consequences for Laura which also form the meaning Mansfield intended to convey with “The Garden Party”.

In my opinion, Mansfield’s main intention was to demonstrate the inevitableness of the coexistence of happiness and sorrow, - the condition of contrasts existing at the same time and being unavoidably linked in the natural process of life.76 Another important realization is the fact that the size of one’swallet is not necessarily decisive for the extent of one’s happiness. On top of that she is trying to take away the fear of death with the help of Laura's experiences.77

4.1. The artificial world - a drama ?

Reading the first ten lines of the story one is under the impression of watching the opening scenes of a movie as a result of the beauty and the gleaming that almost remind one of a fairyland. The comparison to the latter or a film can be seen from various passages of the story, for example, when Laura’s sisters are introduced resembling haughty actors, Meg drinking coffee in a green turban and Jose appearing in a silk petticoat and a kimono jacket.78 Furthermore, Jose enjoys giving orders to her siblings, which always makes her feel like if she is the director of a movie or a theater.79

Also Jose’s song is presented in an acting manner.80 At this point Jose dares to be honest and shows her real emotions and negative thoughts for the first time since she feels protected behind the pretence of only playing a role. Despite the fact that she lives in material abundance she feels empty and frustrated. From this phenomenon the conclusion can be drawn that material wealth cannot truly satisfy one as long as it is not combined with richness of soul and heart.

4.2. Mrs Sheridan’s role

As a matter of fact, almost everyone in the family plays a role in their artificial movie, above all Mrs Sheridan who enjoys living in abundance, which comes into view when she orders hundreds of canna lilies just for her pleasure.81 Although she knows that her behaviour is not reasonable82 she refuses to think about it to protect herself from reality. The Sheridans’ world appears to be an artificial place, attempting to keep up appearances.83 For this reason, exteriors, superficialities and material things like a trimmed garden, delicatessen and elegant clothes are important elements to maintain the perfect outward illusion. Hence, the Sheridans’ world needs prestige and admirers to ensure its existence.84

Especially Mrs Sheridan is seeking admiration, since she enjoys the best of everything. In spite of all this I am quite sure she is not really aware of the fact that the world she lives in does not reflect reality. Possibly she assumes or even knows that there are also negative sides in life, but reflecting on this issue worries her, so she probably decided to take the line of least resistance and remain inside her own artificial world containing happiness only to protect herself from bearing reality. This is in line with her manner of evading discussions and changing the subject or becoming snobby and disparaging when talking about the indigent neighborhood. Her imbalance and capriciousness that show when she unexpectedly begins to order her children around are presumably due to the strain of unconscious pretending.

Maybe she does not like the role she embodies; her disclamation to organize the party and her frustration afterwards hint at the fact that she is tired of her life.85

Another interesting point is her reaction to Laura’s notification of the incident, Mrs Sheridan is only concerned that something has happened in her garden and is afraid of distress invading her world of good.86 Her response is in keeping with her later behaviour87 when Mr Sheridan mentions the accident. In this passage of the story it seems as though Mr Sheridan temporarily interrupted the movie because he reminds the family of the existence of evil.88 Mrs Sheridan feigns and tries to disguise her indignation by putting forward the suggestion of making up a basket.89 Since this is a practical occupation it does not require pondering and prevents pangs of conscience. Overall Mr Sheridan seems to be more sensitive and delicate than his wife and does not adapt to the world she lives in. It is probable that he does not even really know of her hypocrisy, because she tries to hide her real thoughts about the occurrence from her husband.

4.3. Symbolism

4.3.1. Hats

In the course of the story Mansfield uses the image of hats over and over again. In my judgement, she uses them to show the distinctions, among the upper class people like the Sheridans who wear pompous hats with velvet ribbons,90 the workers who simply put on straw hats91 and the impoverished who can only afford tweed caps and shawls.92 The image of a hat is also used when Mrs Sheridan tries to convince her daughter of the foolishness of her intention to cancel the party. She tries to divert her daughter’s attention by giving her a beautiful hat.93When Laura refuses to accept the gift Mrs Sheridan pops it on her head without tolerating resistance.94 The hat can be seen as a metaphor for Mrs Sheridans’ attitude of wanting Laura to adapt. When Laura is confronted with the dead man she apologizes for her hat,95 thus the inference can be drawn that she has acquired a new consciousness which has definitely lasting effects on her further life.

