Climate Change and Contemporary Artists

Analysing the Works of Olafur Eliasson, Julian Charrière, Ursula Biemann, Marjetica Potrč and Amy Balkin


Master's Thesis, 2020

101 Pages, Grade: 1,3


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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Old Theme of Nature in Landscape Painting

3. The Transition to Land Art and Robert Smithson‘s Spiral Jetty

4. The Anthropocene and Ecological Art

5. Olafur Eliasson
5.1. Biography
5.2. Works: The Glacier Melt Series, Your Waste of Time, and Ice Watch

6. Julian Charrière
6.1. Biography
6.2. The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories

7. Ursula Biemann
7.1. Biography
7.2. Deep Weather

8. Marjetica Potrc
8.1. Biography
8.2. Works: Dry Toilet, Forest Rising, and New Orleans: Shotgun House with Rainwater-Harvesting Tank

9. Amy Balkin
9.1. Biography
9.2. Works: Public Smog and A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting

10. Conclusion

11. Bibliography

12. List of Figures

1. Introduction

Melting Glaciers, Wildfires, Hurricanes, Coastal Erosion, Agriculture Depletion, Flooding, and the extinction of various animal species are only just a few of the contemporary consequences stemming from the global phenomenon of climate change and global warming. Although one can visually experience or perceive some of these effects, others, such as the emissions of greenhouse gases, are invisible to the naked eye and can only be objectively proven through scientific evidence. By definition, climate change is any significant change in climate measures lasting for an extended period of time.1 This includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, among other effects, that occur over several decades or longer.2 Extending back thousands of years, climate change has always been a part of the Earth's history. In the last 650,000 years, there have been seven cycles of glacial development and melting in which the end of the last ice age about 11,700 years ago indicated the start of the modern climate era and human civilization.3 The present state of global warming plays a significant role in climate change because it most likely stems from the outcome of human activity since the middle of the 20th century and is increasing at an alarming rate.4 The data collected from scientists over the years have revealed the unfortunate truth of the developing climate crisis, and according to the evidence from NASA:

“Ice cores drawn from Greenland, Antarctica, and tropical mountain glaciers show that Earth’s climate responds to changes in greenhouse gas levels. Ancient evidence can also be found in tree rings, ocean sediments, coral reefs, and layers of sedimentary rocks. This ancient, or paleoclimate, evidence reveals that current warming is occurring roughly ten times faster than the average rate of ice-age-recovery warming. Carbon dioxide from human activity is increasing more than 250 times faster than it did from natural sources after the last Ice Age.”5

In addition to this information, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report, released in 2013, assessed all scientific evidence involving climate change and confirmed the increased rate of climate change due to human activity.6 It also established that natural and human systems would be affected by this development, which will be further demonstrated in 2021 upon the release of the Sixth Assessment Report.7 Even though there is an extensive amount of scientific information that proves this phenomenon exists and it will be an ever-escalating problem for life on earth, not everyone agrees that climate change exists or proposes a threat to our existence because of its partial invisibility and complexity. Timothy Morton, a philosopher and literary theorist, defines climate change as a ‘hyperobject' which is an entity “of such vast temporal and spatial dimension that it defeats traditional ideas about what a thing is in the first place8 Because this topic is so abstract in terms of understanding, contemporary artists are interpreting this topic into their works to give climate change a visual representation that provides an alternative perspective for the world to connect with and understand. This thesis aims to investigate the development of the topic of climate change within an art historical context and to answer questions including how the topic of climate change originated in art and how climate change has been addressed in contemporary art. Other questions include what mediums contemporary artists have used, what other themes are linked to climate change in art, and have these works influenced change. To investigate this, I will be examining works from the artists Olafur Eliasson, Julian Charrière, Ursula Biemann, Marjetica Potrc, and Amy Balkin.

In order to understand the development of the theme of climate change in contemporary art, it is essential to recognize the representation of nature in landscape painting and how the theme of nature in landscape painting constantly evolved throughout art history. Therefore, in the first chapter, the development of the old theme of nature in landscape painting will be traced and analyzed from the genesis of landscape painting as a ‘parergon' in the 15th century to the periods of Romanticism and Impressionism in the 19th century, in which nature and landscape became the main subject of painting and the relationship between man and nature began to be questioned. Different landscape paintings from different art historical periods will be assessed from artists, such as Sandro Botticelli, Lukas Cranach the Elder, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Nicolas Poussin, Jean Antoine Watteau, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, James Mallord William Turner, and Claude Monet. Through these assessments and interpretations, the transitions of the representation of nature in art history from a distanced, idealized perspective to a more realistic and experiential perspective will be established.

In the second chapter, the transition to Land Art in the middle of the 20th century and Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty will be highlighted. During this period, the limitations of landscape painting began to be questioned, leading to the Land Art movement, in which the natural landscape and environment became the artistic medium. The separation between art and nature began to be investigated intensely, experimented with, and blurred. Through Robert Smithson's biography, philosophies, and works, the development of Land Art will be explored, and a thorough interpretation of Smithson's Spiral Jetty will be presented in which concepts of Sites, Non-sites, Entropy, and Time will be discussed.

In the third chapter, the origins of the Anthropocene and Ecological Art will be emphasized, which are crucial in understanding contemporary art addressing climate change. The Anthropocene term and its origins will be defined in which nature is viewed from a cultural perspective. Ecological Art is also discussed in which mid- 20th- century artists, such as Hans Haacke, began to create works that targeted issues regarding the environment, ecology, and sustainable development. Important aspects of interpreting ecological art are then briefly highlighted to better understand the selected contemporary works addressing climate change.

In the remaining chapters, the works from contemporary artists, Olafur Eliasson, Julian Charrière, Ursula Biemann, Marjetica Potrc, and Amy Balkin will be investigated and critically evaluated within the context of climate change. In these works, addressing the topic of climate change, themes of the Anthropocene, Entropy, and Time will be additionally highlighted as well as the relation to their mid-20th century, artistic predecessors. Before analyzing the works, each artist's biographical information will be established along with the history of their artistic careers. The works that will be discussed include The Glacial Melt Series, Your Waste of Time, and Ice Watch by Olafur Eliasson; The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories by Julian Charrière; Deep Weather by Ursula Biemann; Dry Toilet, Forest Rising, and New Orleans: Shotgun House with Rainwater-Harvesting Tank by Marjetica Potrc; and Public Smog and A People’s Archive of Sinking and Melting by Amy Balkin.

2. The Old Theme of Nature in Landscape Painting

The theme of nature can be traced throughout the history of art, in which its visual representation and meaning have continuously transformed and developed. Through many art historical periods, nature has been showcased through the genre of landscape painting in which natural scenery, such as forests, fields, mountains, or any view of the natural world or its natural elements, are depicted.9 The viewer experiences nature in landscape painting through a distanced viewpoint, in which the framed landscape replaces the natural world through the artist's perspective and becomes a sort of second nature or representation of a second type of nature through the artist's imagination. Initially, the term “landscape” was not defined as a view of nature but rather a geographic territory defined by political boundaries.10 Through the history of art, this previous definition of the landscape has been challenged and reconstructed by many different artists from an array of art periods, and one can analyze the development of landscape painting and the theme of nature in western art from the early centuries to the present day.

At the genesis of landscape representation through painting in western art, the natural scenery was thought to have been more of an accessory or ‘parergon' to the overall composition.11 A ‘parergon' is defined as a section of a painting that is subordinate to the central theme or subject matter.12 During the 15th and 16th centuries, artists began to use the ‘parergon' of nature within their works often as landscapes that either portrayed a background behind a biblical, profane or historical scene; characterized an allegorical or symbolic meaning; reproduced the artist's topographical surroundings; or depicted inspirations or interpretations from earlier representations of landscape.13 Landscape was not yet considered to be an independent genre at the time, and the primary purpose of the landscape within a painting was to provide an elevated view for the narrative scene, which included dominating human figures or subjects.14 Rarely were landscapes portrayed without a human subject, and if they were, they emerged most of the time as drawings or watercolor sketches, not as finished oil paintings.15 The early depictions of landscape paintings were often connected to utopian ideologies, such as the biblical motif of paradise or the Garden of Eden, a place of happiness free from sin, or the pagan myth of Arcadia, a pasture of promising dreams.16 These types of landscape paintings were portrayed behind biblical or mythological representations and distinguished a place untouched by man.17 For example, in Sandro Botticelli's La Primavera (Fig. 1), created between the late 1470s and the early 1480s, a mythological scene of Spring is depicted in a sacred grove setting.18 The grove is represented by trees bearing fruits, plants, flowers, and the faint, atmospheric view of mountains in the distance, which creates a modest background to enhance the scene's narrative represented through the foreground's dominating figures. La Primavera translates to Spring.19 Therefore, the figures in the painting were thought to have been of mythological decent and represent together an allegory of spring. Venus, the goddess of love, is represented in the middle of the composition and is surrounded by Flora, Cupid, God of Mercury, the three dancing graces, Zephyr, and Chloris.20 Because of the mythological figures, the garden can be interpreted as a place far from the grasp of the human world.

In the 16th century, artists began to integrate the figures more organically into a more detailed, vaster landscape that extended into the background to suggest a continuous narrative.21 For example, one can see this transition in The Paradise (Fig. 2) from Lukas Cranach the Elder, created in 1530.22 Although the figures are represented smaller in scale and more integrated into the landscape, the landscape is still a ‘parergon' to the figurative story. The landscape depicts the story of Adam and Eve in paradise, a place untouched by man, through a structural design starting in the foreground and ending in the background. The human subjects are still dominating the overall composition, but one can see that the landscape is further detailed with lush foliage and representations of animals, and the horizon line has been shifted to the top of the painting to insert additional spatial depth for the progressive narrative and natural scenery within the painting. Additionally, in the 16th century, the ‘world landscape' was established in the Netherlands, which was a presentation that situates the figurative subjects within a vast panorama of nature containing forests, bodies of water, mountains, plains, and monuments.23 Another milestone during this time was the creation of the first landscape painting without the presence of human subjects by Albrecht Altdorfer in 1520 in Germany.24 While many artists in the 16th century depicted biblical, mythological, or historical scenes within their paintings, a transition in subject matter also began to emerge in the Netherlands through Pieter Bruegel the Elder's landscape paintings. He began to depict scenes of everyday rural life within expansive landscape settings, and one can see this, for example, in The Hunters in the Snow (Fig. 3) created in 1565.25 In this painting, hunters are depicted in the foreground, trekking through snow and returning from an unsuccessful hunt in winter. An extended perspective enriches the landscape setting into the background, where figures are shown in the middle of their everyday routines and activities. The mountains portrayed in the scene were inspired by Bruegel's travels to Italy, in which he crossed the alpine mountains.26 Therefore, one can understand that this landscape is not an authentic view of a scene in the Netherlands, but rather a composite landscape from the artist's imagination and previous inspirations, which is activated by the scenes of the human figures. The portrayal of winter was additionally an innovative characteristic at the time.27

In the 17th century, a shift in landscape painting took place, and artists began to use idealized, classical, or heroic representations of landscape through historical, mythological, and biblical scenes.28 At this time, the portrayal of the landscape was beginning to transition out of being used merely as a ‘parergon' or accessory and started to become more elaborate within the overall composition challenging the human figure's dominance. Although the figures compared to the landscape settings were reducing in scale, the landscape was still being used predominantly to tell a figurative story. The ideal or heroic landscape was an art form that sought to present a view of nature more beautiful and harmonious than nature itself, while the classical landscape was influenced by classical antiquity and sought to illustrate an ideal landscape recalling Arcadia, a legendary place in ancient Greece known for its quiet pastoral beauty.29 These types of landscape representations did not depict an authentic form of nature and were executed through a combination of inspiration from earlier paintings of landscapes or works of art, sketches of nature, and the painter's imagination.30 For example, in Nicolas Poussin's Blind Orion Searching for the Rising Sun (Fig. 4), created in 1658, the classical, mythological story of the blind giant Orion is depicted in an imagined, idyllic, and lush pastoral landscape.31 The giant, Orion, is depicted walking towards the sun's healing rays by the direction of Cedalion, who is found on Orion's shoulders.32 Although portrayed natural and realistic, the landscape is a composite of sketches and studies of landscapes in order to create a poetic, ideal landscape that suggests a topographical view.33 The landscape evokes a distant past and its central motive is to tell the story of Orion from classical mythology.

In the 18th century, artists in France and England began to transition the representation of landscape during the Rococo period. Jean-Antoine Watteau and Jean-Honoré Fragonard began to depict lighthearted scenes or ‘fetes galantes' of elite social gatherings in fantastical landscapes that glorified nature.34 The landscape style remained to be more of an ideal representation with a mix of aristocratic and classical imagery, but the brushwork was light and airy.35 For example, in Jean Antoine Watteau's The Embarkation for Cythera (Fig. 5), created in 1717, a whimsical scene of socialites embarking a ship intended to sail to or from the island Cythera in Greece, where Aphrodite was born, is depicted.36 The painting celebrates love, and the landscape is portrayed in a soft and delicate manner, in which the hand of the artist can be seen.37 In Great Britain, artists, like Thomas Gainsborough, portrayed landscapes in the portraiture backgrounds.38 His goal was to capture a more realistic representation of nature instead of the classical interpretations of landscape.39 For example, in the background of Gainsborough's Mr. and Mrs. Andrews (Fig. 6) , created in 1750, he portrayed a realistic interpretation of the rural English countryside also thought to be the Andrews' estate.40

One of the most significant transitioning periods of the representation of nature in landscape painting was in the 19th century during Romanticism and Impressionism. During this period, landscape painting became a respectable genre within European art academies and began to emerge in the United States.41 There was increased interest and development in scientific knowledge and discoveries such as geological time, which sparked curiosities in man's relationship to nature and the temporality of nature and the environment.42 The period of Romanticism in landscape art developed a movement of appreciation for nature and resistance or opposition to industry and technology.43 Through the perspective of the Romantics, the natural world was either admired for its natural, untouched beauty or feared for its uncontrollable power, also known as the sublime.44 Romantic artists showcased the importance of nature as the main subject through their landscape paintings and longed to understand and communicate with nature.45

For example, John Constable was one of the first renowned English romantic landscape artists.46 In John Constable's The Hay Wain (Fig. 7), created in 1821, he depicted a rural scene of a wagon being pulled by horses through the Stour river in the English countryside, near his birthplace.47 The landscape painting was measured at about 130.2 x 185.4 cm, which was revolutionary at the time since landscapes were not customarily portrayed as the main subject at such grand scale dimensions.48 Constable refused to create an idealized landscape and, instead, took an interest in depicting a more realistic and personal interpretation of a familiar landscape.49 In this painting, one can see Constable's interest in portraying realistic and dramatic representations of nature through the cloud formations, ripples of reflection in the water, and light shining on the leaves of the trees. He expressed his personal experience within the landscape through this rough, unfinished painting style full of texture. In Constable's theoretical writings, he expressed his interest in Meteorology through questions regarding the formation, movement, and continuous change of clouds as well as the phenomena of light and landscape.50 This perception of the transitory within the landscape or the constant change in nature led him to prefer the spontaneous sketch as an artistic medium, and he ended up pioneering the technique of plein air painting in art, although the Impressionists mostly utilized it.51 The translation of the french term ‘plein air' is out of doors and is defined as the practice of painting entire finished pictures outdoors.52 Although the Hay Wain was not completed outdoors, Constable used smaller, plein air oil sketches of the scenery for inspiration in order to create the carefully composed landscape in his atelier.53 The creation of plein air painting revolutionized or began to sever man's separation from nature in art by literally taking the artist out of the atelier and into nature to create more realistic representations of landscapes and experience nature personally through close observation. This experience in nature started to spark the transition to ‘environment' in art - where a connection to nature is sought out instead of viewing it from a distanced perspective.54

Another romantic artist interested in the phenomena of the constant change of nature, specifically in weather and climate, was James Mallord William Turner.55 In Turner's Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour’s Mouth making Signals in Shallow Water, and going by the Lead. The Author was in this Storm on the Night the Ariel left Harwich (Fig. 8), created in 1842, a steamboat is depicted in the middle of the painting caught in a snowstorm at sea.56 The thick, impasto application of paint and expressive brushstrokes create such an illusion of form to the point that the steamboat is almost unrecognizable, and the painting reads as more abstract. Through this dramatic and expressive painting style, Turner depicts the sea's violent power and creates an overall threatening mood displaying a symbol of man's unsuccessful efforts to overcome nature's power.57 In the title, Turner hints at the idea that he was present during the storm and painted the scene from memory. Regarding this painting, Turner stated:

“I did not paint it to be understood, but I wished to show what such a scene was like: I got the sailors to lash me to the mast to observe it; I was lashed for four hours, and I did not expect to escape, but I felt bound to record it if I did. But no one had any business to like the picture.”58

Although Turner was most likely not present at the scene, he emphasized through this statement that he aimed to give a view from outside nature that also conveys an experience from inside nature.59 This idea of submerging himself in the experience of the forces of nature and allowing that experience to navigate the execution of the painting was a new advancement in the relationship between artist and nature.60 It took the experience of outdoor, plein air painting to another level by enveloping the artist in nature's powerful phenomenon.61 Instead of depicting landscape as a static and still-life like representation enjoyed from a distance, Turner conveys a sense of constant movement and change in nature observed from a close encounter.62

In the late 19th century, the Impressionists took the experience of connecting with nature a step further than the Romantics by immersing themselves completely in their environment. They embraced the plein air technique fully and completed most of their paintings outdoors.63 Their aim was not to create a realistic depiction or interpretation of nature but to capture the experience of sensibility and temporality through expressive, fleeting moments in nature within their landscape paintings.64 They were interested in light and weather phenomena and how to convey these moments expressively in their paintings.65 According to Malcolm Andrews:

“The experience of nature as process rather than picture depends on shifting the emphasis from ‘landscape' to ‘environment'. Landscape is an exercise of control from a relatively detached viewpoint. Environment implies a mutually affective relationship between the ‘organism' and its environing ‘current field of significance'. The geographer Denis Cosgrove has argued that the painter's ‘scenic' sense of landscape is incompatible with the subjective experience of landscape because the painter is an outsider, detached from that which has become his motif. But when landscape becomes an environment, the relationship must change: the scenic sense would then be only one of many ways in which what was landscape becomes holistically the current field of significance. The interaction between landscape and artist now becomes more complex.”66

For example, in Claude Monet's series of the Grainstack (Fig. 9) paintings, created from 1890 to 1891, he painted a series of the same subject, grain stacks in a field behind his home in Giverny, at different times of the day and in different climatic conditions across seasonal changes.67 In these paintings, one can identify different moments in time where sensation outplays perception.68 The temporary light effects that develop between the artist and the subject become the central motive of concentration.69 The intimate understanding of nature and its processes creates a more abstract view of nature instead of a polished, naturalistic perspective.70 This connected relationship to the environment that the impressionists established sparked the transition to contemporary depictions of environment in art.

