Self Service Kiosk, part of the CRM - Innovation into the ArabellaSheraton Hotel Group

Term Paper, 2004

32 Pages, Grade: 1,5


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Executive Summary
1.2 Organisation, Background Information

2. The Changes made by ArabellaSheraton
2.1 Key Changes made by ArabellaSheraton
2.2 Expected results from the change
2.3 Drivers for this change
2.4 Insights of analysis

3. Evaluation and selection of strategic options
3.1 Strategic Options
3.2 Options chosen – route taken
3.3 Criteria for evaluation

4. Conclusion
4.1 Progress made with clearly shown milestones Schedules
4.2 Comment upon the timelines for achievement against the original plan
4.3 Reactions of the changes made and how the strategy is working
4.4 Proposal for the future strategic direction
4.5 Concluding Comment

5. Bibliography

6. Endnotes

7. Appendix

Appendix 1 Volume of rooms, opportunity for improvement

Appendix 1 Structure of ArabellaSheraton Hotelmangement GmbH

Appendix 2 Shortcut – Functions of the self-service “Kiosk”

Appendix 3 Drivers for change – internal & external

Appendix 4 Model of Porter’s 5 Forces

Appendix 5 Model of Competitive Advantage

Appendix 6 Milestone planning of the pilot project

1. Introduction

1.1 Executive Summary

The following pages, will give the reader a short introduction about the organisation of the ArabellaSheraton Hotel group, the structure of the joint venture partners and of the industry in which we are. It show’s one aspect of the vision and mission for the future strategic way of the ArabellaSheraton Hotelgroup, on an example called self-service “Kiosk”. The self-service “Kiosk” is a brand new technology/product development in the hotel-industry. The “Kiosk” is a Self-service-checkout Terminal for the hotel guests, with some other features for the future. It can serve a multitude of purposes to create an added value. The Vision of the project is to provide the customers with additional services when they use the system. It is also designed to streamline and standardize some very cost intensive processes into the hotel world.

In the second part of the assignment the reader should become an idea of some analysis that can be used to identify the external and internal forces that are driving these changes. It is a short introduction in the theory of PESTEL, SWOT, Porter’s 5 Forces, Value Chain and the GAP analysis. In Point 2.4 some of these theories adopted to the actual project. This chapter should give an overview how the theories can be filled with live and how they can be used together to place the strategic options into consideration. In formulating business strategy, manager must consider the strategies of the firm’s competitors, which is explained in the Ansoff’s growth matrix.

Options chosen – route taken, the understanding of the business strength and weakness of the environment, the financial side of the project and the value added to the guest and to the company shows the direction of strategy. The purpose is to determine objective, relevant, rational criteria, which may be replicated for decision making.

Chapter 4 is an explanation about the progress made with clearly shown milestones and schedules. The progress being made by the organisation are summarised in the schedule in appendix 6. In the last part of the assignment the reader will find the comment upon the gap between planning and reality, reaction of the changes made and how the strategy is working, the proposal for the future strategic direction and the concluding comment.

“Winning in business today is not about being number one –it’s about who “gets to the future first” (Gary Hamel and C.K. Prahalad, Competing for the Future)

1.2 Organisation, Company Profile

ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbH

The ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbH is the joint venture company which was founded in 1998 between the Schörghuber Unternehmensgruppe and Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc.. The partners of the joint venture corporation ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbH complement each other ideally to provide an extraordinary range of services, offering excellent performance. Since it’s founding in April 1998, ArbellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbH has become one of the leading hotel corporation on the German market, having more than doubled its portfolio. The aim of further dynamic expansion has left this enterprise with clearly defined tasks. The emphasis, however, is not on growth at any cost, but rather on strategic development involving financially viable and promising locations. A deliberate focus on this strategically planned expansion ensures the long terms success of ArabellaSheraton Hotels & Resorts. **Please see appendix 1 & 2

Partner of the joint venture:

Schörghuber Unternehmensgruppe:

For over 50 years, the Schörghuber group has enjoyed international success within each of its five areas of entrepreneurial activity: hotel proprietorship, airplane leasing, beverages, real estate and construction. The Schörghuber group comprises a number of individual companies, each of which employs their expertise and competence to act independently within their respective specialty market, in order to grow dynamically and – wherever this is advantageous – to cooperate with businesses from other branches. The basic principle is that every positive development achieved in an individual enterprise strengthens the Schörghuber group as a whole.

Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc.:

Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc. ranks among the top international hotel groups in the first class and luxury segments. It includes six globally renowned hotel brands – Sheraton, Westin, St. Regis, The Luxury Collection, Four Points and W Hotels – totalling more than 750 establishments in over 80 Countries. This corporation’s experience stems from a history of success spanning over 70 years – an achievement further accentuated by the creation of a particular innovative hotel concept called “W Hotels” in 1999. **Please see appendix 1 & 2

Background Information to the changes in the hotel industry:

After the extreme circumstances called 9/11, SARS, Cost restrictions in most of the company’s all over the world the hotel industry began to suffer. By May 2003 the global hotel industry had face a two-year operating environment unlike any other in its history. As a result, hoteliers have been called to the challenge and responded in full. By mid-summer, when exclusive survey results from more than 1,000 hotel operators were tabulated and analysed by HOTELS many commonalities emerged. Regardless of hotel type or geographical location, hotel operations today are leaner and more cost efficient. At the same time marketing budgets are expanding, as the need to develop a maintain business. Most hoteliers focused on quick promotions, partnerships and programs that can yield quick results.”1

Overall, survey findings show that hoteliers’ cost-cutting and marketing strategies have been predominately occupancy-driven. Many “survival” initiatives are not only temporary, but also fluid, with greater regard for how the tide can change at any moment. Hotels are learning to operate with streamlined staff who are capable of taking on additional responsibilities. But, in today’s competitive environment, hoteliers also regard service as their point of differentiation, and despite the challenging times have, wherever possible, resisted making too many cost cuts in areas where customer service would be affected. Although no hoteliers would have chosen to go down this path of having to rethink their operations on such a grand scale, the end result should be a stronger, smarter industry. Often it is within times of greatest hardship that comes time for great inspirations. Due to this fact, “innovation for differentiation” is a key word of this time, hotels that want to be leader for the future, must give more than just the basic hotel stay, the customer expect an added value which is not unconditional in connection with the stay. ”2

2. The Changes made by ArabellaSheraton

2.1 Key Changes made by ArabellaSheraton

ArabellaSheraton has been constantly building their competence in different market segments. Advantages gained by innovative thinking, is one of the top objectives. Here are some changes of the last years: With “Starlink”, our hotels have access to the most advanced central reservations system on the market. New technologies link our sales force into a strong network, making success measurable. Our “K.A.M – Key Account Management System” allows us to provide an ideal foundation for mutual cooperation. One of the latest technical innovations of ArabellaSheraton (as the very first hotel group in Europe) was the development of the “Smart System”. It is a central data-base which allows access to all relevant client information. The company stores over one million customer profiles, adding information on individual preferences and wishes pertaining to his or her hotel visit, if the customer so desires.

The absolutely brand new change is based on a strong cooperation with Micros-Fidelio and ArabellaSheraton. Together they developed especially for the hotel industry, a brand new feature, called “Kiosk”. The “Kiosk” is a Self-service-checkout Terminal for the hotel guests. The self-service Kiosk can serve a multitude of purposes, all of which will be explored during various test-stages of the project. The Vision of the project is to provide the customers with additional services when they use the system. It is also designed to streamline and standardize some very cost intensive processes into the hotel world. **Please see appendix 3

The advance of technological solutions for the hospitality industry has helped the industry improve profits and enhance service for its customers, as well as upgrade the quality of their stays.”3