4.3.2. Lilies

Another image the author uses is flowers, especially lilies appear several times throughout the plot of the story. In my opinion, in this place lilies are a symbol of wealth and abundance and therewith of the world of the Sheridans itself. When Mrs Sheridan orders hundreds of canna lilies to satisfy her desire Laura describes how the flowers seem to grow inside her and take possession of her.96 This symbolizes the fact that the artificial world is an inevitable part of Laura that tries to spread out in her. By refusing to accept the trays of lilies97 she fights against this feeling in order not to be completely drawn into her mother’s world. When lilies are mentioned for the last time at the end of the story Mrs Sheridan supposes in a belitting manner to supplementally send lilies to the widow because the poor would be impressed by them.98 By retracting this idea due to the fact that the stems would possibly ruin Laura’s dress99 it becomes clear that Mrs Sheridans’ intention and her commiseration were not honest because by seing the approach of her own loss, her drive to do good is perished.

4.4. Laura’s disparity

Laura does not agree with the suggestion of her mother since she sees through her, yet she obeys her instruction in view of her authority.100 Hence it follows that she is different from all the other members of her family101 except for her brother Laurie whose character is in a way comparable to hers.102

With regard to the fact that her sisters choose her to organize the party103 the conclusion can be drawn that they also perceive her differentness. While they just care about themselves they choose Laura because of her creativity and energy. Sensitiveness, dreaminess and naïve enthusiasm104 are further features that can be concluded about her behaviour.

4.5. Laura’s conflict

Throughout the plot Laura experiences an inner conflict since she gradually becomes aware of the fact that the world she was raised in is a place of good which lacks reference to reality. Her love for being outdoors105 indicates a feeling of constriction inside the house, which stands for the world of the Sheridans. Although she enjoys to some degree taking advantage of the easiness of this world106 she develops a curiosity about peeking beyond the boundaries in hope of finding genuineness and fulfilling happiness. By questioning the destination of the party guests’ way Laura expresses their superficiality and lack of orientation.107 Despite the fact that she notices that there is something wrong she appears to be yielding and adapts to her mother’s view. Presumably she is not yet self conscious and independent enough to stand up for her decisions. Her irritation about surrendering can be seen from the fact that she pinches the cushion frill of her mother’s sofa as a valve for her aggression.108

As a matter of fact, the relationship between Laura and her mother is pretty close and affectionate, perhaps even too exaggerated for my tastes.109 Maybe this exaggeration represents the relationship that is required in high society. Despite all that, they resemble bad actors in a b- movie that overact their role.

4.6. Symbolism - Bread and butter

Regarding the plot, the buttered bread Laura eats at the beginning of the story is by no means unimportant.110 Suppose that the slice of bread is a symbol of an escape from the Sheridans’ world. Accordingly, when she has to give instructions to the workers her sandwich embarrasses her111 and she becomes uneasy since she has never been in contact with ordinary people like the workers and has only learned to be self confident in her artificial world. However, she tries to flee to the latter by imitating her mother112 but notices her inappropriate tone right away and falls back into childish behaviour.113 After experiencing their pleasantness she begins to relax and demonstratingly takes a big bite from her sandwich which reflects her solidarity with the workers.114

4.7. Facing reality

In that moment she feels like having found people that own the key to the genuineness and happiness she is striving for. Generalizing the image of the worker she is going into raptures and feels deeply impressed and attracted by their way of life. Indeed, looking for a person that embodies dreams and being fascinated easily is quite usual for teenagers.

However, Laura’s idealized, naïve image of the workers is abruptly expelled when she walks into the indigent neighborhood. Facing reality she experiences that the workers’ life does not only consist of happiness and pleasure but to a greater degree of hardship and suffering. The realization of this truth brings about disappointment, which is in line with her sadness when she finds that class distinctions still exist, when everyone stares at her because of her elegant clothing although she has always despised conventions and denied class distinctions. Perceiving this undesirable distance Laura feels out of place and therefore tries to be as inconspicuous as possible but does not succeed due to her showy clothes that draw everyone’s attention.115 Her uneasiness can also be read into the fact that she bends her head116 which forms a contrast to her lighthearted soaring117 in the artificial world.

Moreover, she feels like the joy of the party was somehow inside her and would not leave any space for anything else118 which even increases her distance to the tragedy. As for matters like these, Laura cannot imagine their coexistence, since she has never learned that sorrow is an inevitable part of life that no one can evade.

4.8. Laura’s disillusion

At this point, Laura’s confusion reaches a peak, since she becomes aware of the fact that her expectations can neither be fulfilled in the world she was raised in nor in the environment of the workers where she has hoped for them to be met.