3. The Transition to Land Art and Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty

In the middle of the 20th century, artists began to question the confinements and limitations of landscape painting. They started to venture out from the second representation of nature in search of an art form that expressed true nature itself. A landscape painting was considered at the time to be a distanced view, or second interpretation of nature confined within a frame and exhibited in an institution, like a gallery or museum, isolated from genuine nature or landscape. Many artists began to question when does land become a landscape in the process of landscape art, and when does the artistic involvement or investigation within the land start and finish.71 Although plein air painting took the artist out of the studio to experience nature from a closer observation and provide a deeper, more authentic connection to the landscape, this process was thought of as a mere excursion, and painters eventually returned to the studio to complete their works regarding nature.72 According to Malcolm Andrews:

“The implication is that landscape art doesn't happen in nature; landscape art is an abstraction from, an appropriation of, nature such that, once the process has issued in an art object, one might say (pointing to the land) ‘there is the original', and (pointing to the painting or photograph) ‘here is the artist's representation'. The distinction bestows a mystique on the ‘original', a different kind of value on the artefact, and generates a tension or a dialectic between the two. It also renders both artist and spectator as detached observers of nature. The process terminates in what is perceived as a profound distinction-‘art' and ‘nature'.” 73

This separation between art and nature began to be investigated intensely, experimented with, and blurred in the middle of the twentieth century. It triggered an artistic movement in which artists searched for new forms of representation of nature and landscape in art.74 In fact, artists wanted the original, natural landscape to become the art, and this started the Land or Earth Art movement, which emerged in the 1960s in the United States within the Conceptual Art movement.75 Land Art is defined as the type of art in which artists would create works “directly in the landscape, sculpting the land itself into earthworks or making structures in the landscape using natural materials such as rocks or twigs.”76 Additionally, artists of the Land Art movement transported earthly materials found in nature into galleries and museums to create installations.77 They did this in order to rebel against the clean, domesticated atmosphere of art institutions and present a form of a landscape that was authentic and not a copied or interpreted reproduction.78 Although some Land Artists exhibited in galleries, other artists from the movement believed that institutionalized, interior spaces acted as an additional frame or confinement to the landscape.79 They regarded these institutions as places manipulated by political and economic powers, and some artists understood the gallery and the art market as symbols of capitalism.80 Another characteristic of the Land Art movement was the withdrawal from the painting process in order to work with raw earthly materials, such as rocks, soil, plants, and trees. This allowed prioritization of a new approach that valued the natural earth materials and landscape; the artist's developing ideas and their implementation; and the action needed to create these works of art.81 The works of many Land Artists were also associated with sculpture, landscape architecture, and gardening at the time, and the works were either large or minimal modifications of the earthly materials found within the landscape, such as in Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (Fig. 10) or in Richard Long's A Line Made by Walking (Fig. 11).82 These works could not be removed from the location and were meant only to be experienced through visiting the site or observing photographs, videos, or textual documentation.83 In Land Art, the landscape becomes the artwork itself through the artist's monumental or minuscule manipulation.84

The artist who is considered to have pioneered the Land Art movement was Robert Smithson.85 Robert Smithson was an American artist who was born in New Jersey in 1938.86 He was raised in a middle-class family in New Jersey and developed a passion for travel, natural history, and the earth sciences at a young age.87 His family planned many trips within the United States to destinations including the Grand Canyon, Yellowstone National Park, northern California, and Florida.88 Additionally, Smithson frequently visited the American Museum of Natural History in New York.89 In 1954, Smithson attended the Art Students League in New York City, where he received a scholarship and focused on introductory foundation courses such as painting, life drawing, cartooning, and composition.90 After graduating from high school in 1956, Smithson joined the United States Army Reserve for a year before hitchhiking around the United States and Mexico.91 He, thereafter, settled down in Manhattan, where he began to explore his artistic style.92 Although Smithson was extremely intelligent and opinionated, he was not interested in attending college and preferred to be self-taught through his extensive reading and acquired knowledge through traveling.93 He was considered to be an autodidact.94 In his first solo exhibition at the Artist's Gallery in New York in 1959, Smithson showcased sixteen paintings heavily influenced by his interest in expressionism.95 Although he is primarily known as a sculptural artist, his earlier works consisted of paintings that were mostly inspired by expressionism, and he was influenced by themes such as science, religion, mythology, natural history, language, pop culture, and the cosmic sense of time.96

In 1965, Smithson began to appear in several group exhibitions as a sculpture artist.97 He was influenced by minimalism in his earliest sculptures and experimented with geometric forms and mirrors, which were often combined with natural, raw materials, such as petrified coal and crushed seashells.98 He also explored his concepts through language and produced essays regarding his thoughts on an array of themes. For example, in his essay titled “The Crystal Land”, published in 1966, Smithson introduced his concept of the entropic landscape being a natural and cultural phenomenon.99 He described entropic landscapes as “low profile landscapes, the quarry or the mining area. a kind of backwater or fringe area.” 100 Smithson's interest in the concept of Entropy was explored in many of his works throughout his artistic career, and the term Entropy is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics.101 It can be defined as the measurement of the dispersal of energy, also known as heat in a closed system.102 In other words, the level of Entropy will rise as more energy is dispersed.103 Entropy can additionally be defined as the “inevitable deterioration of a system or society” and can be associated with an asymmetrically time-bound idea.104 This is considered due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that once energy is dispersed, it cannot be re-used.105 It suggests that Entropy can only increase with time.106 This concept's negative outcome is that the world will eventually come to an end through ‘thermal death', a term that emerged at the end of the 19th century.107 In Smithson's essay “Entropy and the New Monuments”, published in 1966, he further addressed his ideas on Entropy through the analysis of works from his contemporaries.108 Smithson stated:

“The works of many of these artists celebrate what [Dan ] Flavin calls “inactive history” or what the physicists call “entropy” or “energy-drain.” They bring to mind the Ice Age rather than the Golden Age, and would most likely confirm Vladimir Nabokov's observation that, “The future is but the obsolete in reverse.” In a rather roundabout way, many of the artists have provided a visible analog for the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which extrapolates the range of entropy by telling us energy is more easily lost than obtained, and that in the ultimate future the whole universe will burn out and be transformed into an all encompassing sameness.”109

Later, Smithson specified that the article was full of suggestions for placing art outside of the museum or gallery.110 The article showcased how Smithson's work would later progress out of the gallery completely, where he would explore his interest in time on a scale that exceeded the human and would incorporate the geological past as well as the science-fictive future.111

In the late 1960s, Smithson began to advance his concepts of the ‘Site' and ‘Non-Site' within his sculptural works. The site was considered to be a place outside in nature, where art was inseparable from the landscape, while the non-site was identified as a cultural, mostly interior space where objects from the specific sites were displaced.112 Some of the sites selected by Smithson were Rozel Point on the Great Salt Lake in Utah and the Yucatän Peninsula in Mexico.113 Non-sites were mostly exhibited in art institutions such as the gallery or museum but were also considered to be found in his many essays and articles through text.114 According to Eugenie Tsai:

“By encompassing both conventional exhibition venues and far-flung locations within his practice, Smithson performed a kind of institutional critique, pointing to geographical and cultural limitations that the purportedly neutral spaces of the museums impose on art.” 115

Important concepts developed from Smithson's sites and non-sites were the abilities to transfer information about a site outdoors to observers indoors and to establish a relationship between a site and its representation.116 In 1968, Smithson created about a dozen non-sites, which were inspired by site-specific locations such as entropic sites in New Jersey, the western United States, and Europe.117 He collected materials from the sites and photographed the landscape, which was then transferred into and displayed in a gallery setting.118 Many of these non-sites were exhibited at his solo show at Dwan Gallery in 1969.119 Regarding sites and non-sites, Smithson stated:

“I did a large spiral, triangular system that sort of just spun out and could only be seen from an airplane. I was sort of interested in the dialogue between the indoor and the outdoor and on my own, after getting involved in it this way, developed a method or a dialectic that involved what I call site and nonsite. The site, in a sense, is the physical raw reality-the earth or the ground that we are really not aware of when we are in an interior room or studio or something like that--and so I decided that I would set limits in terms of this dialogue (it's a back and forth rhythm that goes between indoors and outdoors), and as a result I went and instead of putting something on then landscape I decided it would be interesting to transfer land indoors, to the nonsite, which is an abstract container.”120

Smithson's interest in sites and Land Art continued to develop throughout 1969, and he began to create his renowned Earthworks. He created most of his Earthworks outside in nature or in site-specific landscapes in which he mostly used the landscape's raw materials, such as mounds of dirt and rocks.121 Smithson's first monumental Earthwork Asphalt Rundown (Fig. 12) was created in the outskirts of Rome in October 1969, where he released a load of asphalt from a truck at the top of a quarry.122 The hot asphalt flowed down the quarry walls and became solid as it cooled in temperature, displaying a thermodynamic characteristic.123 Smithson's goal with this work was to root the asphalt to the land so that it would be permanently fixated in the landscape and be susceptible to the surrounding environment's weathering conditions.124

Robert Smithson's most iconic Earthwork and one of the most recognized works representing the Land Art movement is the Spiral Jetty. The Spiral Jetty was created by Smithson in April of 1970 at Rozel Point, located on the Great Salt Lake of Utah.125 Smithson chose this remote location due to its previous involvement with the oil industry and its unique landscape.126 The Great Salt Lake was at the time and still is to this day a terminal basin, which is defined as a freshwater lake with no means of an outlet for the water within it.127 Therefore, the waters that flow into the lake from the connected rivers and streams collect in the lake and eventually evaporate into the air.128 Because of this evaporating aspect, the lake is left extremely dense in minerals, especially salt, and due to the water's high content of salt, a specific type of algae thrives within the lake, which at times gives the water a light pink or red coloration.129 Because of the location's unique landscape, Smithson decided to build his Spiral Jetty at the Great Salt Lake, and the process of building the Spiral Jetty lasted about three weeks with the help of a team of specialists, dump trucks, a tractor, and a large front loader.130 Upon completion, the monumental sculpture measured about fifteen hundred feet in length and fifteen feet wide and was composed of approximately 6,650 tons of basalt rocks and earth.131 Smithson placed his sculpture of order within nature, a place of disorder, and the entire creation process was documented through film and photography by Robert Fiore.132 The completed design depicted a linear, spiraled, jetty form where the tail began at the beach and then extended into the lake where it began to coil inwards, creating a circle and ending at the center. The inspiration for the spiral motif came from local myths of a vortex that connected the lake to the center of the earth as well as images discovered in petroglyphs and other Neolithic drawings found near the site.133 A year after the Spiral Jetty was installed, it was submerged completely by water due to the lake's rising water levels (Fig. 13).134 The sculpture was mostly invisible after its completion and became known predominantly through secondary means, such as photography, film and essay, rather than through the viewer's direct experience.135 Even though the Spiral Jetty was rarely visited because of its invisible status, the remote location was also difficult for viewers to access. In 2002, the Great Salt Lake experienced a prolonged drought that severely reduced water levels, which then rebirthed the Spiral Jetty to be completely visible after being submerged underwater for around 30 years.136 The visible Spiral Jetty was exposed but with an altered appearance (Fig. 14). Formations of salt crystals and light erosion had taken place, but the basic form and composition were still intact.137

Today, The Spiral Jetty is surrounded by sand instead of water (Fig. 15), and the progression of the changing environment was precisely what influenced Smithson's decision to build the Spiral Jetty in this location in the first place. The site's constantly changing weather conditions allowed his sculpture to represent one of the central concepts of his oeuvre, which was Entropy. Through the changing conditions, Smithson's Spiral Jetty constantly took on new forms - from being submerged completely underwater to forming salt crystals; and then to eventually not being surrounded by water at all. It also took on new forms through different artistic mediums such as photography, film, and text. By placing the work outside of the confinement of a museum or gallery, Smithson's Spiral Jetty became a part of the landscape and the process of nature in which it could not be conserved. As a part of the landscape, the artwork experienced constant decay from the moment it was created and will continue to decay until it blends in completely with the landscape.138 It is connected to the landscape and changes based on natural principles as well as the passage of time. The salt crystals found on the Spiral Jetty serve as an additional material symbol of that time passed since the Spiral Jetty was first installed.139 The current status of the Spiral Jetty is that it is slowly coming apart through the impact of its surroundings and climate change. In 1999, The Spiral Jetty was donated to the Dia Art Foundation by Smithson's wife Nancy Holt and the Estate of Robert Smithson, and the foundation's goal, as the steward of the monumental work, is to protect and preserve the Spiral Jetty to the best of their ability.140 Visitors are allowed to visit the Spiral Jetty, but any tampering with the sculpture is prohibited.141 If anyone is caught in the act of tampering with the Spiral Jetty, they will be susceptible to significant fines.142 The goal is to allow the passage of time to alter and change the Spiral Jetty's appearance naturally without human influence. Some critics believe any attempt to preserve the sculpture goes against Smithson's concept of Entropy. For example, Karlheinz Lüdeking states in a recent article celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Spiral Jetty:

“Wenn Smithsons Spirale das Prinzip der Entropie verkörpern soll, verbietet sich naturgemäß jeder Versuch, ihrem eigenen unaufhaltsamen Verfall entgegenzuwirken. Sollen die Besucher doch getrost kleine Steine mitnehmen, Abfall hinterlassen, Felsbrocken verschieben und bemalen. In ihrem Ruin verwirklicht die große spiralförmige Mole nur das Prinzip ihrer Existenz.”143

The fact that over the years this work will slowly break down and eventually become unrecognizable can lead the viewer to reminisce on the fragility and minuscule impact of the human lifespan in the grand scale of geological time. Smithson was interested in the dichotomy of nature and culture, and in this work, he achieved an exceptional representation of entropy.144

Although Robert Smithson died at the young age of thirty-five in 1973, his works have had a lasting impact on contemporary art and transitioned art “from modernism to postmodernism, from the isolated object in the institutional white cube to the radically expanded context of the landscape, and from the artist in the studio to a situation in which the studio itself is under scrutiny”.145 According to Jones in an essay from Cornelia Butler, he states:

“Smithson and his interpreters completed the radical transfiguration of the artist from a studio-bound modernist solitary to the unbounded ‘post-studio' artist of the postmodern world The studio, at the very center of modern art’s claim on authenticity, became re-placed, repositioned as marginal by a new interest in the periphery.”146

Because of Smithson's revolutionary thinking and innovative process, he inspired artists to continue investigating and questioning the representation of nature and landscape in art.147 He changed the process of the art practice, and artists began to consider the context of nature and landscape within their works in many different ways.

4. The Anthropocene and Ecological Art

To investigate the representation of climate change or global warming in contemporary art, it is important to understand the term ‘Anthropocene', how it originated, and how it inspired artists to change their art practice and view nature from a cultural perspective. The term ‘Anthropocene' was, first, introduced in the year 2000 by Paul Crutzen, a Dutch atmospheric chemist and Nobel peace prize winner, and Eugene Stoermer, an American biologist.148 The Greek word ‘Anthropos' can be translated to man, while ‘cene' stands for new and is commonly used as an ending syllable for earth epochs.149 Therefore, the direct translation of the Anthropocene could be “the new that comes into the world with man” or “the earth epoch of man”.150 The Anthropocene is defined as “the period of time during which human activities have had an environmental impact on the Earth regarded as constituting a distinct geological age”, and the studies from Crutzen and Stoermer highlight the intense anthropogenic changes of the planet.151 These changes include the rise of CO2 gases in the atmosphere, an increase in climate crisis, chemical and plastic pollution in the oceans, and a decrease in biodiversity.152

Many scientific scholars have different theories as to when the Anthropocene officially began, but according to Crutzen, the Anthropocene is considered to have begun towards the end of the 18th century during the period of Industrialisation when the Steam Engine was invented.153 It then continued to develop through the 1940s, when the first atomic bomb tests left radioactive isotopes on the earth and, thereafter, through the Great Acceleration in the 1950s, when technological industrialization increased drastically throughout the globe.154 While all of these advancements in technology were taking place, concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the air were increasing and this can be proven through the analyses of pocketed air found in the polar icebergs and glaciers.155 Although the power of steam and industrial advancements modernized contemporary life, they constructed unanticipated environmental consequences that initiated the start of global ecological imbalances. Industrialization, the increase in the human population, and exploitation of earthly resources caused consequences, which can be seen in the climate crisis today more than ever and at an alarming rate.156 These consequences include the disappearance of rainforests, the extinction of species, acid precipitation, photochemical ‘smog', and climate warming.157

The concept of the Anthropocene has influenced much debate and research within the scientific community but has not yet been officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and International Union of Geological Sciences as a geological epoch.158 It is currently being investigated, and further research is required in order to prove that current geophysical transformations are being found in sedimentation layers, according to Jan Zalasiewicz, a british geologist and member of the Anthropocene Working Group.159 Collaborations of many different areas of research are required to fully understand the Anthropocene and what the future of this concept entails. A collaboration that has already taken place is the ‘Anthropocene Project', which was an interdisciplinary and international project between 2013 and 2014 at the Haus der Kulturen der Welt in Berlin.160 The project was made possible through the sponsorship of Paul Crutzen and included conferences, lecture series, art exhibitions, and video installations.161 According to Gabriele Dürbeck, conversations regarding the Anthropocene stem from three main characteristics, which include a planetary perspective on the global environmental crisis, a large-scale time dimension, and the focus on a close interrelation between nature and culture.162 There are many varying opinions on the state of the planet in the Anthropocene. Some being more pessimistic, which consider humans as destroyers of the Earth who will in the future face limitations in order to preserve humanity on the planet.163 Others being more optimistic, who believe that humanity has showcased technical innovation and power, which have transformed and improved the planet and will lead to finding solutions for the anthropogenic effects harming the planet.164 Although there are varying opinions on the state of the planet and its future regarding the Anthropocene, one of the main goals stemming from the combined research is a responsible stewardship of the Earth System, which includes the careful use of resources, sustainable management, and nature conservation.165 This goal is difficult to accomplish on a global scale because of the newness of the term ‘Anthropocene' as well as the research surrounding it, but artists are exploring this term in order to participate in a global impact.

An interesting view regarding the Anthropocene concept is the interrelation between nature and culture. In art from the Romantic period, nature was considered sublime, full of power, and a distant, divine subject separate from the human species, but ever since the 1960s and 1970s a shift towards a nature connected to culture started to be recognized.166 Artists began to create Ecological art, which targeted issues regarding the environment, ecology, and sustainable development.167 The idea that humans were the cause of ecological imbalances was highlighted in Eco-Art in many different forms. Through a variety of mediums including sculpture, painting, photography, and above all installations and public intervention, the consequences of the Anthropocene started to be explored in order to increase the awareness of the state of the planet due to anthropogenic effects.168 Climate change being one of the main issues guiding these new artistic principles.169

The Eco artists who emerged in the 1970s went against the preferred art forms inspired by the Pop Art, Minimalism or Land Art movements and started to create ecological artworks.170 Some of these works were connected to the Systems Art movement.171 Systems Art was understood as freely evolving systems in which energies would flow and materials could correspond with each other under actual conditions.172 Artists began to work with nature and explore solutions for environmental issues within the systems art realm. For example, the beginning of the representation of ecological systems or processes could be found in the work of the artist Hans Haacke. In Hans Haacke's Rhinewater Purification Plant (Fig.16), created in 1972, he exhibited a functioning bio­technological system that portrayed the contamination of the water in the Rhine and at the same time provided a solution for this issue.173 In the Haus Lange in Krefeld, he exhibited this installation which actively used systems to remove pollutants from the polluted Rhine river.174 He accomplished this by injecting the contaminated water with chemicals, which subsequently was filtrated through sand and charcoal before being poured into an acrylic tank full of goldfish.175 Access water was then irrigated into an outside garden through a hose, which could be seen through the window of the gallery space.176 Rather than simply raising awareness for the polluted water in the Rhine river stemming from a sewage plant in Krefeld, Haacke presented a system that could possibly lead to a solution for the contaminated water.177 Such works created a backlash in the interpretation and criticism of art because suddenly unpredictable works of art which showcased the interaction of a material with processes and conditions on planet Earth were being created, and the craftsmanship, art aesthetic, and art historical context were being challenged.178

Although the origins of ecological art began in the 1960s, 1970s, and carried on thereafter, this type of art did not pick up full momentum until the 21st century when the Anthropocene term was coined and there was a rise in environmental concern.179 The collaboration of nature and culture began to be intensely investigated by contemporary artists and exhibited in forms of installations, environments, and hybrid constellations, according to Hans Dickel.180 These artists, inspired by the ideologies of the Anthropocene, began to undertake and investigate not only environmental issues but an array of themes that would affect the future of the world.181 Some of these themes uncovered issues in other territories, such as population growth, capitalism, technology, colonialism, inequality, displacement, issues of law, violence, and social justice.182 For the contemporary artist, the Anthropocene has developed into an invitation to move away from the confinements of classical art representing nature as a landscape and has allowed artists to reconceptualize the place of humans in the context of nature within art.183 Artists are creating multisensory artistic innovations that interconnect nature and culture, and these artists are guided by a philosophy that reenvisions the relationship between humanity and nonhuman life and exposes the interconnection that merges the natural and human worlds.184

According to Weintraub, four themes should be taken into consideration when interpreting ecological art in the Anthropocene.185 They are categorized into functional, didactic, ethical, and technological.186 Artists, who choose to create functional ecological art, construct works that have a practical function.187 They choose not to conform to traditional art practices and produce works, for example, that recycle waste, grow food, restore soils, engage in habitat conservation and produce green energy.188 Artists, who prefer to create didactic ecological art, center their works on the goal of spreading knowledge.189 To achieve this spread of knowledge, artists document environmental issues in the world, expose the committers of environmental crimes and disperse strategies of solutions.190 The creative process can evolve to statistics and research instead of traditional artistic expression.191 The third category is ethical ecological art, and this type of art is associated with art that is a side effect of the environmental damage humans have created.192 The goal of these artists is to recover the irreversible and tragic situation and show remorse through action, such as environmental laws and protests.193 The fourth category is technological ecological art, which relies on technological advancement in ecological art in order to provide solutions.194 Through these four categories, the purpose of ecological art in the Anthropocene is to address anthropogenic issues and represent solutions to these problems; provide relevant research and information; recognize ethical dilemmas; and seek out technological advancement.195 Many art exhibitions are continuously being conceptualized through the ecological art of artists addressing the Anthropocene. For example, one can see the interest in this theme through the exhibitions, Dark Optimism at the Museum of Modern Art PS1 in New York in 2013 and Welcome to the Anthropocene in the Deutsches Museum from 2014 to 2016.196