Since 1995 the hotel industry has increased information technology (IT) expenditures 15 percent a year, driving up the level of IT investment per room sold by almost 75 percent. ”4

2.2 Expected results from the change

The expectations of the clients and partners are a central aspect to all of the processes and decisions. They dedicate high levels of determination to the development of innovative, futuristic product solutions, in order to best satisfy all possible needs an expectations of tomorrow. The focus is also on a differentiation to the market, “surprise the guest with the expected”, start thinking in other ways in order to add value to the customer and the company and be the first into the market with new technologies and product implementation (new segments, new markets).

There is a big potential in saving costs of processes. The cost of salaries & wages has the most important impact on the results at the end of the day. The project should increase the profit margin due to the reduced operating costs in optimising the resources of the employees due to standardization of processes. If we look onto the number of available Rooms in the ArabellaSheraton group we are talking about 5.927 Rooms. If we assume occupancy of 60% during the year, we get a volume of around 1.3 Mill. check-ins and check-outs. The desired outcome is to provide a lean service, with all the necessary functions for the customer and a roll out for all Hotels into the group. The goal is to save between 1% and 1.5% operating costs and to increase the guest satisfaction index. These advantages are particularly important in an economic downturn.

2.3 Drivers for this change

Drivers for change arise from internal and external organizational turbulence and the culture of the organization to make proactive or reactive initiatives from the pressures created. ”5

Kantner et al (1992) argues that the drivers are derived from 3 Levels

- The macro external Environment

- The micro internal environment

- Political forces at the individual level in the organization **Please see appendix 4

There are several analysis frameworks that we can use to identify the external and internal forces that are driving these changes:

The PESTEL analysis is one means to assess and even anticipate how broad based environmental influences affect an industry, an present future challenges in the form of threats and opportunities,”6 which category them in to six main types: political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal. This framework is not being use for ArabellaSheraton Hotelmangement GmbH for the current project, which primarily concerned is about client behaviour and internal environment.

SWOT analysis summarizes the key issues from the business environment and the strategic capability of an organization that are most likely to impact on strategy development. “7

Porter’s 5 Forces, one of the most useful frameworks for analysing competitive structure is that developed by Michael E. Porter. Porter suggests that competition in an industry us rooted in its underlying economic structure and goes beyond the behaviour of current competitors. The state of competition depends upon fife basic competitive forces. Together, these factors determine the ultimate profit potential in an industry where profit potential is measured in terms of long run return on investment.

The goal of competitive strategy is to find a position in the industry where the company can best defend itself against these forces, or can influence them in its favour. Knowledge of these underlying pressures highlights the critical strength and weaknesses of the company, shows the position in the industry, clarifies areas where strategy changes yield the greatest pay-off and highlights areas where industry trends hold greatest significance as opportunities or threats. ”8

**Please see appendix 5

The VALUE CHAIN analysis, by converting inputs to outputs value is created. The term value added, in simple terms, is the wealth generated by the business by deducting the total costs of creating the output from the total revenue received. ”9 To analyse the specific activities through which firms can create a competitive advantage, it is useful to model the firm as a chain of value-creating activities. Michael Porter identified a set of interrelated generic activities common to a wide range of firms. In order to better understand the activities leading to a competitive advantage, one can begin with the generic value chain and the identify the relevant firm-specific activities. Process flows can be mapped, and these flows used to isolate the individual value-creating activities. The value chain also is useful in outsourcing decisions. Understanding the linkages between activities can lead to more optimal make-or-buy decisions that can result in either a cost advantage or a differentiation advantage. ”10

A short interpretation to our project is shown below:

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Customers expectations are different. They will not place an equal value on the benefits they enjoy or expect from technology investments. Understanding the relative value that customers place on different services is particularly important when considering investment in hotel technology.