Feeling disillusioned she plans to accomplish her mother’s task as fast as possible but is hindered by the widow’s sister who invites her to enter the lodge.119 The confrontation with the widow’s pain reinforces Laura’s desire to get out of the uncomfortable situation.120 Mansfield’s use of dark and dismal expressions when talking about the slum are contradictory to the words she takes advantage of using in order to describe the world of the Sheridans. In this context, the differences of the gardens and also the kitchens, which are often seen as the heart of a house, clearly exemplify the contrast.

4.9. Confrontation with death

When being confronted with the dead man something changes inside Laura. The sight of the corpse radiates a satisfaction and fulfillment she has never imagined to exist. In fact, she realizes that he is above all distinctions and contrasts in possession of the verity and genuineness she has longed for all the time.121

Furthermore the intensity of her initial shock about the man’s death is in some manner reduced since Laura learns that death is not as awful as she has imagined it to be.

Accepting the fact that pain and unachievable hurdles will never be subdued during the span of her life is an important step in Laura’s process of maturing.

4.10. Mansfield’s intention

Both, happiness and grief have their place in life, so there is no use in repressing and denying them like Mrs Sherdian does. Mansfield herself gives explanatory comments on the way she intended the reader to understand her fiction.

“And yes, that is what I tried to convey in‘The Garden Party’. The diversity of life and how wetry to fit in everything, Death included. That is bewilderning of a person of Laura’s age. Shefeels things ought to happen differently. First one and then another. But life isn’t like that. We haven’t the ordering of it. Laura says,‘But all these things must not happen at once,’And lifeanswers,‘Why not? How are they divided from each other?’And they do all happen, it isinevitable. And it seems to me there is beauty in that inevitability.”122

With this statement Mansfield hits the heart of the matter.There is no division of good and evil since they are linked to each other and the transitions are fluid.Who arrogates being in a position to define the borders?

4.11. Personal conclusions

To my mind, sorrow is an important feeling that makes one stronger and that often has to be gone through in order to cause good in the future. How often do happiness and success result from preceding losses or progressions that you did not want to occur? This is the way I experienced it; without the hardships and relapses I had to endure in the past I would not have grown and become the person I am today.

Regarding the fact that Laura has gained an important experience but cannot reach the dead man’s state of genuineness and relief in her lifetime, she returns to the world of the Sheridans and from now on has to fit in and maintain her integrity as a different person.

Concerning the handling of death, I agree with Mansfield and her way of denying the fact that death is the most dreadful part of life.

In my judgement, all this belongs to the natural process of life. Through personal experiences I am aware of the difficulty of accepting the loss of a young person, especially since he dies much earlier than desired, but in the past I also aquired the certainty that one has to accept the occurrence to be strong enough to carry on. There is no use in rising up against things that can impossibly be changed or prevented. Once you have gained this awareness and learned to go on you agree to the fact that happiness and grief can coexist in life.


Primary source

Staeck, Wolfgang. Stories of Initiation, Klett Verlag, 1997

Secondary sources

Staeck, Wolfgang. Stories of Initiation, Klett Verlag, 1997

Internet sources

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright©2001 Columbia University Press.

Schriftstellerinnen aus zwei Jahrhunderten in Kurzportraits von Norgard Kohlhagen, 1997

Pegasos - A literature related resource site , Finland,©2000

Thorndon - Steps Through Time, Mrs. Debbie Monagetti, Queen Margaret College, Wellington, New Zealand















14Staeck, Wolfgang. Stories of Initiation, Klett Verlag, 1997 p. 39 l.20 ; l.22-23

15Ibid. p. 41 l. 24 - 28 ; p. 48 l. 15 - 24

16Ibid. p. 41 l. 8 - 11; l. 14

17Ibid. p.41 line 4 to 16

18Ibid. p. 40 l.1 - 10

19Ibid. p.42 l. 4 - 13 ; p. 40 l. 4 - 9

20Ibid. p. 43 l. 4 - 5

21Staeck, Wolfgang. Stories of Initiation, Klett Verlag, 1997, Interpretation, p. 87