5. Olafur Eliasson

5.1 Biography

Olafur Eliasson was born in 1967 in Copenhagen and is considered to be a Danish- Icelandic visual artist.197 Within his oeuvre, he is known for working with an extensive range of media including photography, sculpture, film, installation, architectural projects, and site-specific works in public spaces.198 Through his upbringing in not only Denmark but Iceland as well, Eliasson developed an appreciation for nature and the world's unique natural landscapes, in which he still to this day investigates many different phenomenal aspects. These aspects are explored in many of his projects through recurring elemental materials such as earth, light, wind, and especially water in all of its forms.199 Besides nature and elemental materials, Eliasson is additionally interested in the philosophy of Phenomenology, which focuses on the structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view.200 According to David Woodruff Smith in a study of Phenomenology from Stanford, the central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object.201 This philosophy is incorporated into many of Eliasson's projects, in which the experience and perception of the viewer take on an important, physical roll. The experience of the viewer ends up completing the overall concept and understanding of many of Eliasson's works. Eliasson invites the observer to acknowledge what he or she is seeing as well as how he or she is visually participating in the experience of the work. ‘Seeing yourself seeing' is a phrase that the artist uses often to explain this philosophy.202

Eliasson received his education from the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, Denmark between the years of 1989 and 1995.203 During his time at the academy, he was able to extend his knowledge of art through trips to New York between 1990 and 1991 and to Cologne in 1993.204 His inspirations stemmed not only from Phenomenology but also from philosophers such as Bruno Latour and Timothy Morton, who are specialized in topics relating to the Anthropocene.205 Additionally, The Light and Space artists of the American West Coast also played an important role in his artistic development.206 In 1993, when Eliasson was still a student, he created the installation titled Beauty (Fig. 17), which allowed his successful artistic career to take off.207 The installation consisted of a perforated tube mounted on a ceiling in a dark room.208 From the tube, tiny droplets of water would trickle out and drop to the floor creating a fog-like curtain.209 A visible spotlight illuminated these droplets which created a rainbow when the viewers would view the installation from a specific angle.210 The light reflecting off the water created a temporal, optical phenomenon or rainbow, which would vanish when the viewer would reach out to touch it or move out of place.211 After constructing Beauty, Eliasson's artistic career flourished onwards, in which his works appeared in solo shows in galleries and museums worldwide. His works were exhibited in institutions, such as the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art; the Museum of Modern Art, New York; and Tate Modern, London.212 In 2003, The weather project, which is one of Eliasson's most iconic installations, was viewed by more than two million people in the Turbine Hall of Tate Modern, London.213

In 1995, Olafur Eliasson founded his studio in Berlin, where a large team of craftsmen, architects, specialized technicians, archivists, administrators, art historians, web designers, graphic designers, and cooks conceptualize and materialize new projects.214 He surrounds himself with a collective of diverse, innovative thinkers, and together, they collaborate to create new works for exhibitions and archive his works.215 To encourage a consistent flow of creative, innovative discourse, the team additionally works with specialists outside of the studio and promotes interactions with people and institutions, who are not involved in the art community. Moreover, Eliasson participates in cultural projects which have led him to become a professor at the Universität der Künste in Berlin from 2009 to 2014 and at the Alle School of Fine Arts and Design in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. At the Universität der Künste, he founded and directed the Institut für Raumexperimente, where he influenced artists such as Julian Charrière and Julius von Bismarck.216 Other cultural projects that Eliasson is involved in include Little Sun and Studio Other Spaces. The purpose of Little Sun is to manufacture and supply solar lamps for secluded communities, while the goal of Studio Other Spaces is to provide an international office for art and architecture focusing on innovative building projects.217 In 2019, Eliasson was given the title of a Goodwill Ambassador for renewable energy and climate action by the United Nations Development Programme.218 Today, he continues to live and work in Copenhagen and Berlin.219

5.2 Works: The Glacier Melt Series, Your Waste of Time, and Ice Watch

In Olafur Eliasson's oeuvre, the themes of climate change and the Anthropocene developed naturally. He was initially interested in the phenomena of nature and the perception of nature as humans - especially in the extreme landscapes of Iceland, where he was raised. Through his continuous curiosity of and experimentation with nature, Eliasson began to think of nature not only from an artistic perspective but from a scientific perspective, which led to the topic of climate change and the exploration of humanity's relationship with nature presenting itself in his works almost instinctively. The works that illustrate Eliasson's successful path to materializing the abstract concept of climate change in the Anthropocene include his photographic series titled The Glacier Melt Series (1999-2019) and his sculptural installations titled Your Waste of Time (2006) and Ice Watch (2014). Together, they represent a progression in the natural development of the topic of climate change and his continuous experimentation with the concept of the Anthropocene. With these works, he additionally showcases a successful development of materials and inclusion of the viewer's perception which provides a unique, individual experience.

In The Glacier Melt Series (1999-2019) (Fig. 18), Olafur Eliasson exhibited thirty pairs of images that depicted the effects of climate change or global warming on the glaciers in Iceland, but before this project was fully conceptualized or exhibited in its entirety, he created The Glacier Series (Fig. 19) in 1999.220 He began this project in 1998 when he traveled to Iceland to photograph the natural phenomena of the country.221 Eliasson initially began to document the glaciers not because of his interest in climate change, but because of his interest in understanding nature and the natural phenomena of the Icelandic country.222 He photographed the glaciers as well as rivers and mountains covered in moss to produce an archive of natural phenomena, which he could later use for reference in his works.223 In the Glacier Series (1999), Eliasson photographed the glaciers of Iceland from an airplane, which could reference Smithson's methods in documenting the Spiral Jetty. By photographing the massive glaciers from an aerial perspective, the viewer was invited to appreciate and observe the scale and entirety of the glaciers from a distance.224 The photographs were then developed into forty-two black-framed C-Prints, which were exhibited together on a white wall creating an overall 244 x 404 cm rectangular grid form.225 Each photograph observed on its own depicts the unique features of each perspective, such as the natural textures and colors of the glaciers, and allows the viewer to observe the individuality of each glacier as a whole.226 When all of the photographs are compared and observed together, they become more uniform and a parallel horizon line can be found.227 The refusal to use an enhancing effect, such as the preferred black and white filter, gives the photographs a very scientific, research-based impression.

The photographs displayed in 1999 were originally part of the series called The Glacier Series. Then, 20 years later, Eliasson returned to the location to take the same photographs of the glaciers from the same aerial perspectives.228 This series of photographs became known as the Glacier Melt Series because of the dramatic change the glaciers endured within the twenty-year timeframe due to global warming.229 The glaciers had melted so drastically to the point that Eliasson could no longer identify the glaciers at first glance.230 Therefore, he decided to exhibit 30 pairs of before and after photographs to visually represent the rapid melting of the glaciers caused by climate change over an extended period of time. Climate change was an extremely abstract term that was difficult to visualize or represent physically, but through these photographs, Eliasson created a tangible example of climate change. He made the invisible, visible, and plans to document the series again in the next 20 years to showcase the differences and see if the world took measures to solve this problem.231 In this work, Eliasson took an unintentional, scientific approach of documenting the glaciers to spread the knowledge of the fragility of the glaciers and the inseparable connection humanity has with nature from a deep geological time scale perspective.

In 2006, Eliasson's transition from not only documenting the glaciers in Iceland in 1998 but to using them as a material for sculptural representation is depicted in his installation Your Waste of Time (Fig. 20).232 For the installation Your Waste of Time, Eliasson transferred several blocks of ice from the largest glacier in Iceland, Vatnajökull, which had broken off into the glacial lake, Jökulsärlön, into the Berlin gallery neugerriemschneider and then later in 2013 into the Moma/P.S. 1 in New York.233 These blocks of ice that washed up onto the shores of the surrounding black, volcanic beaches in Iceland were collected by a local farmer and shipped in large refrigerated containers usually used for food shipments.234 The circa 800 year old blocks of ice weighed all together about 6 tonnes and were temporarily exhibited in a white refrigerated space inside of a gallery or museum setting with a cooling system powered by solar panels.235 The faintly light blue colored ice blocks were exhibited on the floor of the exhibition space in their vulnerable, solidified forms with the residue of the black sand from the Icelandic beach still intact. Observers were, then, invited to walk into the refrigerated space to interact with the ice blocks, which would at first change the state of the observer and then eventually alter the appearance of the ice blocks.236 By entering the refrigerated space, the viewer experienced a decrease in body temperature, while the ice blocks experienced melting and cracking due to the new foreign presence of warmth within their below freezing environment.237 The observers were allowed to physically interact with the ice blocks, and some observers would even touch, hold the broken off pieces of ice in their hands or sit on the ice blocks which would then cause the ice to melt underneath the warmth of their bodies at an increased rate.238 In the title of the installation, Your Waste of Time, the importance of the viewer is emphasized. Like in many of his other works, Eliasson uses the possessive pronoun ‘your' in order for the viewer to play an active role in the installation.239 Through this active involvement, the viewer's experience with the artwork shapes and forms the meaning as well as the condition of the installation. Each individual experience is important in its own way, and the installation therefore never remains static but is constantly changing. The ever­changing responses from both subjects of the installation distinguish a connection between the viewer and the ice blocks which establishes a multi-layered and multi- sensorial functional representation and experience of Entropy and Deep Time as well as the Anthropocene and Climate Change.

The entropic reaction begins as the viewer enters the exhibition space and experiences a decrease in body temperature, while the temperature of the room increases resulting in the melting of the ice blocks. This presence or experience of the viewer and the ice blocks within the same environment, if prolonged, would eventually cause the destruction of one or the other, which would lead to uniformity - either the viewer freezing or the ice blocks melting into a liquid state. In Eliasson's installation, this representation of entropy has been compared by art historians to the philosophy behind Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty, in which the depiction of deep geological time is also a significant factor.240 Although the artists have opposing perceptions regarding the relationship between humanity and nature, both artists used natural materials to visualize the concept of time and entropy in different ways. Through the slowly, over time deteriorating Spiral Jetty, Robert Smithson's goal was to display the slow and continuous representation of entropy in nature from a geological time scale perspective. This causes the viewer to reflect on his or her's short lifetime within the grand scale of geological time. However, in Eliasson's work, he used ancient ice as a material, which showcases the fragility and temporality of time and highlights an accelerated version of entropy. The contemporary viewer encounters a symbol of deep geological time, which decomposes at an accelerated rate through human contact. This human contact involves the viewer in the destruction of the natural objects, unlike in Smithson's Spiral Jetty, where the sculpture will decompose naturally from its surrounding environment over time. In comparison to Hans Haacke's installation Rhinewater Purification Plant, a development in the viewer's involvement in Your Waste of Time can also be identified. Instead of spectating the work from an outside viewpoint without physical interaction like in Haacke's installation, the observer is allowed to participate in Eliasson's installation, which is an aspect that artists of the Anthropocene have significantly advanced. This can be additionally understood through the comparison of Haacke's Condensation Cube (Fig. 21), created between 1963 and 1965.241 In Haacke's Condensation Cube, he produced clear boxes made of plexiglass which were filled with water to showcase natural systems of evaporation and condensation.242 The state of the enclosed system relied on its surrounding environment and was in a constant state of change, where water condensation would form on the inner walls of the plexiglass box and trickle down, leaving vertical streaks.243 When there was an increase of warm bodies within the gallery space surrounding the cube, the process of condensation and evaporation would accelerate.244 In Haacke's Condensation Cube, he portrayed a system in nature, which is affected by humans; however, it is separate and enclosed due to the plexiglass's barrier. In Eliasson's Your Waste of Time, the environment or gallery space surrounding the ice blocks is controlled to sustain the ice blocks' frozen state. The plexiglass box's barrier can be interpreted as being removed, or the viewer is allowed to enter the environment of the plexiglass box to experience the condensation of the ice blocks through physical interaction. The viewer is involved in the natural system instead of viewing the process from a distant perspective.

The aftermath of the encounter with the ice blocks would either linger on the bodies of the viewers or slowly trickle to the ground, which aesthetically represented the truth of anthropogenic climate change - the consistent melting of the glaciers and rising of water levels due to human activity.245 The title also hints at the fragility of the glaciers and how humans are running out of time to prevent the catastrophic effects of climate change. Humans are connected to nature, and by interacting with the ice, each viewer is given the opportunity to individually experience this connection and humanity's involvement in the effects of climate change. Even though at times climate change cannot be visually comprehended, Eliasson showcases the abstract concept of climate change and humanity's involvement in the change visually through encapsulating the experience in the gallery or museum setting for the viewer to better understand. By acclimating to the freezing temperatures within the space and interacting with the ice blocks, the viewer is able to reflect on the abstract reality of climate change, his or her's participation in the matter, and what this could mean for the future of the planet. Eliasson believes that glaciers are capsules of time, and each time the viewer interacts with the ice blocks a bit of the ice or a bit of time melts or is wasted away.246

Although Your Waste of Time received plenty of positive feedback from the public, the installation was also subjected to some criticism in the press. Ken Johnson, a New York Times art critic, suggested that the process of exhibiting the installation in New York created a larger carbon footprint rather than raising awareness for global warming.247 He questioned Eliasson's efforts and implied that the energy used to keep the exhibition space at freezing temperatures during the hot New York summer defeated the purpose of raising awareness on the topic of climate change.248 Although Your Waste of Time may be an unethical endeavor considering the logistics to realize the installation, Eliasson used solar panels to keep the space at its freezing temperatures and believed that spreading the knowledge of the glaciers melting and awareness of climate change would outweigh the carbon footprint.249

Materializing themes of Entropy, Time, and Climate Change, Your Waste of Time provided a physical, individual experience that highlighted the post-romantic view of humanity's relationship with nature. The work was a starting point for Eliasson's exploration of these themes within an experience through glacial sculpture installation, which he continued and progressed in 2014. On October 26, 2014, Eliasson took his representation of glacial ice block sculptures to a new, political level.250 In collaboration with geologist Minik Rosing, he displayed one hundred tonnes of arctic ice blocks collected from a fjord outside of Nuuk, Greenland, and organized the twelve of them into a clock formation outside of the Copenhagen City Hall Square.251 The purpose was to raise awareness for the events marking the completion of the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, which specified the latest climate change information and consequences.252 The installation lasted until October 29th and lives on only through documentation, such as photographs and videos.253 Eliasson and Rosing were convinced that seeing the physicality of the ice melting into pools of water would show to leaders the need for urgent action before it is too late to counteract the rapid effects of climate change.254 Eliasson then continued to install Ice Watch (Fig. 22) in Paris, at Place du Panthéon, in December 2015, on the occasion of the UN Climate Conference COP21, and then outside Bloomberg's European headquarters and in front of the Tate Modern in London from December 2018 to January 2019.255 In Ice Watch, Eliasson developed his concept for Your Waste of Time even further. Instead of having the viewers acclimate to the freezing conditions of an exhibition space, Eliasson introduced the glaciers to humanity's, urban environment, where their fragility intensified. The process of entropy and representation of time were accelerated by the heated, urban atmosphere and the interaction of the public. Documentations of these interactions depict observers touching, hugging, licking, and holding their ear against the ice blocks, and the underlying themes of the Anthropocene, Climate Change, Entropy, and Time are revisited.256 In the words of the artist from an interview with Anna Engberg-Pedersen, he states: “I used to think of nature being larger than me. It seemed independent of me, but also caring. But today nature has become fragile. The glaciers that I knew as a child are disappearing. We are now living in the Anthropocene, a geological era characterized by the effects of human activity on earth.”257

Eliasson delivers once again an experience of the Anthropocene and a tangible portrayal of the abstract concept of climate change.

6. Julian Charriere

6.1 Biography

Julian Charrière was born in 1987 in Morges, Switzerland to a Swiss father and a French mother and identifies as a French-Swiss conceptual artist.258 His oeuvre confronts themes within the Anthropocene concept, and he combines many different art forms, such as installations, photography, video, sculpture, and performance, to represent his ideologies and artistic endeavors.259 Themes involving environmental science, cultural history, the Anthropocene, and climate change can be recognized within many of his works.260 Although some of his works bring up themes of the climate crisis, Charrière's goal is not to bring awareness to the climate change discourse but to bring awareness to the root of the problem regarding the climate change crisis, which is humanity's relationship with nature.261 In most of his projects, he travels to remote locations with unique landscapes to explore nature within an anthropogenic context.262 Some of these locations include glaciers, volcanoes, and dangerous radioactive sites, which are either susceptible to anthropogenic effects or already harmed by them.263 Through the gathering of information and the utilization of unconventional materials that are often collected from these unique sites, he creates his site-specific and non-site­specific works.264 Within his oeuvre, he explores the post-romantic relationship between humans and nature as well as deep or geological timescales.265 Charrière's thoughts on the relationship between nature and humanity include:

“Nobody is dealing properly with this problem between nature and humanity... If you look into nature today, you’ll find isotopes and acid rain. Everything is going to change. You’re not going to find something [one hundred percent] natural. Since it’s so blurry, I find it very interesting to try to create spaces for others to reflect [upon it]. I travel so that others can reflect. Sometimes it’s easier with an image, and it’s more direct than reading a text. You’re offering a space for reflection and it’s also my reflecting space. I like to share it.

Sometimes people come with a very simple mentality. For example, you see the photo of a man burning an iceberg, and it’s very easy to say it’s climate change, but then you’ve got to think, why is he doing that? It’s like the [metaphor] of the iceberg itself. You see the tip of the iceberg out of the water, but then you have to analyze what it actually is [underneath] .

It’s like opening a door. People can have a view, a little of information, have the tip of the iceberg, or they can dive into it. This work is so small [physically], but I can see more and go super deep. You can go deeper, deeper and deeper. You can either understand more or get lost. When you admit that you're lost in reality, it's because you're looking for explanations. It's the feeling of trying to find an answer.”266

Charriere began his studies in art at the École cantonale d'art du Valais in Switzerland under the direction of Professor Valentin Carron in 2006.267 He was interested in art at a young age, and as he reminisces on his first encounters with art, he stated: “As a young child, I wanted to be a cook and an explorer who would go into places that nobody had gone before. After a while, I understood that we've already been everywhere. Then I thought I could be an architect; I liked the idea of building things that have utility.

In high school, I had a very interesting art teacher, and I thought that maybe I didn't want to be a cook or an architect; I could bring all of these things together and make art. [My work] is a little bit about cooking ideas. It's also a little bit about architecture, somehow, but there's much more freedom. From one encounter to the other, it happened. I was lucky enough to get into a program, to get to know all of these great people in Berlin.”268

His life in Berlin began as he started his studies at the Universität der Künste in 2007.269 There, he studied under Professor Christiane Möbus, before joining Olafur Eliasson's Institut für Raumexperimente course in 2011.270 Charrière became Eliasson's senior student in 2013 and the influence Eliasson had on Charrière's work can be seen in works like the Blue Fossil Entropic Stories.271 Other inspirations that guided and continue to inspire Charrière's artistic practice include Robert Smithson as well as the author J.G. Ballard and philosopher Timothy Morton.272 Charrière's interest in not only deep geological timescales but also entropy and the representation of site-specific works in a non-site-specific context associates his works with Robert Smithson's artistic principles.273 He prefers the non-site presentation of his works because he acts like a messenger bringing back crucial objects and information from the visited sites and believes he provides a layered depiction of the experience of these individual places.274

Charrière's first solo exhibition Horizons took place at the Dittrich & Schlechtriem gallery in Berlin in 2011.275 There, he showcased a behind the scenes video and framed photographs from his series Panorama (Fig. 23), created from 2009 to 2013.276 The Panorama photographic series depicted what seemed to be views of alpine landscapes under different weather conditions.277 They appeared to be documentations of snow- covered mountains peeking out from behind rolling atmospheric clouds or fog, but these images were actually illusions that Charrière created in order to play with the idea of human perception.278 These mountains were essentially made up of mounds of dirt covered in flour and fire extinguisher foam that Charrière fabricated in construction sites in Berlin to create a fantasy of mountains in the Alps.279 With this body of work, Charrière successfully confronted questions of human perception and scale as well as the romantic view of nature.280

Thereafter, Charrière's artistic career took off and he was exhibiting works in solo- and group exhibitions in museums and institutions worldwide. Some institutions that exhibited his work include the Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin; Parasol Unit Foundation for Art, London; Kunsthalle Wien, Vienna; the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lausanne; Thyssen Bornemisza Art Contemporary, Vienna; the Centre Culturel Suisse, Paris; the Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin; the Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo; the Reykjavik Art Museum; the Kochi-Muziris Biennale in India; and the 12th Biennale de Lyon.281 In 2012, Charrière created one of his most recognized pieces through the collaboration with artist Julius von Bismarck, a fellow student of Olafur Eliasson.282 Together, they produced the site-specific performance titled Some Pigeons Are More Equal Than Others (Fig. 24) for the 13th International Architecture Exhibition of La Biennale di Venezia.283 In this work, a pigeon was captured in a bird trap mechanism consisting of a seed dispenser and a painting device.284 Then, the bird was sprayed or painted with nontoxic colorful dyes to change its appearance.285 After being sprayed with the dyes, the pigeon was released back into its urban environment in the Piazza San Marco in Venice, where it was all of a sudden noticed by the inhabitants of the city rather than overlooked as a part of the landscape.286 This caused the city's inhabitants to perceive their surrounding environment in a new way and change their relationship to the environment around them. In Charrière's words:

“The pigeon is very interesting because humans took it from the natural world 1,000 years ago and domesticated it like a device. At some point, the pigeon was an apparatus of communication that we used to send messages. We took an animal, living in nature, and made it into a device to be able to communicate.