GAP analysis, the difference between futures desired ambition and the probability of achieving it creates a strategic gap, either positive or negative. Therefore the concept of gap analysis becomes a criteria for evaluation, as to whether the strategic options will achieve a desired future position, but be also assessing the status quo and – or “doing nothing” strategy. ”11

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2.4 Insights of an Analysis

A large number of tools have been developed for finding, selecting and drafting of strategies. Companies or people who want to assist in the strategy development process should think carefully which set of methods they want to use for their own business. It is advisable to use only a few methods.

If these methods are used correctly, the most important points should not be neglected, namely that of gaining new and coherent strategies.

The SWOT analysis allows us to identify the extent to which the current strength and weakness in ArabellaSheraton Hotels are relevant to and capable of dealing with the changes taking place. SWOT is an supporting evidence.

SWOT analysis is the abbreviation for the analysis of

- S trengths, W eaknesses

- O pportunities, T hreats

It is used mainly as a form of self-analysis in a business’s normative and strategic planning. ”12 The SWOT analysis provides information that is helpful in matching the resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which the change operates. ”13

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The company road map is customer driven and is primarily to focus on providing the right amount suite of technology for the unique requirements of the hotel industry. The “Kiosk” technology, developed by ArabellaSheraton and Micros, made available to ArabellaSheraton customers, is an example of a successful implementation between customer service and finding a more efficient process at the operating level.

After identifying the internal (micro) and external (macro) forces, we are able to understand the reasons behind ArabellaSheratons attempts to provide more value added services. The creativity in development of new features and the ability to develop this with strong partners, within the tight project deadlines, allows them to establish a good reputation among the competitors. The constant change in the environment and in the customers needs, are one of the key drivers for ArabellaSheraton in develop their products and services on an ongoing basis.

3. Evaluation and selection of strategic options

3.1 Strategic Options

“Strategy should be the direction and scope of an organization over the long term, which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within an changing environment and to fulfil all expectations. ”14

With the understanding of the internal capabilities and external environmental opportunities and threats through the SWOT and Value Chain analyses, ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbH has actually placed several strategic options into considerations:

“Michael Porter has argued that a firm’s strength ultimately fall into one of two headings: cost advantage and differentiation. By applying these strengths in either a broad or narrow scope, three generic strategies result: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. ”15

For a firm to succeed in using this strategy, they often have the following internal strength (this matrix ignores the environment):

1.) Cost Leadership

Access to the capital required for making an investment in assets, Skills in designing products for efficient processes and efficient services as well as strong partners in such development.

2.) Differentiation

Creative and highly skilled product development team corporate reputation for quality, innovation and knowing to choose the ‘right’ product Strong Marketing team

3.) Focus

Concentrates on the project that attempts to achieve either cost advantage or differentiation. Gaining reassurance about the quality of the choice (e.g., comparison with alternatives).

Chance to tailor a broad range of product development strength applying to a relatively narrow market segment.

In formulating business strategy, managers must consider the strategies of the firm’s competitors. While in highly fragmented industries the moves of any single competitor may be less important, in concentrated industries competitor analysis becomes a vital part of strategic planning. Competitor Analysis has two primary activities, 1) obtaining information about important competitors, and 2) using that information to predict competitor behaviour. The goal of competitor analysis is to understand:

- With which competitors to compete,
- Competitor’s strategies and planned actions,
- How competitors might react to a firm’s actions.
- How to influence competitor behaviour for our own firm’s advantage.

Casual knowledge about competitors usually is insufficient in competitor analysis. Rather, competitors should be analysed systematically, using organized competitor intelligence-gathering to compile a wide array of information so that well informed strategy decisions can be made. ”16

The Ansoff’s growth Matrix :”17

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Ansoff’s growth matrix provides four different growth strategies:

4.) Market Penetration

The company seek to achieve growth with existing products in their Current market segments aiming to increase their market share

5.) Market Development

The company seeks growth by targeting its existing products/services The typical hotel guest has benefited greatly from the industry’s investment and development in IT. Powered by large data warehouses, guest loyalty programs etc.