22Staeck, p. 41 l. 34 - 35 ; p. 47 l. 4 - 5

23Ibid. p. 42 l. 30 - 33

24Ibid. p. 47 l. 18 - 19

25Ibid. p.50 l. 2; Staeck, Interpretation, p.92

26Staeck, p.46 l. 20 - 21

27Ibid. p. 44 l. 16

28Ibid. p.49 l. 9 - 10

29Ibid. p.47 l. 23 - 34

30Ibid. p.47 l. 17 ; l. 24 - 27

31Ibid. p. 44 l. 4 - 12

32Ibid. p.49 l. 3 - 6

33Ibid. p.41 l. 34 - 35

34Ibid. p.40 l. 6 - 9

35Ibid. p.42 .l. 36

36Ibid. p.48 l. 2 - 8

37Ibid. p.49 l. 31 - 35

38Ibid. p.45 l. 17 - 34

39Ibid. p. 46 l. 1 - p. 47 l. 34

40Ibid. p.50 l. 21 - 25

41Ibid. p.39 l. 4 - 10

42Ibid. p.50 l. 11

43Ibid. p.41 l. 20

44Ibid. p.41 l. 20

45Ibid. p.43 l. 11

46Ibid p. 42 l. 6

47Ibid p.43 l. 6 - 7

48Ibid. p.39 l. 4

49Ibid. p. 39 l. 6 - 7

50Ibid. p. 40 l. 30

51Ibid. p.42 l. 31 - 32

52Ibid. p.40 l. 21

53Ibid. p.48 l. 13

54Ibid. p. 46 l. 11 - 12

55Ibid. p.46 l. 11

56Ibid. p.46 l. 14

57Ibid. p. 51 l. 7

58Ibid. p.51 l. 9

59Ibid. p. 51 l. 25

60Ibid. p.46 l. 10 - 11

61Ibid. p.46 l. 14 - 15

62Ibid. p. 39 l. 3

63Staeck,Interpretation, p. 85-86

64Staeck, p.42 l. 4 - 13

65Ibid. p.39 l. 4

66Ibid. p.40 l. 31

67Ibid. p.50 l. 10

68Ibid. p.50 l. 17

69Ibid. p. 50 l. 15

70Ibid. p.50 l. 26

71Ibid. p. 50 l. 35

72Ibid. p. 51 l. 8 - 9

73Ibid. p.50 l. 27

74Ibid. p. 50 l. 21 - 25

75Ibid. p.51 l. 32 - p. 52 l. 6 ;

76Staeck,Interpretation, p. 88

77Staeck,Interpretation, p.88

78Staeck, p. 39 l. 16 - 19

79Ibid. p.43 l. 12 - 14

80Ibid .p. 43 l. 19 - 36

81Ibid. p. 42 l. 30 - 33

82Ibid. p.42 l. 36

83Staeck,Interpretation, p.87

84Staeck , p.39 l. 7

85Ibid. p.49 l. 8 - 10

86Ibid. p. 47 l. 6 - 9

87Ibid. p. 49 l. 22 - 23

88Ibid. p.49 l.14 - 21

89Ibid. p. 49 l. 26 - 27

90Ibid. p.48 l. 1 - 2

91Ibid. p. 40 l.4

92Ibid. p.50 l. 18

93Ibid. p. 47 l. 24 - 30; Staeck,Interpretation, p.87 ; p.93

94Staeck, p. 47 l. 31-34

95Ibid. p. 52 l . 7

96Ibid. p.42 l. 24 - 25

97Ibid. p.42 l. 26 - 27

98Ibid. p. 50 l. 1 - 2

99Ibid. p.50 l. 3 - 4

100Ibid. p.49 l. 31 - 36

101Staeck,Interpretation, p. 87-88

102 Staeck, p. 41 l. 22 - 28 ; p. 46 l. 22 ; p. 48 l. 15 - 17; p. 52 l. 14 - 22

103Ibid. p. 39 l. 20

104Ibid. p. 41 l. 3 - 8

105Ibid. p. 39 l. 21 - 22

106Ibid. p. 48 l. 29 - 30

107Ibid. p.48 l. 29

108Ibid p.47 l. 21 - 22

109Ibid. p. 42 l. 34 - 35

110Ibid. p.39 l. 21

111Ibid. p. 39 l. 27 - 29

112Ibid. p. 39 l. 31 - p. 40 l. 1

113Ibid. p. 40 l. 1-2

114Ibid. p.41 l. 13 - 15

115Ibid p. 50 l.21 - 24

116Ibid. p. 50 l. 21

117Ibid. p. 39 l. 21 ; p. 41 l. 19

118Ibid. p.50 l. 10 - 16

119Ibid. p.51 l. 3 - 4

120Ibid. p.51 l. 24

121Ibid. p.51 l. 32 - p.52 l. 7

122Staeck,Interpretation, p. 88

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