At some point, that device became obsolete. It’s not interesting anymore. Now, pigeons hang around, depend on us and share public spaces and cities with us. They’re also sharing the urban landscape; we share the same infrastructure, but we forget that. So we were interested on focusing attention on them. When you place color on the pigeon, the pigeon becomes somebody. Usually a pigeon is very plain and you never distinguish them. Once you have a red pigeon, and see it every day, then you start having a relationship with it. You have to a relationship with other species that are in the same space, which I think it’s a nice result. It works as a sort of graffiti. creating these moving dots, which focus your attention on different objects depending on where they are.”287

Julian Charrière continues to live and work in Berlin where he's been a resident for 11 years.288 His most recent, current exhibition is titled Towards No Earthly Pole and is on display at the Aargauer Kunsthaus in Switzerland until January 2021.289 In this exhibition, he showcases one of his latest projects which is a film also titled Towards No Earthly Pole (Fig. 25).290 In this film, Charrière captures the glaciers in Greenland, Iceland, and the familiar European alpine landscapes with the help of two drones which give the glaciers an abstract, almost eerie portrayal.291 The video is recorded in the night by one of the drones, while the other drone uses a spotlight to illuminate the vast glacial landscapes.292 The landscapes are depicted vacant with no sign of human intervention except for the flying drone providing the artificial light.293 This creates a stark contrast between the shapes and shadows of the glaciers that appear and fade away as the drone moves about the night sky.294 The video plays with the viewer's perception in which questions of fantasy versus reality are raised.295 Through this film, Charrière portrays these rarely visited landscapes to present to the viewer an authentic perspective of these unique sites.296 Society feels like they understand and are familiar with these locations through constructed images, although the majority of society has not experienced these regions in person.297

The inspiration to create the film came to Charrière as he traveled to the first Antarctic Biennale in 2017 through the Drake Passage on a Russian research ship.298 Overwhelmed by the unique scenery he decided to create a film about glacial landscapes.299 Because the photographs of these glacial regions were captured by mostly scientists, these images are scientific and objective, but through Charrière's film, he wanted the landscapes to appear poetic and subjective.300 The film highlights the aspirations of the 20th century scientists and explorers who were interested in embarking on journeys to the North and South Poles in order to conquer territories that had not been seized.301 Since then, this perspective of the arctic regions has transformed as global warming threatens to diminish these fragile landscapes and society is aware of the need to protect the glaciers.302 Therefore, the film provides a combination of historical, scientific aspects with contemporary views of climate change issues and the Anthropocene.303 The title Towards No Earthly Pole is additionally inspired by a verse from the 19th century British poet Alfred Lord Tennyson in which he writes about his soul's journey to a divine world.304 He dedicated the verse to the 18th century British polar explorer Sir John Franklin, and Charrière interprets it as an association to the conflicts of knowledge disconnected from the real world or the difference between imagination and reality.305

6.2 The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories

Throughout Charrière's artistic practice, themes stemming from the Anthropocene concept are continuously addressed. Although he cringes at the title ‘climate change artist', the issue of climate change or global warming is an undeniably reoccurring topic that emerges in many of his works and acts as a gateway to the much deeper meaning of the climate crisis which questions humanity's relationship with nature.306 In Charrière's photographic series The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories (Fig. 26), he confronts this nature versus culture relationship through the use of his own body in a photographed performance with an iceberg in the middle of the Arctic Ocean.307 In order to realize this artistic project, Charrière traveled to Iceland in 2013 to mount the over 30,000 year old iceberg, which in contemporary culture is an epitomizing symbol of the climate crisis and is considered to be a fragile landscape.308 Upon his arrival, Charrière spent 8 hours exploring, climbing, and scorching the arctic ice with a gas torch in an attempt to melt its surface.309 Unfortunately, this ineffective attempt failed as the melted ice continuously returned to its solidified form because of the freezing temperatures.310 All that remains of this site-specific treacherous endeavor are photographs of Charrière's experience in which his tiny, black silhouette contrasts against and is at the same time dwarfed against the massive light blue colored iceberg with the grey, disorienting and distant background. His unsuccessful performative battle against the iceberg highlights themes relating to humanity's relationship with nature, time, and entropy.

The relationship between humanity and nature is a continuous theme that is questioned and explored in works addressing anthropogenic climate change. Humanity's relationship with nature during the period of Romanticism was thought to be distant and disconnected, whereas, in contemporary culture, humanity and nature are inseparable and can significantly influence each other. By traveling to the arctic landscape in the Blue Fossil Entropic Series, Charrière confronts these opposing views through interacting with a distant landscape which is often unseen by humanity in which he forms a relationship by interacting with the iceberg and trying to physically destroy it. This causes a melting reaction that shows the iceberg's fragility but also brings up the brutal truth of how humans play a determining role in the accelerated climate change crisis and rise in global temperatures which are causing these icebergs as well as glaciers to disappear over time. Many art historians have interpreted the photographs as a modern version of Caspar David Friedrich's Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (Fig. 27), created between 1817 and 1818.311 In Caspar David Friedrich's painting, the wanderer is depicted standing on the edge of a cliff with his back towards the viewer gazing out at a sublime landscape of mountains and valleys covered in a rolling sea of fog. The positioning and scale of the figure in the middle of the scene dominate the overall composition and supports the romantic perspective of man being separate from nature.312 In Charrière's series, on the other hand, Charrière stands out in contrast against the landscape but also blends in with it regarding his scale.313 He integrates himself into the landscape and highlights the fact that he is neither separate nor superior to nature.314 In Charrière's series, he additionally develops the viewer's involvement, which sets him apart from artists like Robert Smithson and Hans Haacke. By physically melting the ice underneath his feet with a gas torch, he becomes involved with the natural progression of climate change and the process of nature. Through this interaction or performance by Charrière, the viewer is invited to imagine himself or herself as the protagonist within the photographs, which contradicts the idea of viewing nature from a distance.315

Additionally, Charrière addresses themes of time and entropy in reference to the geological time scale. He believes that the iceberg is a materialization of time and acts as a storage of information.316 Through his performance of melting the ice with the gas torch, he creates a poetic and powerful impact, because he is not just melting ice but burning information.317 When asked about his works involved with the concept of time and entropy, Charrière stated:

“Time is very important, but it’s a very abstract concept...you think about 1,000years without being able to grasp what that really is. You can think about your grandfather, your great-grandfather and your great-great-grandfather. After that, it’s a mess. Now we’re talking ecology and the legacy [we’ll leave for] the future. What are we going to leave behind when we’re not here anymore? This is something that is very bound to the arts because of culture and its traces. The idea of a museum, culture, and voyage is about traces. Going to space is about traces. This is something that I wanted to reflect through images. A lot of people write about it. For me writing is not my main medium, so I represent it through objects or visual ideas.”318

Through his unethical yet impactful performance, Charrière invites the viewer to imagine his or her's lifetime juxtaposed against the geological time scale. His goal is to spread knowledge and ask the viewer to explore his or her's relationship with the natural world as well. This brings up references to the Anthropocene, Entropy, and the world's constant journey to a future of an all-encompassing sameness, in which the results of global warming and climate change are just the tip of the iceberg.

7. Ursula Biemann

7.1 Biography

Ursula Biemann was born in 1955 in Zurich, Switzerland, and is recognized as an artist, author, and video essayist.319 In her oeuvre, she realizes projects that are heavily research-based and require hands-on investigations in remote sites, where she explores issues of climate change and ecosystems of ice, water, and oil.320 This research is then transformed into multi-layered videos, in which she visually represents environmental and cultural issues combined with poetic and theoretical expression.321 In these videos, Biemann merges documentary footage, poetry, and academic research to create visual representations of the changing planet.322 Although Biemann's primary aesthetic platform is videography, she additionally explores environmental, cultural, and geopolitical issues through media, such as text, interview, photography, cartography, and materials, which are then exhibited in complex and multifaceted installations.323 She additionally participates in lectures, publications, and curatorial, collaborative projects.324 In an interview in 2016, Biemann described her work as a combination of visual arts, politics, and theory.325 She stated: “It's more like opening up a new field where these things can unite and be in dialogue with each other rather than following a particular methodology that was given to me through my education.” 326

In 1986, Biemann received a Bachelor's in Fine Arts from the School of Visual Arts in New York.327 After graduating, she continued her studies in New York at the Whitney Independent Study Program, which was focused predominantly on theory.328 Biemann explained that this post-graduate experience played an essential role in the development of her work because of the collaboration of ideas and knowledge gained from different perspectives.329 She stated that theorists, curators, and artists would gather around a table and exchange knowledge, which was formative for the future of her artistic practice in which she formed collaborations with anthropologists, architects, cultural theorists, and non-governmental organizations.330 This lack of restriction inspired her to combine various theories into her art practice, such as feminism, postcolonialism, history, and environmental science.331 Additionally, she focused on other disciplines beyond art, such as cultural geography, political science, philosophy, and globalization theory - which explores geopolitical and social transformations.332 At first, Biemann's artistic approach confused art critics, and it was difficult to understand her work because of its lack of art theoretical reference.333 Therefore, she decided to write publications about her works in order to fully and accurately represent her ideas.334 She wanted her work to be understood by the public, and this could not be solely achieved through the critique of art theorists.335 She also began to use writing as a means to elaborate on the ideas and issues that she was not able to address in her video essays fully.336 Although Biemann quoted French filmmaker Chris Marker as a source of inspiration for her work, she further developed the video essay as a new genre between documentary and video art.337 The video essay can be defined as a genre developed from the essay film or cinematic essay.338 It is identified as the expansion of a documentary approach “into an associative, non-linear, multi-layered filmic enterprise, often blending ‘fact' and ‘fiction', heralded by a generation of experimental filmmakers who pushed the edges of established genres”.339 According to Biemann, the goal of a video essay is not to only document reality but to recode, represent, organize, and produce complexities.340

To begin her projects, Biemann reflects on the specific topic and analyzes collected research before visualizing how to represent the theme aesthetically.341 For example, in her first recognized video essay Performing the Border (Fig. 28), she focused mainly on the geopolitical landscape and the cultural role of gender in a globalized economy on the border of Mexico and the United States.342 From the beginning of her artistic practice, Biemann's goal was to investigate issues surrounding the understanding of borders and modern migration systems, which can be seen in many of her video essays.343 The forty-three-minute video essay Performing the Border was Biemann's first self-assigned research project as an independent artist and was filmed in 1999 in Ciudad Juarez, which is known to be a major city for the production of high-tech products for American industries.344 Biemann traveled to the large Mexican city to explore themes of sexualization, gendered labor division, prostitution, and sexual violence to expose the unjust conditions of women within the city.345 In Biemann's words:

“This trip prepared the ground for an investigative art practice involving extensive fieldwork, cooperation with grassroots organizations, assembly of library- and archive­based information and theoretical reading. Art became a medium through which to get to know the world - not in the sense of discovering the unknown but rather with a view to organizing a wealth of existing knowledge into a complex aesthetic product from which new meaning could emerge.”346

Because of the drastically changed social structure caused by rapid industrialization, an increase in prostitution, and over 150 unsolved murders of women since 1993, questions of the connection between mass technology and the treatment of the female body as a commodity emerged naturally within the video essay.347 Through documentary footage, interview, scripted voice over, quoted text on screen, and found footage, Biemann translated these issues into a film, which revealed a discursive landscape and exposed the controlling tactics of the corporations as well as the development of alternative spaces in the area of conflict between female subjects and capital.348 Performing the Border was first exhibited in the Studio One, Clocktower in New York in 1999, and launched Biemann's artistic career.349 Her works have been exhibited worldwide in institutions, such as the Tate Modern in London, the Neuer Berliner Kunstverein, the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art of Nice, Bildmuseet Umea in Sweden, Helmhaus Zurich, Lentos Museum Linz, and Nikolaj Contemporary Art in Copenhagen, and she has participated in many international Art Biennales.350

In 2005, Biemann began to shift her focus to natural resources and created the video essay Black Sea Files (Fig. 29).351 In Black Sea Files, Biemann concentrated on the Caspian oil pipeline's transnational geographical region, where oil is extracted from the Caspian Sea and then transferred to the international market through a pipeline extending through the Southern Caucasus and Turkey territories.352 This Caspian Sea extraction zone is the world's oldest oil extraction zone, and through Biemann's two- year research project, she explored spatial and cultural changes stemming from the oil pipeline project.353 She shed a light on the global high-tech oil distribution as well as the powerful oil industries and politicians that have been involved.354 Additionally, she captured the lives and conditions of oil workers, refugees, farmers, and prostitutes living near the pipeline.355 Although Biemann does not claim to fully understand the entirety of the region's politics and culture, her goal was to highlight different social perspectives and scenes that could be interconnected through the Caspian oil project.356 In the video essay, Biemann categorizes information from her research and fieldwork in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey under different files.357 She features the data collected through documentary film footage, text, interviews, voiceover, music, media coverage, and cartographic images. The forty-three minute, synchronized two-channel video was first exhibited in 2005 at the Sharjah International Biennial and was later that year exhibited at the Kunstwerke Berlin, where it was a part of a collaborative research project titled B-Zone that involved Angela Melitopoulos, Anselm Franke, and Lisa Parks.358

The topic of climate change entered Biemann's oeuvre later in her career. In her most recent projects titled Deep Weather, Forest Law, Subatlantic, and Acoustic Ocean, she explored themes of climate change, ecology, and the Anthropocene, in which she has traveled to Arctic and Amazonian landscapes.359 Biemann received a Doctor in Humanities from the Swedish University Umea in 2008.360 Although she currently lives in Zurich, she continues to give seminars and lectures worldwide and travel for her artistic endeavors.361 Since 2018, she has been working on her most current project commissioned by Museo de Arte, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, which is anticipated to be completed in 2022.362 The goal of the project is to create a new indigenous University in the South of Colombia as well as an online platform titled Devenir Universidad?363 Through this project, Biemann plans to explore forest epistemologies and indigenous knowledge systems.364

7.2 Deep Weather

In 2012, Biemann exhibited her most recognized video essay Deep Weather (Fig. 30), a film highlighting the transformations in Earth's ecology encompassing oil and water, in the Lentos Museum in Linz, Austria.365 The ecological changes, which are visually represented through the anthropogenic extraction of oil and the rising sea levels in coastal cities, are featured in the film and associated with climate change. Biemann addressed the topic of the Anthropocene through humanity's usage of fossil energy, which she believed, has turned humanity into a geophysical force.366 In her reflections on Deep Weather, she stated:

“There is no control, there is only the fluid circulation between what humans do and how nature responds. But the response is not always local. Through the intervention in the fragile local biosphere or the marine ecosystem, an unbalance is happening way over there, at a long distance from the site inflicted. People are baffled on local levels by disruptions created by far away places. We live in a new reality but cannot represent this experience to ourselves. The time asks for a fundamental recalibration of our sense of order and disorder, of cause and temporalities.”367

She highlighted this aspect of anthropogenic climate change and the relationship between nature and culture through the interconnection between the toxic extraction of fossil resources and the harmful effects on indigenous cultures in the world's remote locations.368 The video juxtaposes and concentrates on two narratives of distant but related places - the tar sands of Alberta, Canada, and the flood-threatened deltas of Bangladesh, which are connected through their involvement in the causes and effects of global warming or climate change.369

The film begins with a scene shot from a barge traveling through a river, followed by aerial perspectives of the tar sands of Alberta, Canada. The different images are displayed with the faint humming sound of an airborne plane as well as a voice-over of Biemann reading a poetic text that is subtitled across the images. The images depict the immense scale of what has become one of the world's largest industrial projects and extraction zones for tar sands. What used to be the land of the boreal forests rich in biodiversity and a means of livelihood for indigenous natives is now being threatened and demolished by the industrialization and extraction of fossil resources.370 The film's footage shows the land now stripped of its natural habitat and covered in a mass of blackened earth, which is caused by tar rising to the ground's surface.371 The tar is initially located underneath the land's surface in a layer of sand which is coated in clay.372 In order to collect the tar from the sandy layer covered in clay, boiled water from the Athabasca river is used to separate the tar from the sandy layer causing it to rise to the surface.373 The toxic waste from this separation process is then collected in tailing ponds, which is extremely harmful to the natural habitat.374 Additionally, the erection of refineries, roads, and construction equipment furthers the industrialization of the natural environment, which diminishes the natural ecology.375 The Athabasca River flows into the Arctic Ocean and is considered to be the source of civilization in Northern Alberta, but now due to the oil extraction, the water level is decreasing, and the ability to travel to certain settlements along the river is impossible.376 According to critic Yates McKee, he considered the video to propose an “evolutionary leap in spatio­temporal horizons of human consciousness itself that would overcome the short-term, self-interested pursuit of material gratification characteristic of industrial civilization”.377 Oil companies worldwide are thinking of immediate, capitalistic success that they can achieve through the acquisition of land in Alberta, where licenses for layers containing carbon deposits are easily obtained.378 Many deep layers beneath the Earth's surface are all of a sudden owned by an array of companies, which has led the disaster to a problem of deep time since extraction is taking place in deep Cambrian and Triassic layers of the Earth.379 Not only is the extraction detrimental to the boreal forest environment but also the Earth's ecosystem, because of the high concentration of carbon emissions being consumed.380 The extraction of the tar sands in Alberta impacts the entire planetary life system, which can cause major consequences in the next 100,000 years, which is hard to grasp or envision in our immediate lifetime.381

In the second part of the video, footage from across the globe in Bangladesh is shown.382 In the footage of Bangladesh, thousands of Bangladeshi citizens are depicted filling and placing a seemingly endless number of sandbags into the surrounding waters to construct a defensive wall against rising sea levels, which threaten their livelihoods on the banks of the rivers and deltas. Additionally, the citizens of Bangladesh living on the rivers and deltas reap the consequences of melting Himalayan ice fields and catastrophic weather events.383 Biemann embarked on her journey to Bangladesh in early 2011 before traveling to Alberta.384 Originally, her goal was to capture water-related challenges in the country, but her focus shifted to the Bangladeshi citizens' ability to implement an aquatic lifestyle by constructing houses, schools, hospitals, and floating agricultures on top of and around these manmade sandbag islands.385 Deep Weather portrays the communal effort to construct protective mud embankments, which visually represents a symbol of urgency for global warming.386 This effort is achieved by poverty-stricken citizens who have no other option but to adapt to their changing environment.387 As Bangladesh's coastal land gradually submerges underwater, hands- on efforts to protect the land will need to increase.388

In Deep Weather, Biemann juxtaposed two completely different political-economic perspectives, which exposed an aspect of the vicious cycle of anthropogenic global warming. In Alberta, Canada, capitalistic-driven industrialization has seized the land, where the invasive extraction of tar, major investment, large machinery, and desire to vertically extract into the depths of time play a significant role.389 However, in Bangladesh, the drowning of delta communities, manual labor of millions, and submerged land progression due to rising sea levels take center stage.390 These radically different situations showcase two different perspectives of humanity's relationship with nature as well as a cause and effect portrayal of climate change. The progression of industrialization will increase the momentum and magnitude of climate change, and although humanity will temporarily reap the benefits of immediate success, over time, the irreparable consequences of these industrial acts will expose themselves in various parts of the world - one of them being the submergence of coastal lands. In the artist's words:

“I feel more important is to communicate what is not just happening in the Canadian boreal woods but something which is intimately connected with our existence. Climate change is difficult to represent because it is an invisible dynamic, all we ever see are its footprints. The causes of local disruptions are diffused and difficult to locate. The consequences, on the other hand, are hard and specific. The times ask for a recalibration of our senses that take such remote causality into consideration.”391

In Deep Weather, Biemann, additionally, visually represents themes of Entropy and Time. In the video, she whispers: “The Athabasca River flows north through Alberta into the Arctic Ocean.” 392 This hints at the connection between the industrial acts being performed in Alberta and the warming of the waters in the Arctic Ocean, which could be one of the causes of the melting of the glaciers. This entropic reaction results then in the rising sea levels in Bangladesh, leading to a deterioration of the livelihoods of Bangladeshi societies living on the banks and deltas. The representation of Time is also highlighted in the title, in the act of extraction, and in the urgency to build land with sandbags in Bangladesh. The title, Deep Weather, could be associated with the deep geological time scale and how climate change fits within this scale. The extraction site represented in the video is accessing deep geological layers within the earth, which is causing an acceleration in the process of global warming. The consequence can then be identified in the scene with the Bangladeshi citizens scrambling to produce and place enough sandbags to protect their land. There is a sense of urgency as if time is running out. Through this video, Biemann exposes the long-term thinking or understanding of time in indigenous communities versus the short-term thinking of oil companies and politicians.393

In this video, there are many similarities to the practices of Robert Smithson. Themes of a deep geological time scale and entropy, the use of aerial footage and written reflections, and the creation of her own interpretation of sites and non-sites through videography could be associated with the 1970s Land Artist, but Biemann further developed these ideas through a contemporary perspective. Instead of following Smithson's romantic philosophy of letting nature gradually destruct a work over time, Biemann depicted an entropic reaction that is accelerated through the inclusion of industrial acts performed by humanity. In comparison to the 1970s artists, Biemann involved the viewer by portraying the human subject integrated into the work and highlighting the interconnected relationship of nature and culture within the global system.