6.) Product/Service Development

The company develops new products/services/processes (standardization into the own environment of the company is a very important point of development, but not in the sense “one-size-fits-all”)

7.) Diversification

The company grow by diversifying by developing new products for new markets and new target groups. The Ansoff’s growth matrix is a tool for forecast, for strategy determination, it is a creative route, but it ignores the financial points of view.

A model that should use to find the key factors can also be the QFD Matrix, as a Benchmark tool that’s simply to use:

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Benchmarking against successful companies in other industries is a good tool to learn new ideas at an operational level and is essential for creating a learning organization.

We have to combine all the analyses, not only one is useful to become the right information that needed.

In this project a linking between the Value chain, the SWOT Analysis and the Ansoff’s grow Matrix, and the QFD Matrix seems to be the smartest way.

3.2 Options chosen - route taken

“The firm’s needs for strategy, as well as the characteristics of opportunities, are determined by its environment. Therefore, the first step of a strategic planner is to perceive and to analyse the shape of the future. ”18

When a firm sustains profits that exceed the average for its industry, the firm is said to possess a competitive advantage over its rivals. The goal of much of business strategy is to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. Michael Porter identified two basic types of competitive advantage:

- cost advantage and * differentiation advantage ”19

**Please see appendix 6

Hence, understanding of the ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement business strength can be use, to determine the relevance of the adopted strategy. Strategy determination means to create an value added to the company and an value added to the customer.

3.3 Criteria for evaluation

The purpose is to determine objective relevant, rational criteria which may be replicated for decision making, thereby strategic choices can be made to pursue the strategic direction of the enterprise. ”20

Evaluation criteria should also consider if the strategic options are consistent with:

- Vision

To be an innovative hotel group, through a leading position into quality as well as products and services, which inspire our target group and gain a profitability over the average

- Mission

Increasing guest satisfaction Developing our core competence to fulfil our customers needs Innovative products/services that meet real market needs

- Strategic intent

- Core Values

- Core Competence

- Value chain structures

- Product portfolio positions

- Existing industry KSF’s and company CSF’s

- Consistency criteria ”21

It is also very important to review the infrastructure of a company and the capabilities of the employees. Most of the time only the financial and market aspect and not the aspect of employees are measured. It is also very important to bring and maintain a time frame into the evaluation.

The diversification of products and standardization of processes in all hotels (five star’s and lower categories, different brands) towards the customers needs or toward the trend seems to be the best way to improve all the four Points of the Ansoff’s growth matrix. The different needs of travelling people, price sensitivity, different quality requirements in regards to the product and the soft skills, can only be satisfied through a broad and a targeted offer for the customer.

4. Conclusion

4.1 Progress made with clearly shown milestones and schedules

The key changes made were:

Implementation of a new technology into the ArabellaSheraton hotel group, now the milestone planning becomes important. The project becomes transparency and get commitment.

The progress being made by the organization are summarized in the following schedule:

**Please see appendix 7

4.2 Comment upon the timelines for achievement against the Original-plan

The strategy of ArabellaSheraton is to develop products and services in order to meet the changing needs of the customer and the company. With reference to **appendix 5, we can see the progress for the past 6 months during the pilot project.

In the previous 2 years the airline and car-rental industries have embarked on an aggressive introduction and roll-out of self-service kiosk terminals to better service their customers by reducing check-in time and increasing the amount of check-in points both on and off airports with out sacrificing precious and otherwise required des space. The kiosk offering, now common at most international airports, has resulted in a better acceptance of the technology by the common traveller and subsequently, he or she is ready for deployment in other industries. One of the industries where self-service kiosks will easily find acceptance is the lodging industry (in virtually all segments of the lodging industry market). The appeal of the project has brought two partners closer together who will pursue this project further.

This is the basis of the new feature and the first step toward this development.

ArabellaSheraton was able to meet the schedule in the most steps. There is still plenty of room for improvements in many points. It is vital for ArabellaSheraton to look into the customer satisfaction level/index. To do this on a regular basis,

ArabellaSheraton uses guest satisfaction questionnaires.

4.3 Reactions of the changes made and how the strategy is working

The customer reactions:

The customer perspective is one of the leading indicators, if customers are not satisfied, the development has to be changed to meet their needs. Poor performance from this perspective is thus a leading indicator of future decline, even though the current picture might look good. Eventually, if we listen to the customers, we can see the gradual increase in customer satisfaction over time.

There was also a question about segmentation can the company use this new feature also in a “five star plus” hotel? The internal environment reacts with a very strict “no”. At this phase of the project the company had to decided, if they want to create an add-on service to the guests in all Hotels, or only in some of them.

In this special case, the acceptance of American customers is much better than those of our European customers. The interest of the customers is very high and will grow over time, during the project, some of the desirable features were not up and running. Staying in touch with the customer is one of the important thing to hold and get the position in the mind market.

Check-out statistic 11/03 – 11/27

(Datasource: Internal Advisory Board Presentation from ArabellaSheraton)

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The employee reaction:

The employees are afraid to lose their jobs, once the “Kiosk” technology becomes standard in all the Hotels. The change causes stress and anxiety, especially if the change is in place and the employees should support the change. The company is trying through training, personal support, motivation and communication to help the employees to become open minded and flexible regarding new changes. These actions are necessary to bring people successful, through the emotional Curve during the implementation of the change.”22 They have to learn how the new features can help them to satisfy the customer and to help strengthen ArabellaSheratons operating structures. This is a process of progressive dialogue, cascades down the organisational hierarchy, along the way commitment will increase as real dialogue is achieved”23. Experience shows that efforts should be taken to find the right balance between individual treatment and innovation.

When individuals and functions feel threatened by streamlined processes, these processes won’t be streamlined for long. ”24

4.4 Proposal for the future strategic direction

The decision to implement such a new technology in a hotel group is the right way into the future business. It is a big mistake look only to benchmark someone within the own industry. Professions know all about the own industry, but what do they know about other industries? Most business processes are common throughout industry. The best example is the implementation of the “Self-service Kiosk” which is very used into the Airline industry. If no change is made, long term survival is threatened. One way forward is for the company to adopt an innovate process with an strong partner to create a win-win situation for all.

In the environment of the company, not everyone shares the same vision, there are those who prefer a life of stability and well defined relationships. In these situation, all manager some of the time, and many managers al the time, earn for more definition and structure. ”25

In all cases, the analysis should always be targeted at the dimensions critical for success into the industry. The firm must also know it’s own capabilities and limitations in order to select the opportunities that it can pursue with a higher probability of success. The situation analysis therefore involves an analysis of both the external and internal environment.

Benchmarking involves looking outward (outside the own company, organisation, industry, region or country) to examine how others achieve their performance levels and to understand the processes they use. In this way benchmarking helps explain the processes behind excellent performance. When the lessons learnt from a benchmarking exercise are applied appropriately, they facilitate improved performance in critical functions within an organisation or in key areas of the business environment. Benchmarking should not be considered a one-off exercise. To be effective, it must become an ongoing, integral part of an ongoing improvement process with the goal of keeping abreast of ever-improving best practice. In recent years, organisations such as government agencies, hospitals and universities have also discovered the value of benchmarking and are applying it to improve their processes and systems. In addition, industry associations now increasingly use the tool to improve sector-specific processes. ”26

4.5 Concluding Comment

The self-service kiosk can serve a multitude of purposes, all of which will be explored during various stages of the project. Please refer to appendix 2 for some of the current ideas. Power implications of change for the individuals affected, needs to be considered with care.