In Ursula Biemann's Deep Weather, she created a didactic video-essay to spread knowledge on an aspect of climate change triggered by the acts of fossil fuel corporations, which then impacted indigenous populations in remote parts of the world. By exposing the committers of environmental crimes through research and videography, she is spreading awareness on the anthropogenic aspect of climate change in her works and continues to create video-essays experimenting with the topic of climate change.

8. Marjetica Potrc

8.1 Biography

Marjetica Potrc is an acclaimed Slovenian artist and architect based in her hometown of Ljubljana, Slovenia, where she was born in 1953 into a family of writers.394 Her father, Ivan Potrc, was originally from the Stajerska region and was a renowned author of Slovene social realist novels, a playwright, and a chief editor of the publishing house Mladinska Knjig.395 Her mother, Branka Jurca, was a teacher, magazine editor, and famous author of childrens books from the Kras region of western Slovenia.396 In Potrc's oeuvre, she is known for creating architectural installations stemming from socially driven architectural projects.397 Her artistic practice incorporates architectural case studies, research, fieldwork or on-site projects, series of drawings, and architectural sculpture.398 With the combination of architecture, art, and social science, she creates complex installations inspired by her on-site projects for exhibitions in gallery settings.399 Some of the themes grounding her works include the fundamentals of human life and humanity's need for shelter, well-being, and community.400 In some of her works, the theme of climate change has revealed itself through her conceptualization and execution of sustainable architectural solutions for communities that are negatively impacted by the effects of climate change or will be affected in the future. Potrc's goal is to also learn from aboriginal communities, who have a respectful relationship with natural resources, in order to provide architectural solutions for a sustainable future and changing world.401

Potrc attended the University of Ljubljana, where she completed degrees in architecture in 1978 and sculpture in 1986 and 1988.402 According to art scholars, influences from architects and artists from the mid 20th century like R. Buckminster Fuller, Yona Friedman, and Robert Smithson can be found in Potrc's philosophy and architectural artistic practices.403 For example, R. Buckminster Fuller, like Potrc, did not limit himself to a particular field and considered himself to be a ‘comprehensive anticipatory design scientist', who strived to solve global issues surrounding housing, shelter, energy, and ecological destruction.404 Yona Friedman was also a supporter of participatory design and pioneered the mobile architecture theory, in which buildings should be movable and inhabitants should decide on their arrangements.405 Robert Smithson on the other hand traveled to sites and discovered, for example, found ‘monuments' in the industrial wastelands of Passaic, New Jersey. This experience guided him to write the essay ‘Entropy and the New Monuments', whereas Potrc traveled to some of the world's most poverty-stricken sites to seek out a model for contemporary urban survival.406

In 1990, Potrc moved to the United States, where she created installations consisting of walls or facades and participated in international exhibitions.407 For example, she created a work for the Venice Biennial for the Slovene Pavilion in 1993 and the series Theatrum Mundi: Territories (Fig. 31) between 1993 and 1996 in which she rebuilt city facades made up of an array of materials, such as concrete, brick, mortar, and cinder blocks.408 The series was exhibited in 1996 at the McLean Project for the Arts' Emerson Gallery in Virginia and galleries in New York.409 The process for this series came from Potrc's experience in a city, where she selected a specific building and created a replica of the building's facade to be exhibited in a gallery setting.410 The facade replicas were considered to evoke a physical being, and in her reflections of the Theatrum Mundi: Territories Series, Potrc stated:

“I build walls that I consider bodies. I want my walls to convey a human presence.. My Territories are human scale cut-outs of this oversized architecture. Once in the gallery, these facades, due to their altered scale, become strange bodies, similar to people.”411

The sculptural installation also incorporated performances, including a person reading to a wall or leaning against it.412 Observers were also allowed to interact with the facades by touching them or walking around them to view the facades at every angle, and many of the facades had an unfinished, backside surface.413 In this work, Potrc brought to light the relationships between society, its constructions, and the individual.414

In 1994, Potrc returned to Ljubljana but continued to work internationally.415 Her work started to evolve into researching contemporary building strategies, executing on-site projects, and transferring foreign architectural infrastructures into art installations exhibited in institutionalized spaces.416 Potrc traveled to remote, poverty-stricken locations, where the different communities and architectural infrastructures inspired her. Upon her visits, she would create architectural solutions for local community issues through collaboration with the community, which is defined as participatory design.417 For example, in one of her most recognized projects Dry Toilet, created in 2003, Potrc traveled to the La Vega barrio in Caracas, Venezuela for six months, where she collaborated with the community and Israeli architect, Liyat Esakov, to create a sustainable toilet that operated without the use of water.418 This toilet was designed without a water function due to water scarcity in the Barrio region and the need to reduce wastewater.419 She was accompanied by various scholars, such as architects, photographers, anthropologists, and artists, who were also interested in understanding different aspects of Barrios, which are considered informal cities or slums.420 What interested Potrc the most was the adaptive construction, infrastructure, and culture of the Barrio, where homes were made of recycled building materials and built by the residents themselves.421 Although Barrios were not portrayed on city maps at the time and, for the most part, ignored, they were crucial to understand for the future developments in the city of Caracas and throughout Latin America.422 The environments of Barrios are by no means perfect, but as a whole, they create a Superstructure with a high degree of self-organization.423 In the Dry Toilet project, Potrc was interested in seeking answers to questions regarding patterns of development and organization in the Barrios, such as how informal cities grow by destroying their traditional organization systems and how they organize themselves within an apparent chaos through informal interventions.424 In the words of Potrc:

“The auto-organization and production without jurisdiction has resulted in an impressive democratic building that presents a better answer to urban problems than the official strategies of the city administration. Traditional academic knowledge is put aside to enter the Barrio, a place of practical built solutions to urban challenges - executed results that should no longer be ignored.”425

The original Dry Toilet (Fig. 32-33) is still functioning in the La Vega Barrio in Caracas, and Potrc continues to exhibit different variations of the sustainable invention in art institutions worldwide.426

After creating the Dry Toilet, Potrc' continued to travel to different communities to explore unique, sustainable architectural concepts and exhibited her works worldwide. She participated in Biennials in Venice, Sao Paulo, and Yinchuan, China, and exhibited her works recurrently at the Galerie Nordenhake in Berlin and Stockholm since 2003.427 Other major institutions that exhibited Potrc's work include: the Guggenheim Museum in New York, the De Appel Foundation for Contemporary Art in Amsterdam, the Portikus Gallery in Frankfurt am Main, The Curve at the Barbican Art Galleries in London, the Hamburger Bahnhof - Museum for Contemporary Art Berlin, MOCA in Yinchuan, and the NTU Centre for Contemporary Art Singapore.428 She also continued to realize on-site projects, such as Power from Nature, which focused on self- sustainable technologies involving solar panels and wind turbines at Barefoot College in India and Catherine Ferguson Academy in Detroit in 2005, and The Cook, the Farmer, His Wife and Their Neighbour involving a community garden and kitchen in Stedelijk goes West, Amsterdam in 2009.429

From 2011 to 2018, Potrc was offered a professorship in social practice at the Hochschule für bildende Künste in Hamburg. There, she taught the course Design for the Living World, a class on participatory practices.430 Along with her professorship at the academy in Hamburg, Potrc was a visiting professor at other institutions, such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2005 and the IUAV Faculty of Arts and Design in Venice in 2008 and 2010.431 Potrc continues to work out of her studio in Ljubljana, Slovenia, and collaborates on international projects.

8.2 Works: Dry Toilet, Forest Rising, and New Orleans: Shotgun House with Rainwater-Harvesting Tank

The effects of climate change will not only cause rising sea levels but also increasing global surface temperatures, which will bring forth changes in weather, such as precipitation causing droughts. Because of these changes, many communities will have to adjust their way of life to provide a sustainable future. Sustainable practices and a healthy relationship with natural resources are aspects stemming from the topic of climate change that are commonly incorporated in Marjetica Potrc's works. She exhibits her sustainable architectural theories and solutions that she has learned through the collaboration with societies affected by the issues surrounding climate change and therefore show respect to their natural resources in a gallery setting. The goal of these types of communities is to be ecologically sustainable because they are aware that their survival depends on nature.432

For example, from her trip to Caracas, Potrc continued to exhibit nine variations of the Dry Toilet in gallery settings. The purpose of creating the Dry Toilet was to provide a solution for water scarcity- an issue experienced in parts of the world affected by surging heat waves due to climate change. This provided a model for the future that can be referenced and reconstructed as issues regarding water scarcity increase due to climate change. Potrc offers the opportunity for observers to witness other world perspectives and learn from the communities who are surviving in these areas affected by climate change.

Another architectural case study that Potrc created to promote future sustainable architectural practices further is Forest Rising (Fig. 34) created in 2007.433 The installation of Forest Rising was exhibited in The Curve Barbican Art Gallery in London and consisted of a conceptual model of a community built within the trees.434 It included a constructed field, pier, helicopter platform and school operating from the attachment of solar panels, and a satellite dish.435 Potrc was inspired to create the installation through her travels to the rural state of Acre in Brazil, located in the Amazon.436 There she encountered the Croa River Community who was creating practical solutions for local social, economic, and environmental issues, such as deforestation and rising water levels.437 Potrc witnessed how Acre's citizens have been creating a model for the community's sustainable future by concentrating on small scale economies, collective ownership, and combining local and global knowledge.438 They have developed a new concept of citizenship called ‘Florestania', which stems from the forest's economic and cultural influence instead of the city.439The Brazilian government supports these initiatives by setting up ‘extractive reserves', land allotted to local inhabitants for sustainable use, such as rubber tapping and low-impact farming.” 440 The installation was also accompanied by wall drawings explaining the Croa River community's story and a video of a conversation Potrc had with curator José Roca, who invited her to show her work at the Säo Paulo Biennial, which inspired her to explore communities in the State of Acre.441 442 In the first drawing showcased in the exhibition, the story begins like a fairy tale scene out of a children's book: “Far away from Säo Paulo, at the edge of Amazonia: a forest, a river, the Croa community”.412 In other drawings, she references Friedman's mobile architecture theory and the concept of Dutch artist Constant Nieuwenhuys' ‘New Babylon', compared to ‘Palafitas', buildings or homes built on stilts.443 Through the example of the ‘Palafita' and Potrc's architectural sculpture, the theories and ideas from these mid-20th-century architects are physically achieved. Through the Forest Rising installation, Potrc showcases a contemporary perspective of life in the Amazon in which she uncovers issues surrounding climate change, globalization, and unsustainable economic growth.444 By showcasing a rural living perspective, Potrc provides through Forest Rising a model for a sustainable future.445

In her architectural case study New Orleans: Shotgun House with Rainwater-Harvesting Tank (Fig. 35) created, in 2008 and first showcased in the Max Protetch Gallery in New York, Potrc continued to showcase architectural strategies from communities that depend on nature for survival.446 New Orleans, Louisiana, is highly affected by climate change through the hurricanes that are increasing in size each year and propose a threat to destroy the wetlands and levees that protect the below-sea-level city from floods. In the installation, Potrc replicated a shotgun house, which is a housing style commonly found in the New Orleans area. The narrow and elongated shotgun house was raised on elevated cinderblocks to create space underneath the house for flooded waters to flow without damaging the home's interior. It was also presented with an attached harvesting water tank that could collect access rainwater, solar panels on the side of the roof for energy consummation, and a satellite for means of communication. The two caryatid columns supporting the front porch roof symbolize the reality that New Orleans was being rebuilt by its' citizens after the destruction of Hurricane Katrina.447 Through this architectural art installation, Potrc highlighted two trends that developed post-Hurricane Katrina: the revival of the local architectural style known as the Shotgun House and the move toward self-sustainability.448 These developments occurred in response to the demolition of modernist architecture and the search for a new, 21st century sustainable architectural concept.449

Through Marjetica Potrc's functional yet didactic artistic practice, she addresses themes of climate change and the Anthropocene as well as Entropy and Time. Going against the destructive progression of industrialization, she investigates and supports alternative, ecological building strategies inspired by surviving communities in areas affected by climate change. She uncovers the interrelationship of humanity and nature through these sustainable architectural structures that work with their natural environment rather than against it. In some projects, she has additionally provided solutions for issues within these communities through collaboration or participatory design. By being inspired by the communities, collaborating with them, and proposing or executing ideas within the community as well as in the gallery space, she takes the theories from the mid-20th- century architects and artists a step further. Instead of conceptualizing utopian theories and viewing nature from a distant perspective, she creates man-made structures that sustainably work within their environments and incorporates the viewer through a participatory design perspective. The viewer is invited to imagine how these architectural case studies could benefit environments in the future and how the community's needs should play a more significant role in the development of building strategies. Potrc additionally addresses themes of Entropy and Time within her oeuvre through her idea of 20th-century urban city architecture leading to a deteriorating civilization. She believes that the cities created in the 20th century were primarily focused on building cities, not communities, and she stated: “. today cities are experiencing fatigue; they are weighed down by the civilization they created.” 450 Because of this deterioration in urban cities, she believes it is essential to look to rural areas, that are making a difference in the search for a more sustainable existence, for future inspiration.451 Additionally, consequences of entropy, such as rising water levels, can be found within her works. For example, in Forest Rising and New Orleans: Shotgun House with Rainwater-Harvesting Tank, she showcases this perspective through the portrayal of elevated building strategies. Potrc's goal is to provide impactful solutions for a sustainable future and act as a mediator, in which she stated:

“An artist can be the moderator between the residents and institutions, the government, and so on. This involves much more than just listening to their problems and helping out. The artist can mediate people's vision of the city they want to live in. If you follow the process step by step, if you are engaged with the people from the beginning, the project will be successful. And places of crisis will become an inspiration for others; they will become places of hope.” 452

9. Amy Balkin

9.1 Biography

Amy Balkin is an American conceptual artist who was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1967.453 She studied painting, video, and sculpture at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, where she completed a Bachelor of Fine Art, and New Genres at Stanford University in California, where she received a Master of Fine Art.454 During her time at Stanford University, she shifted her focus from addressing the anthropogenic landscape through video, sculptural installation, and drawing to social relationships involving land in a more direct manner through complex projects.455 In her oeuvre, Balkin focuses on exploring the relationship humans have with nature and how this impacts the world from a social, political, economic, and environmental perspective.456 She combines these different angles to create multi-layered projects that address issues involving climate change, environmental justice, and the law.457 As a conceptual artist, she does not use a specific medium, and her choice of media ranges from carbon emissions credits to archives of found objects from all over the world.458

Some scholars have associated her concepts with the works and philosophies of Agnes Denes and Robert Smithson, who created works that reclaimed industrial land sites.459 For example, in Smithson's essay ‘Frederick Law Olmsted and the Dialectical Landscape', he reflects on the documents displayed in the Whitney Museum about the development and maintenance of Central Park in New York.460 Through this essay, he reviews the representation of nature in art and how the park was built on a man-made wasteland.461 Because of this realization, he continues to propose how art must become critically and actively involved in the development of the natural landscape.462 Smithson thematizes a type of art that is politically, economically, and socially engaged.463 Stemming from the philosophy of Smithson's essay, Balkin takes his ideas a step further by actively involving her research in property law and corporate-governmental processes as well as highlighting the negative aspect of the reclamation of land and natural resources.464 Additionally, her projects extend to spaces of global geography without boundaries and are not created through individual action but through collaborations with others who contribute different perspectives.465 When Balkin was asked in an interview about the inspiration for her work, she responded with an array of individuals outside of the art practice. She stated: “I've been heavily influenced by people, sites, and land movements outside of art practice, people like Lou Gottlieb of the 1960s folk group The Limeliters and his attempt to deed land he purchased for the Morning Star Commune to God via the California court system, movements like the Brazilian Landless Rural Workers Movement, or places like The Principality of Sealand..While my own projects have been inspired by a range of influences, as I've worked on them, I've become familiar with a number of artist projects addressing land ownership, use, or sharing - including Maria Eichhorn's Acquisition of a Plot of Land, N55's Land, or Gordon Matta-Clark's Fake Estates. These projects all share some level of concern about how land is divided and structured into property, and to greater or lesser degrees, how rights of ownership are acquired, used, or shared.“466

Additionally, she named contemporary artists who she admires, such as the London­based art collective, Platform, who create projects that address social and ecological justice themes and write about the political aspects of pipeline development, oil, siting, and human rights issues, as well as Sarah Lewison, who created a project about weather modification in China.467 Her influences remain interdisciplinary as she is also inspired by geographers, whistleblowers, and environmental activists.468

Balkin's most recognized projects include This is the Public Domain (2003-ongoing), Public Smog (2004-ongoing), Invisible-5 (2006), and A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting (2012-ongoing), in which she investigates concepts involving land ownership and environmental issues.469 Balkin has shown her work internationally and has been exhibited in institutions, such as dOCUMENTA 13 in Kassel; Les Abattoirs in Toulouse; Nottingham Contemporary; and Kunsthal Aarhus in Denmark.470 In 2007, she received the Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation Award and participated in the collaborative project Cape Farewell, a project that brings awareness to climate change through the collaboration of artists and scientists in an expedition to arctic regions such as Greenland.471 Balkin continues to live and work in San Francisco, where she is an artist and an associate professor at the California College of the Arts.472 She is currently exhibiting her work in the exhibition The Overview Effect at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Belgrade until Spring 2021.473 9.2 Works: Public Smog and A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting A leading factor in the causes of climate change is the contribution of greenhouse gases to the Earth's atmosphere from human activity and industrial practices.474 These gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, trap the heat radiating from the Earth's surface in the atmosphere, which increases the temperature of the Earth, causing the effects of climate change.475 In her ongoing project Public Smog (Fig. 36), which was started in 2004, Balkin created a temporary, clean-air park in the atmosphere that fluctuated in location and scale.476 The project was achieved through political, financial, and legal activities, in which Balkin bought and withheld carbon-dioxide emissions credits from international markets with the help of brokers and emission traders.477 The carbon-dioxide emissions credits, along with other harmful gas emissions credits that Balkin obtained, were then inaccessible to polluting industries, which presented the opportunity for her to open the clean-air park for public use.478 In 2004, Balkin first opened the Public Smog clean-air park over California's South Coast Air Quality Management District, which included Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Orange Counties.479 Thereafter from 2006 to 2007, she opened the park over the European Union and then again in 2010 over the United States.480 The duration of the parks' existences depended on the amount of gas emissions credits purchased and the length of the contracts, which would eventually expire, leading to the closure of the parks.481 In order to create a visual representation for the project, she combined documents, performances, research, graphic models, billboards, correspondences, postcards, and a website to expose the evidence of a property system in the present carbon emissions trading schemes.482 Balkin further developed the project by attempting to enforce the atmosphere as a UNESCO world heritage site.483 In her correspondence with Francesco Francioni, she was informed that since she was not involved with an organization, she would need the approval of all state parties “that the atmosphere is essential to the conservation of the ‘territorial' environment of every state”.484 In this regard, she sent letters to every state party, asking for their participation in this global coalition.485 Although many rejected her proposal, she received a positive response from the Kingdom of Tonga, asking for more information on the coalition.486 As she exhibited Public Smog at the dOCUMENTA 13 in 2012, she continued her attempts by asking visitors to sign a petition requesting Germany to start a coalition process in order to mark the Earth's Atmosphere as a UNESCO World Heritage on an emergency basis.487 The signed postcard petitions (Fig. 37) were then sent to Germany's Minister of the Environment, Peter Altmaier, who rejected the proposal to lead the coalition.488 Since Balkin's actions were taken, many more postcards were sent to ambassadors worldwide, like in 2015 to Mr. George Mina, Australian Ambassador of UNESCO, who to this day has not responded.489 Through this ongoing and open project, Balkin revealed how the trading of carbon emissions credits operates and how there is a lack of legal and governmental infrastructures to fight against climate change induced by industrial corporations and global capitalism.490

Through her ethical, didactic and temporarily functional project, Amy Balkin addresses themes of climate change and the Anthropocene through her investigative action of buying carbon emissions credits to provide a cleaner atmosphere. Her goal is to actively protect the Earth's atmosphere and spread knowledge of how the world can also participate in this challenge through her diverse range of media from the project. She exposes the complications and how one can be actively involved in the protection of the Earth and the positive progression of nature. Instead of viewing nature from a distant perspective, she reinvents the Land Art from the 1970s through the current situations surrounding climate change and the present legal infrastructure and financial methods used to address it, with connections to the environmental law and international climate justice movement.491 The clean air park's invisibility highlights the abstract quality of the atmosphere and the phenomenon of climate change that happens within it.492 This invisibility plays a major role in the denial of global warming and enables its economic manipulation, which Balkin strives to reveal.493 Through her art practice taking on an active role in this project, Balkin goes beyond delivering an artistically poetic response to the climate change crisis and provides a proven method or solution that should be globally accepted.