It is unavoidable to provide all participants with the same level of involvement, consultation and information (i.e. the social, legal and economic impacts on those involved). During the implementation of the new product the competitor analysis becomes more and more important. It is necessary to watch the competitor behaviour and actions. The impacts of the changes are still unpredictable due to the (market) competition “the competition does not sleep”.

Company work in traditional styles may not cause improvement though company so new processes need to be created and in the interest of long term survival and for sustainable business future. Therefore the company must adapt, redefine and create new processes as well as new products.

Many businesses can’t manage to make their operations truly competitive because they disregard certain vital elements. Anyone who is seriously looking for ways to increase savings potential and is willing to slaughter the “holy cow” of traditional structures can improve their liquidity and serve their customers more quickly and efficiently. In this way it is possible to create a win-win situation for those involved and find a strategic performance for the future.

5. Bibliography

Supporting evidence from a range of sources, references & Bibliography

Gary Hamel, C.K. Parhalad, (1996), Competing for the Future, Harvard Business Review, Harvard Business School Press

Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes, (1988), Exploring Corporate Strategy, sixth

edition (2002), Financial Times Prentice Hall

Harvard Business Review, (2000), Managing the Value Chain, Harvard Business School Press

Harvard Business Review, (1999) Corporate Strategy, Harvard Business School Press

Michael E. Porter, (1998) Competitive Strategy, The free press

Robert W. Bradford and J. Peter Duncan, (2000) Simplified Strategic Planning, Chander House Press

6. Endnotes


In this part the initial bibliography is listed (in the books section the last information refers to the language with EN = English and DE = German)

1., Karyn Strauss, Associate Editor and Jeff Weinstein, Editor-in-chief, Survival Strategies of Hotels EN

2., Professor Dr. Chekitan Dev, Globale Trends und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Hotellerie, p. 7 DE

3. Global Hospitality Consulting,, The hospitality Industry’s Challenge, EN

4. Paul J. Brown & Kevin Stange, Investment in Information Technology, McKinsey & Company, Inc. Atlanta and Inc. San Francisco, Investment in Information Technology Global Hospitality Consulting, EN

5. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003, Session 2, p.1, EN

6. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003,Session 3, p.4, EN

7. Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes, Exploring Corporate Strategy, sixth edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall imprint 2002, p.134, EN

8. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003,Session 3, p.14-15, EN

9. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003, Session 4, p.14, EN

10., EN

11. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003, Session 6, p.6, EN

12. ICG The International Group of Controlling, Dictionary for Controller, 1999, Strategic tools, p.330, EN

13., EN

14. Gerry Johnson, Kevan Scholes, Exploring Corporate Strategy, sixth edition, Financial Times Prentice Hall imprint 2002, p.10, EN

15., EN

16., EN

17. Ansoff H. Igor, Introduction to Part Two, 1969, p.169, EN

18. Ansoff H. Igor, Introduction to Part Two, 1969, p.169, EN

19., EN

20. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003, Session 6, p.6, EN

21. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook, CMC 2003, Session 6, p.8, EN

22. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook,

CMC 2003, Session 9, p.10, EN

23. Massingham Dr. L. C., Strategic Management Course Module Textbook,

CMC 2003, Session 9, p.12, EN

24. Dr. James P. Womack and Daniel T. Jones, Havard Bussiness Review on Managing the value chain, p. 233, EN

25. James Brian Quinn, Henry Mintzberg, Robert M. James, The Strategy Process, Prentice-Hall International Edition, EN

26. Massingham Dr. L. C., Introduction to benchmarking EN

Volume of rooms, opportunity for improvement:

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Self Service Kiosk, part of the CRM - Innovation into the ArabellaSheraton Hotel Group
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Executive MBA Manuela Mühlbauer (Author), 2004, Self Service Kiosk, part of the CRM - Innovation into the ArabellaSheraton Hotel Group, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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