In her project A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting started in 2012, Balkin continued her artistic efforts to create a collaborative work associated with climate change.494 She initiated an archive of an ever-growing collection of objects donated from places that may vanish because of the combined political, physical, and economic effects of climate change, including sea-level rise, glacial melting, coastal erosion, and desertification.495 Balkin believes this collaborative archive of international objects creates a collection of the ‘what will have been' and reveals the reality of present or predicted loss caused by the climate change crisis.496 Instructions on what and how to contribute can be found on the archive's website, in which Balkin explains that the objects for contribution can be anything, whether found, made, natural manufactured, or discarded, as long as a person submits them from a place that is sinking or melting due to climate change.497 The objects are not required to originate from the location and can be anything that is simply there.498 The contributions must weigh less than a half of a pound and be sent to Balkin with a contribution form answering questions, such as what the object is and how the location is impacted by climate change.499 Additional questions include what has one seen environmentally disappear in the location and what is one's relationship to the object.500 Once acquired into the collection, the objects and the contribution forms are displayed on the online archive and occasionally showcased in exhibitions. For example, some of the objects materializing the New Orleans part of the collection (Fig. 38) consist of a bicycle chainring, a slipper, shells, plastic cutlery, and a plastic bag found on the property of an abandoned church.501 They were founded by a group in the Upper 9th Ward in 2012 to depict what was left behind after Hurricane Katrina, which caused businesses and homes to disappear.502 New Orleans is a place that is sinking due to the rising sea levels. As of 2020, the international archive consists of contributions from the United States, Australia, Antarctica, Greenland, Germany, Iceland, Cape Verde, Mexico, Cuba, Italy, Panama, Peru, Russia, Senegal, Trinidad and Tobago, and Tuvalu.503

Through Balkin's A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting, she further addresses themes of the Anthropocene and Climate Change. Additionally, she highlights aspects of Entropy and Time. In the title ‘Sinking and Melting', Balkin refers to the fact that parts of the world are disappearing due to glaciers melting, sea levels rising, and rising global temperatures. These reactions caused by entropy are experienced more intensely in certain parts of the world than others and are changing environments and livelihoods worldwide. Themes of time are also present in the archive because Balkin is literally creating a capsule of time. In regard to the project, Balkin stated: “As hundreds of millions of people are likely to be displaced in the near future pushed into further precarity and amplified state violence, perhaps the Archive and its objects may be better read as a time capsule from a moment when grave mistakes were made.”504 The objects found within the collection symbolize the loss of the past, present, and future due to industrial capitalism, causing climate change.

10. Conclusion

Although climate change has been a part of Earth's history since before the beginning of human civilization, it has been a slowly evolving theme in art history. First, the representation of nature in landscape painting provided the foundation for art addressing climate change. From landscapes being portrayed as idealized accessories to realistic interpretations full of expression, the representation of nature in landscape painting consistently developed throughout the art historical movements dating back to the 15th century. Until the middle of the 20th century, the origins of Land Art and Ecological Art emerged, in which artists transitioned out of the classic landscape painting representation of nature. While the mid-20th-century artists still viewed nature from a distant perspective like the Romantics, they began to use the Earth or nature as an art medium and questioned the confinement of institutions. Many contemporary artists were, then, inspired by the Land, Systems, and Ecological Art movements and sourced inspiration from artists, such as Robert Smithson and Hans Haacke. However, contemporary artists gradually began to question the relationship between man and nature, which set them apart from their artistic predecessors. Through the coining of the ‘Anthropocene', a new generation of artists, who strived to give the topic of climate change an aesthetic representation, were born. Because the ‘Anthropocene' term identified that human civilization significantly impacts Earth's environment, causing an acceleration in climate change and the climate crisis, artists began to engage with the topic of climate change within their oeuvres. They started to view nature from a close, interconnected perspective and investigate and experiment with the topic of climate change, leading to the use of unconventional materials. This shift in perceiving nature from a close instead of distant perspective is a contemporary view evolving in the modern art world. Through the works from artists Olafur Eliasson, Julian Charrière, Ursula Biemann, Marjetica Potrc, and Amy Balkin, a thorough study of how contemporary artists address the topic of climate change was established, in which the artists used various mediums and methods. Additional themes associated with the topic of climate change were revealed through the research process, including the Anthropocene, Entropy, and Time.

In the works of Olafur Eliasson, Julian Charrière, and Ursula Biemann, the artists concentrated on capturing the acceleration of the melting glaciers due to anthropogenic causes. They chose various mediums such as photographic series, performance, individual experience, video essays, and actual chunks of glacial ice to expose and spread awareness of the melting glaciers due to global warming and humanity's inseparable relationship with nature. They emphasized that humanity is neither separate nor superior to nature and revealed additional themes of entropy and deep geological time.

In the works from Marjetica Potrc and Amy Balkin, the artists emphasized the importance of sustainability and political action in art addressing climate change. Through the use of sustainable architectural building strategies for cities affected by the consequences of the climate crisis, Potrc created real solutions for a future affected immensely by climate change. She acts as a mediator between societies and governments and reveals a way of life that works with nature instead of against it. In Amy Balkin's work Public Smog, she addressed climate change through the investigative action of buying carbon emissions credits to provide a cleaner atmosphere. Balkin used a variety of media to turn this idea into reality and blurred the boundaries between art, politics, and law. She focused on exploring the relationship humans have with nature and how this impacts the world from a social, political, economic, and environmental perspective. Potrc and Balkin's works influenced actual change by taking on an active role in protecting the environment through cultural initiatives.

Through extensive research, an analysis of contemporary artists addressing climate change was achieved. Since it is a relatively new topic of discourse in the art world, research involving the topic of climate change should continuously be critically investigated. New artists with unique aesthetic perspectives and interdisciplinary approaches will continue to emerge, and many other themes connected to the topic of climate change will require future research, such as capitalism, colonialism, inequality, displacement, migration, technology, population growth, and issues concerning the law, social justice, and violence. The topic of climate change is just the beginning of the discourse, and art addressing climate change is not just a means to bring awareness to our future but to inspect and investigate society's relationship with nature.

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29. „Foreword“. In: Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (Hrsgg.): IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2013, S. V. In: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, URL: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_all_final.pdf (Stand: 25.11.2020) .

30. „Grainstack (Sunset)“. In: Museum of Fine Arts Boston, URL: https://collections.mfa.org/objects/32189 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

31. „Ice Watch, 2014“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK109190/ice-watch (Stand: 21.10.20).

32. „Information“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://www.tomorrowmorning.net/information (Stand: 23.11.2020).

33. „Joseph Mallord William Turner. Snow Storm - Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth.“ In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-snow-storm- steam-boat-off-a-harbours-mouth-n00530 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

34. „Julian Charrière“. In: Dittrich & Schlechtriem, URL: https://dittrich- schlechtriem.com/artists/julian-charriere/ (Stand: 19.10.2020).

35. „Julian Charrière. Horizons.“ In: Dittrich & Schlechtriem, 2011, URL: https://dittrich-schlechtriem.com/horizons/ (Stand:19.10.2020).

36. „Julian Charrière. Towards No Earthly Poles.“ In: Aargauer Kunsthaus, 2020, URL: https://www.aargauerkunsthaus.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Ausstellungen/2020/Julia n_Charriere/Ausstellung/201006_Handout_Charrie__re_D.pdf (Stand: 19.10.2020).

37. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: artmap, 2007, URL: https://artmap.com/barbican/exhibition/marjetica-potrc-2007 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

38. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020).

39. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica- potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

40. „Marjetica Potrc. Forest Rising.“ In: barbican, 2007, URL https://www.barbican.org.uk/whats-on/2007/event/marjetica-potrc-forest-rising (Stand: 16.11.2020).

41. „MoMa PS1 Announces Expo 1: New York, An exploration of ecological challenges in the context of the economic and socio-political instability of the early 21st century“. In: Dark Optimism, [08.03.2013], URL: https://www.darkoptimism.org/EXPO1_MoMA-PS1_PR_2013.pdf (Stand: 15.10.2020) .

42. „Mr and Mrs Andrews“. In: The National Gallery, URL: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/thomas-gainsborough-mr-and-mrs- andrews (Stand: 30.11.2020).

43. ,Nature has become fragile‘ - Olafur Eliasson on melting glaciers and his Experience of a changing climate. In: Phaidon, URL: https://www.phaidon.com/agenda/art/articles/2018/september/04/nature-has- become-fragile-olafur-eliasson-on-melting-glaciers-and-his-experience-of-a- changing-climate/ (Stand: 21.10.2020).

44. „New Babylon 1956-1974“. In: Fondation Constant, URL: https://stichtingconstant.nl/new-babylon-1956-1974 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

45. „New Orleans Collection“. In: Sinking and Melting, URL: https://sinkingandmelting.tumblr.com/neworleanscollection (Stand: 23.11.2020).

46. „Nicolas Poussin's Blind Orion Searching for the Rising Sun, 1658, Insider Insights“. In: YouTube, [02.05.2020], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4uYL09Hum4 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

47. „Olafur Eliasson“. In: Institut für Raumexperimente. URL: https://raumexperimente.net/en/participant/olafur-eliasson/ (Stand: 18.08.2020).

48. „On-Site Projects“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project2.htm (Stand:16.11.2020).

49. „Palafita“. In: educalingo, URL: https://educalingo.com/en/dic-pt/palafita (Stand:16.11.2020).

50. „Performing the Border“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and- videos/performing-the-border (Stand: 09.11.2020).

51. „Performing the Border“. In: Werkleitz, URL: https://werkleitz.de/performing-the- border/ (Stand:09.11.2020).

52. „Pilgrimage to Cythera“. In: Louvre, URL: https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre- notices/pilgrimage-cythera (Stand: 30.11.2020).

53. „Projects“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/projects (Stand: 23.11.2020).

54. „Public Smog“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/publicsmog (Stand: 23.11.2020).

55. „Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty“. In: Dia Art Foundation, URL: https://www.diaart.org/visit/visit-our-locations-sites/robert-smithson-spiral-jetty (Stand: 04.10.2020).

56. „Spring“. In: Le Gallerie Degli Uffizi, URL: https://www.uffizi.it/en/artworks/botticelli-spring (Stand: 18.11.2020).

57. „The Causes of Climate Change“. In: NASA, URL: https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

58. „The Development of Gericault's “Heroic Landscape”“. In: Covenant Art History, [07.12.2013], URL: http://covenantarthistory.blogspot.com/2013/12/the- development-of-gericaults-heroic.html (Stand: 30.11.2020).

59. „The Glacier Melt Series 1999/2019“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK110917/the-glacier-melt-series- 19992019 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

60. „The Glacier Series“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK101386/the-glacier-series (Stand: 14.08.2020).

61. „The Hay Wain“. In: The National Gallery, URL: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/john-constable-the-hay-wain (Stand: 30.11.2020) .

62. „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

63. „The Monuments of Passaic“. In: Holt/Smith Foundation, URL: https://holtsmithsonfoundation.org/monuments-passaic (Stand:16.11.2020).

64. „Transformation in a Changing Climate conference 2013, How do we make transformation just deliberative and equitable?“. In: Youtube, [23.03.2018], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZ3dgvUHdhY&t=817s (Stand: 23.11.2020).

65. „Video screenings and exhibitions (by film)“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/get_file/archive_export/by_film.pdf?download=true (Stand: 09.11.2020).

66. „Video screenings and exhibitions (by year)“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/get_file/archive_export/by_year.pdf?download=true (Stand: 09.11.2020).

67. „Welcome to the Anthropocene“. In: Deutsches Museum, URL: https://www.deutsches-museum.de/en/exhibitions/special- exhibitions/archive/2015/anthropocene/ (Stand: 15.10.2020).

68. „What is climate change?“. In: Environmental Protection Agency, URL: https://www.epa.ie/climate/communicatingclimatescience/whatisclimatechange/ (Stand: 25.11.2020).

69. „Who We Are“. In: Platform London, URL: https://platformlondon.org/about-us/ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

70. Amthor, Annalena: Destination: Dystopia. In: whereaboutnow, [14.03.2019], URL: https://whereaboutnow.com/journal/destination-dystopia (Stand: 26.10.2020).

71. Andrews, Malcom: Landscape and Western Art. New York 1999.

72. Art. „Plein Air“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/plein-air (Stand: 30.11.2020).

73. Art. „Sublime“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/s/sublime (Stand: 30.11.2020).

74. Art Term. „Entropy“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/e/entropy (Stand: 14.08.2020).

75. Art Term. „Land Art“. In: Tate. URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/l/land- art (Stand: 04.10.2020).

76. Bahadur, Tulika: Joachim Patinir: Inventor of The “World Landscape”. In: On Art And Aesthetics, [10.03.2017], URL: https://onartandaesthetics.com/2017/03/10/joachim-patinir-inventor-of-the-world- landscape/ (Stand: 11.09.2020).

77. Barker, Elizabeth E.: John Constable (1776-1837). In: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, [10.2004], URL: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/jcns/hd_jcns.htm (Stand: 30.11.2020).

78. Bauch, Hans Günter: The Anthropocene: Politik-Economics-Society-Science. Bd.17. Mosbach 2019.

79. Biemann, Ursula: Deep Weather. In: Geobodies, CCA Glasgow, [February 2013], S.1, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/books-and-texts/texts (Stand: 09.11.2020).

80. Biemann, Ursula: Deep Weather - 2013. In: vimeo, URL: https://vimeo.com/90098625 (09.11.2020).

81. Biemann, Ursula u. Lundström, Jan-Erik (Hrsgg.): Ursula Biemann. Mission Reports. Artistic Practice in the Field - Video Works 1998-2008. Bildmuseet, Umea University. Umea 2008.

82. Blumberg, Naomi: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclop^dia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

83. Boulton, Elizabeth: Climate change as a ‘hyperobject': a critical review of Timothy Morton's reframing narrative. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 7, 2016. In: Research Gate, URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303801414_Climate_change_as_a_%27hy perobject%27_a_critical_review_of_Timothy_Morton%27s_reframing_narrative_C limate_change_as_a_hyperobject (Stand: 25.11.2020).

84. Brettkelly-Chalmers, Kate: Time, Duration and Change in Contemporary Art. Intellect Ltd. Bristol, United Kingdom 2019.

85. Büttner Nils: Geschichte der Landschaftsmalerei. Munich 2006.

86. Coleman, Jean: MoMA PS1. Olafur Eliasson's Your Waste of Time. In: Vimeo. URL: https://vimeo.com/116118034 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

87. Cooke, Lynne u. Kelly,Karen (Hrsgg.): Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty. True Fictions, False Realities. New York u.a. 2005.

88. Coomasaru, Edwin: Amy Balkin. (In)visible Matter. United Kingdom 2013, URL: https://issuu.com/inmg/docs/amy-balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020).

89. Crowther, Paul u. Wünsche, Isabel (Hrsgg.): Meanings of Abstract Art. Between Nature and Theory. New York u.a. 2012.

90. Crutzen, Paul J.: Geology of mankind. In: Nature, [03.01.2002], URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/415023a (Stand: 14.10.2020).

91. Cumming, Laura: Julian Charrière. For They That Sow the Wind review - bracing and beautiful. In: The Guardian, [10.01.2016], URL: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/jan/10/julian-charriere-parasol- unit-review-for-they-that-sow-the-wind-bracing-and-beautiful (Stand: 19.10.2020).

92. Dafoe, Taylor: How Far Would You Go for Your Art? Julian Charrière Went to the North Pole. In: artnet news, [10.03.2020], URL: https://news.artnet.com/art- world/julian-charriere-on-his-heady-eco-conceptualism-1796415 (Stand: 18.10.2020) .

93. Davis, Heather u. Turpin, Etienne (Hrsgg.): Art in the Anthropocene. Encounters Among Aesthetics, Politics, Environments and Epistemologies. Open Humanities Press. London 2015.

94. Definition. „Parergon“. In: Free Art Dictionary, URL: https://www.freeartdictionary.com/definition/parergon/ (Stand: 11.09.2020).

95. De La Barra, Pablo Leon: Some Views of Marjetica Potrc's Forest Settlement at the Barbican. In: Centre for the aesthetic revolution, [02.08.2007], URL: http://centrefortheaestheticrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/08/some-views-of- marjetica-potrcs-forest.html (Stand: 16.11.2020).

96. Demos, T.J.: Art after Nature. In: Art Forum, [04.2012], S. 192-193, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/demos_artafternature_artforum.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020) .

97. Dickel, Hans: Natur in der zeitgenössischen Kunst. Konstellationen jenseits von Landschaft und Materialästhetik. München 2016.

98. Donovan, Thom: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5- questions-for-contemporary-practice-with-amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020) .

99. Dreher, Thomas: Robert Smithson. Land Reclamation and the Sublime. In: Dreher Netzliteratur, URL: https://dreher.netzliteratur.net/6_LandArt_Smithson.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020) .

100. Dürbeck, Gabriele u. Stobbe, Urte (Hrsgg.): Ecocriticism. Eine Einführung. Böhlau u.a. 2015.

101. Ferdin u. Protzman: Walls as windows on a culture. In: Washington Post, [20.04.1996], URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1996/04/20/walls-as-windows- on-a-culture/3f506fe8-eca5-4edd-bb5b-7b3d11ced01b/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

102. Fischer, Berit: Artists at Work: Marjetica Potrc. In: Afterall, [13.06.2012], URL: https://afterall.org/online/spaces-for-a-new-culture-of-a-living/#.X7JiiS2ZOCU (Stand: 16.11.2020).

103. Gentili, Giulia: Ecology and Economics in the Art of Hans Haacke. URL: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/52f5eb0ee4b013e3f9433ecd/t/58a1dea01b10e 3f74fb8aaf9/1487003301465/Gentili+Haacke.pdf (Stand: 14.10.2020).

104. Grynsztejn, Madeleine; Birnbaum, Daniel; u. Speaks, Michael: Olafur Eliasson. Phaidon Press Limited. London 2002.

105. Hällgren, Anna-Maria: (Un)steady as a Rock: Believing in Times of Make- believe. In: Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History, Bd. 88, no. 1, S. 33-42, URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00233609.2018.1540444 (Stand: 19.10.2020).

106. Harris, Beth u. Zucker, Steven: Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty. In: Khan Academy, URL: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/later- europe-and-americas/modernity-ap/v/smithson-jetty (Stand: 04.10.2020).

107. Harris, William: Cities in the sky: Re-evaluating yona friedman. In: 3: AM Magazine, [19.04.2016], URL: http://www.3ammagazine.com/3am/cities-in-the- sky-re-evaluating-yona-friedman/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

108. Hodge, Susie: Eine kurze Geschichte der Kunst. Berlin 2018.

109. Holten, Johan: Islands and Ghettos. Heidelberg 2008.

110. Johnson, Ken: The Natural World: Here, It's Had Work. In: The New York Times, [30.05.2013], URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/31/arts/design/expo- 1-new-york-at-moma-ps1-and-other-sites.html (Stand: 14.08.2020).

111. Juul Holm, Michael u. Engberg-Pedersen, Anna: Olafur Eliasson. Riverbed. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art and the contributors. Rosendahls/Esbjerg, Denmark 2014.

112. Kiyoizumi, AJ: Julian Charrière. In: Berlin Art Link, URL: http://www.berlinartlink.com/2014/07/21/julian-charriere/ (Stand: 19.10.20).

113. Knapstein, Gabriele u. Felix, Matilda (Hrsgg.): Architektonika. Nürnberg 2013.

114. Kobialka, Tom: Apocalypse Tomorrow. In: Sleek, 2015, URL: https://www.sieshoeke.com/assets/documents/S45_ALMANAC_APOCALYPSET OMORROW_TIMOTHYMORTONJULIENCHARRIERE.pdf (Stand: 19.10.2020).

115. Kopel, Dana: What Will Have Been. Interviews on A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://www.tomorrowmorning.net/texts/What%20Will%20Have%20Been_Intervie ws%20on%20A%20Peoples%20Archive%20of%20Sinking%20and%20Melting_D ana%20Kopel.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

116. Linden, Christina: Forward Looking (Apocalypse Now or Later). In: Fillip, no. 15, 2011, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/fillip_forward_looking_christina_linden.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

117. Lüdeking, Karlheinz: 50 Jahre Land Art in Utah. „Spiral Jetty“ und die feindselige Natur. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine, [06.04.2020], URL: https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/kunst/land-art-50-jahre-spiral-jetty-in-utah- 16713058.html (Stand: 04.10.2020).

118. Martin, Timothy D.: Robert Smithson and the Anglo-American Picturesque. In: Getty, 2011, URL: https://www.getty.edu/museum/symposia/pdf_stark/stark_tmartin.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020) .

119. Mavrokordopoulou, Kyveli: Au-dela de la nature: The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories de Julian Charrière. In: The Goose, Bd.16, no. 1, article 3, [15.06.2017], URL: https://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1366&context=thegoose (Stand: 19.10.2020).

120. Oliver-Smith, Kerry (Hg.): The World to Come. Art in the age of the Anthropocene. Gainesville 2018.

121. Olof-Ors, Matilda u.a. (Hrsgg.): Olafur Eliasson Reality Machines. Moderna Museet and Koenig Books. London 2015.

122. Pakesch, Peter; Trantow, Katrin Bucher; u. Huemer, Katia (Hrsgg.): Landschaft. Konstruktion einer Realität. Köln 2015.

123. Parry, Fiona: The City is a Burning, Blazing Bonfire. London 2011. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/The%20City%20is%20a%20Burning%20Blazing %20Bonfire.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

124. Potrc, Marjetica: Addressing the Real. In: Contexts, vol. 4, no. 3, 2005, pp. 56­56. URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41800935. (Stand: 16.11.2020).

125. Potrc, Marjetica: Caracas Case Study: The Culture of the Informal City. Perspecta, vol. 36, 2005, pp. 53-57. URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1567366 (Stand: 16.11.2020) .

126. Potrc, Marjetica u. Halle, Howard: Portfolio. In: Grand Street, no. 72, 2003, S. 76­81, URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25008695. (Stand: 16.11.2020).

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12. List of Figures

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 1: Sandro Botticelli, La Primavera, late 1470s - early 1480s, Tempera on panel, 202 x 314 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primavera_(Botticelli)#/media/File:Botticelli- primavera.jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 2: Lukas Cranach the Elder, The Paradise, 1530, Oil on panel, 81 x 114 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, (aus: URL: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Lucas_Cranach_d.Ä._- _Paradies_%281530%2C_Kunsthistorisches_Museum%29.jpg (30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 3: Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Hunters in the Snow, 1565, Oil on panel, 117 x 162 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hunters_in_the_Snow#/media/File:Pieter_Bruegel_t he_Elder_-_Hunters_in_the_Snow_(Winter)_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 4: Nicolas Poussin, Blind Orion Searching for the Rising Sun, 1658, Oil on canvas, 119.1 x 182.9 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blind_Orion_Searching_for_the_Rising_Sun#/media/File: Poussin,_Nicolas_-_Paysage_avec_Orion_aveugle_cherchant_le_soleil_-_1658.jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 5: Jean Antoine Watteau, The Embarkation for Cythera, 1717, Oil on canvas, 1.29 x 1.94 m, Louvre Museum, Paris, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Embarkation_for_Cythera#/media/File:L'Embarquem ent_pour_Cythere,_by_Antoine_Watteau,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 6: Thomas Gainsborough, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, 1750, Oil on canvas, 69.8 x 119.4 cm, National Gallery, London, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mr_and_Mrs_Andrews#/media/File:Thomas_Gainsborou gh_-_Mr_and_Mrs_Andrews.jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 7: John Constable, The Hay Wain, 1821, Oil on canvas, 130.2 x 185.4 cm, National Gallery, London, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hay_Wain#/media/File:John_Constable_- _The_Hay_Wain_(1821).jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 8: James Mallord William Turner, Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth making Signals in Shallow Water, and going by the Lead. The Author was in this Storm on the Night the Ariel left Harwich, 1842, Oil on canvas, 91 x 122 cm, Tate, London (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snow_Storm:_Steam- Boat_off_a_Harbour%27s_Mouth#/media/File:Joseph_Mallord_William_Turner_- _Snow_Storm_-_Steam-Boat_off_a_Harbour's_Mouth_-_WGA23178.jpg (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 9: Claude Monet, Grainstacks, 1890-1891, Oil on canvas, 73.3 x 92.7 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, (aus: URL: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Claude_Monet_- _Graystaks_I.JPG (Stand: 30.11.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 10: Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970, Sculpture: Basalt rocks, salt crystals, earth, water, 4.572 x 457.2 m, Rozel Point, Great Salt Lake, Utah, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiral_Jetty#/media/File:Spiral-jetty-from-rozel-point.png (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 11: Richard Long, A Line Made by Walking, 1967, Photograph of line in grass created by the artist's performance, Image: 375 x 324 mm, Tate, London, (aus: URL: https://publicdelivery.org/richard-long-line-made-by-walking/ (01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 12: Robert Smithson, Asphalt Rundown, 1969, Photograph of asphalt running down a dirt hill in a quarry created by the artist's performance, Holt/Smith Foundation, New York, (aus: URL: https://holtsmithsonfoundation.org/asphalt-rundown (Stand. 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 13: Image of the submerged Spiral Jetty, (aus: URL: https://archive.sltrib.com/article.php?id=53288798&itype=CMSID (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 14: Image of salt crystals on the Spiral Jetty, (aus: URL: http://www.eveandersson.com/photo-display/large/usa/ut/spiral-jetty-rocks-w- reflections.html (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 15: Image of Spiral Jetty surrounded by sand, Holt/Smith Foundation, New York, (aus: URL: https://holtsmithsonfoundation.org/spiral-jetty (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 16: Hans Haacke, Rhinewater Purification Plant, 1972, Installation: Glass and acrylic containers, pump, polluted Rhine water, tubing, filters, chemicals and goldfish, Paula Cooper Gallery, New York, (aus: URL: https://www.frieze.com/article/analyze (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 17: Olafur Eliasson, Beauty, 1993, Installation: Spotlight, water, nozzles, wood, hose, pump, Tate Modern, London, (aus: URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK101824/beauty (Stand: 01.12.2020), dort nach: Anders Sune Berg).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 18: Olafur Eliasson, The Glacier Melt Series, 2019, 30 C-prints, Tate Modern, London, (aus: URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK110917/the-glacier- melt-series-19992019 (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 19: Olafur Eliasson, The Glacier Series, 1999, 42 C-prints, neugerriemschneider, Berlin, (aus: URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK101386/the-glacier- series (Stand: 01.12.2020), dort nach: Jens Ziehe.)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 20: Olafur Eliasson, Your waste of time, 2006, Installation: Vatnajökull ice, cooling system, Styrofoam, wood, neugerriemschneider, Berlin, (aus: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK100564/your-waste-of-time (Stand: 01.12.2020), dort nach: Jens Ziehe).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 21: Hans Haacke, Condensation Cube, 1963-1965, Sculpture: Plexiglass and water, 76 x 76 x 76 cm, MACBA, Barcelona, (aus: URL: https://postwar.hausderkunst.de/en/artworks-artists/artworks/condensation-cube- exhibition-copy-kondensationswuerfel-ausstellungsduplikat (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 22: Olafur Eliasson, Ice Watch, 2015, Temporary sculptural installation: 12 blocks of glacial ice, Place du Panthéon, Paris, (aus: URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK109190/ice-watch (Stand: 01.12.2020), dort nach: Martin Argyroglo).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 23: Julian Charrière, Panorama, 2009-2013, Photograph, (aus: URL: http://julian- charriere.net/projects/panorama (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 24: Julian Charrière and Julius von Bismarck, Some Pigeons Are More Equal Than Others, 2012, pigeon-trapping device, nontoxic color dyes, painted pigeons, Venice, (aus: URL: http://julian-charriere.net/projects/some-pigeons-are-more-equal-than-others (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 25: Julian Charrière, Towards No Earthly Pole, 2019, Film Still, (aus: URL: http://julian-charriere.net/projects/towards-no-earthly-pole (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 26: Julian Charrière, The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories I, 2013, Photograph, Iceland, (aus: URL: http://julian-charriere.net/projects/the-blue-fossil-entropic-stories (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 27: Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1817-1818, Oil on canvas, 94.8 x 74.8 cm, Kunsthalle Hamburg, (aus: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wanderer_above_the_Sea_of_Fog#/media/File:Caspar_D avid_Friedrich_-_Wanderer_above_the_sea_of_fog.jpg (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 28: Ursula Biemann, Performing the Border, 1999, Video Essay Still, 43 minutes, (aus: URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/performing-the-border (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 29: Ursula Biemann, Black Sea Files, 2005, Video Essay Still, 43 minutes, (aus: URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/black-sea-files (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 30: Ursula Biemann, Deep Weather, 2013, Video Essay Still, 9 minutes, (aus: URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/deep-weather (Stand: 01.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 31: Marjetica Potrc, Theatrum Mundi, 1996, installation view, Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College, New York, (aus: URL: https://bombmagazine.org/articles/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 32: Marjetica Potrc, Dry Toilet, 2012, installation view, Santiago de Chile (aus: URL: http://stefaniehessler.com/entries/dry-toilet (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 33: Marjetica Potrc, Dry Toilet, 2012, installation view, Santiago de Chile (aus: URL: http://stefaniehessler.com/entries/dry-toilet (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 34: Marjetica Potrc, Forest Rising, 2007, installation view, The Curve Barbican Art Gallery, London, (aus: URL: https://www.barbican.org.uk/whats- on/2007/event/marjetica-potrc-forest-rising#&gid=1&pid=1 (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 35: Marjetica Potrc, New Orleans: Shotgun House with Rainwater-Harvesting Tank, 2008, installation view, CAPC Museum of Contemporary Art of Bordeaux, France, (aus: URL: https://margavp.wordpress.com/tag/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 36: Amy Balkin, Public Smog, 2004, photographic model, (aus: URL: https://www.peeruk.org/amy-balkin (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 37: Amy Balkin, Public Smog, 2012, postcard, (aus: URL: https://www.kqed.org/arts/11105426/public-park-in-the-sky-seeks-to-protect- atmosphere (Stand: 02.12.2020)).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig. 38: Amy Balkin, A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting, 2012, Collection of objects from New Orleans, (aus: URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/sinkmelt (Stand: 02.12.2020), dort nach: Fredrik Nilsen).

[...]


1 Vgl. „What is climate change?“. In: Environmental Protection Agency, URL: https://www.epa.ie/climate/communicatingclimatescience/whatisclimatechange/ (Stand: 25.11.2020).

2 Ebd.

3 Vgl. „Climate Change: How do we know?“. In: NASA, URL: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/ (Stand: 25.11.2020).

4 Ebd.

5 „Climate Change: How do we know?“. In: NASA, URL: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/ (Stand: 25.11.2020).

6 Vgl. „Foreword“. In: Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (Hrsgg.): IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2013, S. V. In: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, URL: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_all_final.pdf (Stand: 25.11.2020).

7 Ebd. - Vgl. „AR6 Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis“. In: The Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change, URL: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/sixth-assessment-report-working-group-i/ (Stand: 25.11.2020).

8 Vgl. Elizabeth Boulton: Climate change as a ‘hyperobject': a critical review of Timothy Morton's reframing narrative. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 7, 2016. In: Research Gate, URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303801414_Climate_change_as_a_%27hyperobject%27_a_criti cal_review_of_Timothy_Morton%27s_reframing_narrative_Climate_change_as_a_hyperobject (Stand: 25.11.2020

9 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopsdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

10 Vgl. Malcolm Andrews: Landscape and Western Art. New York 1999, S. 28-29.

11 Ebd, S. 7.

12 Vgl. Definition. „Parergon“. In: Free Art Dictionary, URL: https://www.freeartdictionary.com/definition/parergon/ (Stand: 11.09.2020).

13 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 28-29.

14 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 28-31.

15 Ebd.

16 Vgl. Norbert Schneider: Geschichte der Landschaftsmalerei. Vom Spätmittelalter bis zur Romantik. Darmstadt 1999, S. 9-10.

17 Ebd.

18 Vgl. „Spring“. In: Le Gallerie Degli Uffizi, URL: https://www.uffizi.it/en/artworks/botticelli-spring (Stand: 18.11.2020).

19 Ebd.

20 Ebd.

21 Vgl. Schneider 1999, S. 7-13.

22 Ebd., S. 8-10.

23 Vgl. Tulika Bahadur: Joachim Patinir: Inventor of The “World Landscape”. In: On Art And Aesthetics, [10.03.2017], URL: https://onartandaesthetics.com/2017/03/10/joachim-patinir-inventor-of-the-world- landscape/ (Stand: 11.09.2020).

24 Vgl. Schneider 1999, S. 75.

25 Vgl. Nils Büttner: Geschichte der Landschaftsmalerei. Munich 2006, S. 112-116.

26 Ebd.

27 Ebd.

28 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopsdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

29 Ebd. - Vgl. „Brief History of the Landscape Genre“. In: The J. Paul Getty Museum, URL: https://www.getty.edu/education/teachers/classroom_resources/curricula/landscapes/background1.html (Stand: 30.11.2020).

30 Vgl. „The Development of Gericault's “Heroic Landscape”“. In: Covenant Art History, [07.12.2013], URL: http://covenantarthistory.blogspot.com/2013/12/the-development-of-gericaults-heroic.html (Stand: 25.20.2020).

31 Vgl. Schneider 1999, S. 125.

32 Ebd.

33 Vgl. „Nicolas Poussin's Blind Orion Searching for the Rising Sun, 1658, Insider Insights“. In: YouTube, [02.05.2020], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4uYL09Hum4 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

34 Vgl. Büttner 2006, S. 215-221.

35 Vgl. Erica Trapasso: A Brief History of Rococo Art. In: artnet news, [15.07.2013], URL: https://news.artnet.com/market/a-brief-history-of-rococo-art-32790 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

36 Vgl. „Pilgrimage to Cythera“. In: Louvre, URL: https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/pilgrimage- cythera (Stand: 30.11.2020).

37 Ebd.

38 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopxdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

39 Vgl. „Mr and Mrs Andrews”. In: The National Gallery, URL: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/thomas-gainsborough-mr-and-mrs-andrews (Stand: 25.20.2020).

40 Ebd.

41 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopxdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

42 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 177-199.

43 Vgl. Schneider 1999, S. 191.

44 Vgl. Art. „Sublime“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/s/sublime (Stand: 30.11.2020).

45 Vgl. Susie Hodge: Eine kurze Geschichte der Kunst. Berlin 2018, S. 171.

46 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopxdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

47 Vgl. „The Hay Wain“. In: The National Gallery, URL: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/john-constable-the-hay-wain (Stand: 30.11.2020).

48 Ebd.

49 Vgl. Elizabeth E. Barker: John Constable (1776-1837). In: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, [10.2004], URL: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/jcns/hd_jcns.htm (Stand: 30.11.2020).

50 Vgl. Schneider 1999, S. 187-188.

51 Ebd. - Vgl. Art. „Plein Air“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/plein-air (Stand: 30.11.2020).

52 Vgl. Art. „Plein Air“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/p/plein-air (Stand: 30.11.2020)

53 Vgl. „The Hay Wain“. In: The National Gallery, URL: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/john-constable-the-hay-wain (Stand: 30.11.2020).

54 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 201-223.

55 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopxdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

56 Vgl. „Joseph Mallord William Turner. Snow Storm - Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth.“ In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-snow-storm-steam-boat-off-a-harbours-mouth-n00530 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

57 Ebd.

58 Andrews 1999, S. 177.

59 Vgl. „Joseph Mallord William Turner. Snow Storm - Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth.“ In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/turner-snow-storm-steam-boat-off-a-harbours-mouth-n00530 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

60 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 177-199.

61 Ebd.

62 Ebd.

63 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopxdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

64 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 178-199.

65 Vgl. Naomi Blumberg: Art. „Landscape painting“. In: Enclyclopxdia Britannica, [03.04.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/art/landscape-painting (Stand: 11.09.2020).

66 Andrews 1999, S. 193.

67 Vgl. „Grainstack (Sunset)“. In: Museum of Fine Arts Boston, URL: https://collections.mfa.org/objects/32189 (Stand: 30.11.2020).

68 Vgl. „Claude Monet's Grainstack Paintings“. In: Youtube, [28.10.2016], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y4KYFs-ydwI (Stand: 01.12.2020).

69 Ebd.

70 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 197.

71 Ebd., S. 201.

72 Ebd., S. 201-202.

73 Andrews 1999, S. 201.

74 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 201.

75 Vgl. Hodge 2018, S. 47.

76 Art Term. „Land Art“. In: Tate. URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/l/land-art (Stand: 04.10.2020).

77 Vgl. Ebd.

78 Vgl. Andrews 1999, S. 203.

79 Vgl. Ebd., S. 202.

80 Ebd.

81 Ebd., S. 203.

82 Ebd., S. 204.

83 Ebd.

84 Ebd.

85 Vgl. Eugenie Tsai: Robert Smithson. Plotting a Line from Passaic, New Jersey, to Amarillo, Texas. In: Eugenie Tsai u.a. (Hrsgg.): Robert Smithson. Los Angeles u.a. 2004, S. 11.

86 Vgl. Lisa S. Wainwright: Robert Smithson. American sculptor and writer. In: Britannica, [16.07.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Robert-Smithson (Stand: 04.10.2020).

87 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 11.

88 Ebd.

89 Ebd.

90 Ebd., S. 12. - Vgl. „Biography“. In: Holt/Smithson Foundation, URL: https://holtsmithsonfoundation.org/biography-robert-smithson (Stand: 04.10.2020).

91 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 13.

92 Ebd.

93 Ebd.

94 Ebd.

95 Ebd., S. 13-14.

96 Ebd., S. 13. - Vgl. „Biography“. In: artnet, URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/robert- smithson/biography (Stand: 04.10.2020).

97 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 18.

98 Vgl. „Biography“. In: artnet, URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/robert-smithson/biography (Stand: 04.10.2020).

99 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 20-21.

100 Tsai 2004, S. 20-21.

101 Vgl. John G. Hatch: Nature, Entropy, and Robert Smithson's Utopian Vision of a Culture of Decay. In: Paul Crowther u. Isabel Wünsche (Hrsgg.): Meanings of Abstract Art. Between Nature and Theory. New York u.a. 2012, S. 158-159.

102 Ebd.

103 Ebd.

104 Ebd. - Art Term. „Entropy“. In: Tate, URL: https://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/e/entropy (Stand: 14.08.2020).

105 Vgl. Hatch 2012, S. 159.

106 Ebd.

107 Ebd.

108 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 21.

109 Hatch 2012, S. 158.

110 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 21.

111 Ebd.

112 Ebd., S. 11.

113 Ebd.

114 Ebd.

115 Tsai 2004, S. 11.

116 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 25.

117 Ebd., S. 26.

118 Ebd.

119 Ebd.

120 Tsai 2004, S. 26.

121 Vgl. „Biography“. In: artnet, URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/robert-smithson/biography (Stand: 04.10.2020).

122 Vgl. Tsai 2004, S. 28.

123 Ebd.

124 Ebd.

125 Vgl. Lynne Cooke u. Karen Kelly (Hrsgg.): Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty. True Fictions, False Realities. New York u.a. 2005, S. 7-8.

126 Vgl. Peter Pakesch, Katrin Bucher Trantow, u. Katia Huemer (Hrsgg.): Landschaft. Konstruktion einer Realität. Köln 2015, S. 94-95.

127 Vgl. Beth Harris u. Steven Zucker: Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty. In: Khan Academy, URL: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/later-europe-and-americas/modernity- ap/v/smithson-jetty (Stand: 04.10.2020).

128 Ebd.

129 Ebd.

130 Vgl. Cooke u. Kelly 2005, S. 8.

131 Vgl. Lynne Cooke: „a position of elsewhere“. In: Lynne Cooke u. Karen Kelly (Hrsgg.): Robert Smithson Spiral Jetty. True Fictions, False Realities. New York u.a. 2005, S. 53.

132 Vgl. Beth Harris u. Steven Zucker: Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty. In: Khan Academy, URL: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/later-europe-and-americas/modernity- ap/v/smithson-jetty (Stand: 04.10.2020). - Vgl. Pakesch, Trantow, u. Huemer 2015, S. 94-95.

133 Vgl. Cooke 2005, S. 63.

134 Ebd., S. 53.

135 Ebd.

136 Vgl. Cooke 2005, S. 53.

137 Vgl. Jennifer L. Roberts: The Taste of Time: Salt and Spiral Jetty. In: In: Eugenie Tsai u.a. (Hrsgg.): Robert Smithson. Los Angeles u.a. 2004, S. 97-103.

138 Vgl. „Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty“. In: Dia Art Foundation, URL: https://www.diaart.org/visit/visit- our-locations-sites/robert-smithson-spiral-jetty (Stand: 04.10.2020).

139 Vgl. Roberts 2004, S. 97.

140 Vgl. „Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty“. In: Dia Art Foundation, URL: https://www.diaart.org/visit/visit- our-locations-sites/robert-smithson-spiral-jetty (Stand: 04.10.2020).

141 Ebd.

142 Ebd.

143 Karlheinz Lüdeking: 50 Jahre Land Art in Utah. „Spiral Jetty“ und die feindselige Natur. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine, [06.04.2020], URL: https://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/kunst/land-art-50- jahre-spiral-jetty-in-utah-16713058.html (Stand: 04.10.2020).

144 Vgl. Pakesch, Trantow, u. Huemer 2015, S. 94-95.

145 Cornelia Butler: A Lurid Presence: Smithson's Legacy and Post-Studio Art. In: Eugenie Tsai u.a. (Hrsgg.): Robert Smithson. Los Angeles u.a. 2004, S. 225.

146 Ebd., S. 228.

147 Vgl. Butler 2004, S. 227.

148 Vgl. Gabriele Dürbeck: Das Anthropozän in geistes- und kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive. In: Gabriele Dürbeck u. Urte Stobbe (Hrsgg.): Ecocriticism. Eine Einführung. Böhlau u.a. 2015, S. 107. - Vgl. Andrew C. Revkin: Confronting the ‘Anthropocene'. In: The New York Times, [11.05.2011], URL: https://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/05/11/confronting-the-anthropocene/ (Stand: 14.10.2020).

149 Vgl. Christian Schwägerl: Anthropozän. Vom Gehalt einer neuen Idee. In: Peter Pakesch, Kathrin Bucher Trantow, Katia Huemer (Hrsgg.): Landschaft. Konstruktion einer Realität. Köln 2015, S. 340.

150 Ebd.

151 „Anthropocene“. In: Merriam-Webster, URL: https://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/Anthropocene (Stand: 14.10.2020).

152 Vgl. Dürbeck 2015, S. 107-108.

153 Ebd.

154 Ebd.

155 Vgl. Paul J. Crutzen: Geology of mankind. In: Nature, [03.01.2002], URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/415023a (Stand: 14.10.2020).

156 Ebd.

157 Ebd.

158 Vgl. Meera Subramanian: Anthropocene now: influential panel votes to recognize Earth's new epoch. In: Nature, [21.05.2019], URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01641-5 (Stand: 14.10.2020).

159 Vgl. Dürbeck 2015, S. 107-117. - Vgl. Lourdes Arizpe Schlosser: Culture, International Transactions and the Anthropocene. In: Hans Günter Bauch: The Anthropocene: Politik-Economics-Society-Science. Bd.17. Mosbach 2019, S. 273. - Vgl. John P. Rafferty: Anthropocene Epoch. In: Britannica, [23.03.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/science/Anthropocene-Epoch#ref1117851 (Stand: 15.10.2020).

160 Ebd.

161 Ebd.

162 Ebd.

163 Ebd.

164 Ebd.

165 Ebd.

166 Vgl. Hans Dickel: Natur in der zeitgenössischen Kunst. Konstellationen jenseits von Landschaft und Materialästhetik. München 2016, S. 5-6.

167 Vgl. Paul Ardenne: Ecological Art - origins, reality, becoming. In: Julie Reiss (Hg.): Art, Theory and Practice in the Anthropocene. Wilmington, Delaware 2019, S. 51.

168 Ebd.

169 Ebd.

170 Vgl. Linda Weintraub: Die Herausforderung der Eco-Art für die Kunstgeschichte. In: Gabriele Dürbeck u. Urte Stobbe (Hrsgg.): Ecocriticism. Eine Einführung. Böhlau u.a. 2015, S. 282-296.

171 Ebd.

172 Ebd.

173 Vgl. Giulia Gentili: Ecology and Economics in the Art of Hans Haacke. URL: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/52f5eb0ee4b013e3f9433ecd/t/58a1dea01b10e3f74fb8aaf9/1487003 301465/Gentili+Haacke.pdf (Stand: 14.10.2020).

174 Vgl. Weintraub 2015, S. 282-296.

175 Vgl. Giulia Gentili: Ecology and Economics in the Art of Hans Haacke. URL: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/52f5eb0ee4b013e3f9433ecd/t/58a1dea01b10e3f74fb8aaf9/1487003 301465/Gentili+Haacke.pdf (Stand: 14.10.2020).

176 Ebd.

177 Vgl. Weintraub 2015, S. 282-296.

178 Ebd.

179 Ebd.

180 Vgl. Dickel 2016, S. 5.

181 Vgl. Kerry Oliver-Smith (Hg.): The World to Come. Art in the age of the Anthropocene. Gainesville 2018, S. 5.

182 Ebd.

183 Ebd.

184 Ebd.

185 Vgl. Weintraub 2015, S. 282-296.

186 Ebd.

187 Ebd.

188 Ebd.

189 Ebd.

190 Ebd.

191 Ebd.

192 Ebd.

193 Ebd.

194 Ebd.

195 Ebd.

196 Vgl. „Welcome to the Anthropocene“. In: Deutsches Museum, URL: https://www.deutsches- museum.de/en/exhibitions/special-exhibitions/archive/2015/anthropocene/ (Stand: 15.10.2020). - Vgl. „MoMa PS1 Announces Expo 1: New York, An exploration of ecological challenges in the context of the economic and socio-political instability of the early 21st century“. In: Dark Optimism, [08.03.2013], URL: https://www.darkoptimism.org/EXPO1_MoMA-PS1_PR_2013.pdf (Stand: 15.10.2020).

197 Vgl. Matilda Olof-Ors: Biography. In: Matilda Olof-Ors u.a. (Hrsgg.): Olafur Eliasson Reality Machines. Moderna Museet and Koenig Books. London 2015.

198 Vgl. Matilda Olof-Ors: Introduction. In: Matilda Olof-Ors u.a. (Hrsgg.): Olafur Eliasson Reality Machines. Moderna Museet and Koenig Books. London 2015.

199 Vgl. Ebd.

200 Vgl. David Woodruff Smith: Phenomenology. In: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, [16.12.2013], URL: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/phenomenology/ (Stand: 13.08.2020).

201 Vgl. Ebd.

202 Vgl. Matilda Olof-Ors: Introduction. In: Matilda Olof-Ors u.a. (Hrsgg.): Olafur Eliasson Reality Machines. Moderna Museet and Koenig Books. London 2015.

203 Vgl. Madeleine Grynsztejn, Daniel Birnbaum, u. Michael Speaks: Olafur Eliasson. Phaidon Press Limited. London 2002, S. 39.

204 Vgl. Ebd.

205 Vgl. Matilda Olof-Ors: Introduction. In: Matilda Olof-Ors u.a. (Hrsgg.): Olafur Eliasson Reality Machines. Moderna Museet and Koenig Books. London 2015.

206 Vgl. Ebd.

207 Ebd.

208 Ebd.

209 Ebd.

210 Ebd.

211 Ebd.

212 Vgl. Matilda Olof-Ors: Biography. In: Matilda Olof-Ors u.a. (Hrsgg.): Olafur Eliasson Reality Machines. Moderna Museet and Koenig Books. London 2015.

213 Ebd.

214 Ebd. - Vgl. „About Studio Olafur Eliasson“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/studio (Stand:20.10.2020).

215 Ebd.

216 Ebd.and Vgl. „Olafur Eliasson“. In: Institut für Raumexperimente. URL: https://raumexperimente.net/en/participant/olafur-eliasson/ (Stand: 18.08.2020).

217 Ebd.

218 Vgl. „About Studio Olafur Eliasson“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/studio (Stand:20.10.2020).

219 Ebd.

220 Vgl. „The Glacier Melt Series 1999/2019“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK110917/the-glacier-melt-series-19992019 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

221 Ebd.

222 Ebd.

223 Ebd.

224 Vgl. „The Glacier Series“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK101386/the-glacier-series (Stand: 14.08.2020).

225 Vgl. Grynsztejn, Birnbaum, u. Speaks 2002, S. 54-64.

226 Ebd.

227 Ebd.

228 Vgl. „The Glacier Melt Series 1999/2019“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK110917/the-glacier-melt-series-19992019 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

229 Ebd.

230 Ebd.

231 Ebd.

232 Vgl. Michael Juul Holm; Anna Engberg-Pedersen: Olafur Eliasson. Riverbed. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art and the contributors. Rosendahls/Esbjerg, Denmark 2014. S. 28.

233 Ebd. - Vgl. Julie Reiss: Art, Theory and Practice in the Anthropocene. Vernon Press. Wilmington, Delaware 2019, S. 80-81.

234 Vgl. Kate Brettkelly-Chalmers: Time, Duration and Change in Contemporary Art. Intellect Ltd. Bristol, United Kingdom 2019. S. 168-169. - Vgl. Jean Coleman: MoMA PS1. Olafur Eliasson's Your Waste of Time. In: Vimeo. URL: https://vimeo.com/116118034 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

235 Vgl. Reiss 2019, S. 80-81.

236 Ebd.

237 Ebd.

238 Vgl. Jean Coleman: MoMA PS1. Olafur Eliasson's Your Waste of Time. In: Vimeo. URL: https://vimeo.com/116118034 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

239 Vgl. Grynsztejn, Birnbaum, u. Speaks 2002, S. 66-67.

240 Vgl. Brettkelly-Chalmers 2019, S. 168-169.

241 Ebd.

242 Vgl. „Condensation Cube“. In: MACBA, URL: https://www.macba.cat/en/art-artists/artists/haacke- hans/condensation-cube (Stand: 26.10.2020).

243 Ebd.

244 Vgl. Brettkelly-Chalmers 2019, S. 168-169.

245 Vgl. Jean Coleman: MoMA PS1. Olafur Eliasson's Your Waste of Time. In: Vimeo, URL: https://vimeo.com/116118034 (Stand: 14.08.2020).

246 Ebd.

247 Vgl. Ken Johnson: The Natural World: Here, It's Had Work. In: The New York Times, [30.05.2013], URL: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/31/arts/design/expo-1-new-york-at-moma-ps1-and-other- sites.html (Stand: 14.08.2020).

248 Ebd.

249 Vgl. Reiss 2019, S. 80-81. - Vgl. Jean Coleman: MoMA PS1. Olafur Eliasson's Your Waste of Time. In: Vimeo. URL: https://vimeo.com/116118034 (Stand: 14.08.2020.

250 Vgl. Jennifer Holly Rae: Art & The Anthropocene: Processes of Responsiveness and communication in an era of environmental uncertainty. In: RMIT University, [03.09.2015], URL: https://researchrepository.rmit.edu.au/discovery/delivery?vid=61RMIT_INST:ResearchRepository&repId =12248254460001341#13248401280001341 (Stand: 18.08.2020), S.14.

251 Ebd.

252 Ebd.

253 Vgl. „Ice Watch, 2014“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK109190/ice-watch (Stand: 21.10.20).

254 Vgl. Jennifer Holly Rae: Art & The Anthropocene: Processes of Responsiveness and communication in an era of environmental uncertainty. In: RMIT University, [03.09.2015], URL: https://researchrepository.rmit.edu.au/discovery/delivery?vid=61RMIT_INST:ResearchRepository&repId =12248254460001341#13248401280001341 (Stand: 18.08.2020), S.14.

255 Vgl. „Ice Watch, 2014“. In: Olafur Eliasson, URL: https://olafureliasson.net/archive/artwork/WEK109190/ice-watch (Stand: 21.10.20).

256 Ebd.

257,Nature has become fragile‘ - Olafur Eliasson on melting glaciers and his Experience of a changing climate. In: Phaidon, URL: https://www.phaidon.com/agenda/art/articles/2018/september/04/nature-has- become-fragile-olafur-eliasson-on-melting-glaciers-and-his-experience-of-a-changing-climate/ (Stand: 21.10.2020).

258 Vgl. „About“. In: Julian Charrière, URL: http://julian-charriere.net/about. (Stand:12.10.20). - Vgl. „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“, In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020). - Vgl. Taylor Dafoe: How Far Would You Go for Your Art? Julian Charrière Went to the North Pole. In: artnet news, [10.03.2020], URL: https://news.artnet.com/art-world/julian-charriere-on-his-heady-eco- conceptualism-1796415 (Stand: 18.10.2020).

259 Vgl. „About“. In: Julian Charrière, URL: http://julian-charriere.net/about. (Stand:12.10.20). - Vgl. Anna-Maria Hällgren: (Un)steady as a Rock: Believing in Times of Make-believe. In: Konsthistorisk tidskrift/Journal of Art History, Bd. 88, no. 1, S. 33-42, URL: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00233609.2018.1540444 (Stand: 19.10.2020).

260 Vgl. „About“. In: Julian Charrière, URL: http://julian-charriere.net/about. (Stand:12.10.20).

261 Vgl. Taylor Dafoe: How Far Would You Go for Your Art? Julian Charrière Went to the North Pole. In: artnet news, [10.03.2020], URL: https://news.artnet.com/art-world/julian-charriere-on-his-heady-eco- conceptualism-1796415 (Stand: 18.10.2020).

262 Vgl. „About“. In: Julian Charrière, URL: http://julian-charriere.net/about. (Stand:12.10.20).

263 Ebd.

264 Vgl. „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

265 Vgl. „About“. In: Julian Charrière, URL: http://julian-charriere.net/about. (Stand:12.10.20).

266 „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

267 Vgl. „Biography“. In: artnet, URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/julian-charrière/biography (Stand: 18.10.2020).

268 „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

269 Vgl. „Biography“. In: artnet, URL: http://www.artnet.com/artists/julian-charrière/biography (Stand: 18.10.2020).

270 Ebd.

271 Vgl. Nicole Schweizer: Julian Charrière. Future Fossil Spaces. Musée cantonal des Beaux-Arts de Lausanne. Mousse Publishing. Milan 2014, S. 194.

272 Vgl. Laura Cumming: Julian Charrière. For They That Sow the Wind review - bracing and beautiful. In: The Guardian, [10.01.2016], URL: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/jan/10/julian- charriere-parasol-unit-review-for-they-that-sow-the-wind-bracing-and-beautiful (Stand: 19.10.2020). - Vgl. Tom Kobialka: Apocalypse Tomorrow. In: Sleek, 2015, URL: https://www.sieshoeke.com/assets/documents/S45_ALMANAC_APOCALYPSETOMORROW_TIMOT HYMORTONJULIENCHARRIERE.pdf (Stand: 19.10.2020).

273 Vgl. „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

274 Vgl. AJ Kiyoizumi: Julian Charrière. In: Berlin Art Link, URL: http://www.berlinartlink.com/2014/07/21/julian-charriere/ (Stand: 19.10.20).

275 Vgl. „Julian Charrière. Horizons“. In: Dittrich & Schlechtriem, 2011, URL: https://dittrich- schlechtriem.com/horizons/ (Stand:19.10.2020).

276 Ebd. - Vgl. Schweizer 2014, S. 190.

277 Vgl. Schweizer 2014, S. 190.

278 Ebd.

279 Ebd.

280 Ebd.

281 Vgl. „Julian Charrière“. In: Dittrich & Schlechtriem, URL: https://dittrich- schlechtriem.com/artists/iulian-charriere/ (Stand: 19.10.2020).

282 Ebd.

283 Ebd.

284 Vgl. Julius von Bismarck, Julian Charrière, und Eric Ellingsen (Hrsgg.): Some Pigeons Are More Equal Than Others. Lars Müller Publishers. Zurich 2015, S. 8.

285 Ebd.

286 Ebd. - Vgl. „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

287 „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

288 Vgl. „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

289 Vgl. „Julian Charrière. Towards No Earthly Poles.“ In: Aargauer Kunsthaus, 2020, URL: https://www.aargauerkunsthaus.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Ausstellungen/2020/Julian_Charriere/Ausstellu ng/201006_Handout_Charrie__re_D.pdf (Stand: 19.10.2020).

290 Ebd.

291 Ebd.

292 Ebd.

293 Ebd.

294 Ebd.

295 Ebd.

296 Ebd.

297 Ebd.

298 Ebd.

299 Ebd.

300 Ebd.

301 Ebd.

302 Ebd.

303 Ebd.

304 Ebd.

305 Ebd.

306 Vgl. „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

307 Vgl. Schweizer 2014, S. 187.

308 Vgl. Laura Cumming: Julian Charrière. For They That Sow the Wind review - bracing and beautiful. In: The Guardian, [10.01.2016], URL: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/jan/10/julian- charriere-parasol-unit-review-for-they-that-sow-the-wind-bracing-and-beautiful (Stand: 19.10.2020).

309 Vgl. Schweizer 2014, S. 187.

310 Vgl. Kyveli Mavrokordopoulou: Au-delâ de la nature: The Blue Fossil Entropic Stories de Julian Charrière. In: The Goose, Bd.16, no. 1, article 3, [15.06.2017], URL: https://scholars.wlu.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1366&context=thegoose (Stand: 19.10.2020).

311 Vgl. Schweizer 2014, S. 187.

312 Vgl. „Julian Charrière. Towards No Earthly Poles“. In: Aargauer Kunsthaus, 2020, URL: https://www.aargauerkunsthaus.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/Ausstellungen/2020/Julian_Charriere/Ausstellu ng/201006_Handout_Charrie__re_D.pdf (Stand: 19.10.2020).

313 Ebd.

314 Ebd.

315 Vgl. Annalena Amthor: Destination: Dystopia. In: whereaboutnow, [14.03.2019], URL: https://whereaboutnow.com/journal/destination-dystopia (Stand: 26.10.2020).

316 Vgl. Schweizer 2014, S. 7.

317 Ebd.

318 „5 Questions for French-Swiss Artist Julian Charrière“. In: The Tico Times, [16.10.2016], URL: http://ticotimes.net/2016/10/16/5-questions-french-swiss-artist-julian-charriere/ (Stand: 18.10.2020).

319 Vgl. „Biography“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/biography (Stand: 09.11.2020).

320 Ebd.

321 Ebd.

322 Ebd.

323 Ebd.

324 Ebd.

325 Vgl. „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

326 „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

327 Vgl. „Biography“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/biography (Stand: 09.11.2020).

328 Vgl. „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

329 Ebd.

330 Ebd. - Vgl. Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström (Hrsgg.): Ursula Biemann. Mission Reports. Artistic Practice in the Field - Video Works 1998-2008. Bildmuseet, Umea University. Umea 2008, S. 6.

331 Vgl. „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

332 Vgl. Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 8-13.

333 Vgl. „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

334 Ebd.

335 Ebd.

336 Vgl. Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 13.

337 Ebd., S.9. - Vgl. „Chris Marker“. In: Britannica, [25.07.2020], URL: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Chris-Marker (Stand:10.11.2020).

338 Vgl. Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 9.

339 Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 9.

340 Vgl. Ebd., S. 12.

341 Vgl. „The Humanities in Europe Interview Series - Dr. Ursula Biemann“. In: YouTube, URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WEnXtzBBCKo (Stand: 09.11.2020).

342 Vgl. „Performing the Border“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and- videos/performing-the-border (Stand: 09.11.2020).

343 Vgl. Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 6.

344 Ebd., S.14 - Vgl. „Performing the Border“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and- videos/performing-the-border (Stand: 09.11.2020).

345 Vgl. „Performing the Border“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and- videos/performing-the-border (Stand: 09.11.2020).

346 Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 14.

347 Vgl. „Performing the Border“. In: Werkleitz, URL: https://werkleitz.de/performing-the-border/ (Stand:09.11.2020).

348 Ebd. - Vgl. „Performing the Border“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and- videos/performing-the-border (Stand: 09.11.2020).

349 Vgl. „Video screenings and exhibitions (by year)“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/get_file/archive_export/by_year.pdf?download=true (Stand: 09.11.2020).

350 Ebd.

351 Vgl. „Biography“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/biography (Stand: 09.11.2020).

352 Ebd. - Vgl. „Black Sea Files“. In: World of Matter, URL: http://worldofmatter.net/black-sea-files- 0#path=black-sea-files-0 (Stand: 09.11.2020).

353 Vgl. „Black Sea Files“. In: World of Matter, URL: http://worldofmatter.net/black-sea-files- 0#path=black-sea-files-0 (Stand: 09.11.2020).

354 Vgl. „Black Sea Files“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/black-sea-files (09.11.2020).

355 Ebd.

356 Vgl. Ursula Biemann u. Jan-Erik Lundström 2008, S. 64.

357 Ebd.

358 Vgl. „Black Sea Files“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/black-sea-files (09.11.2020). - Vgl. „Video screenings and exhibitions (by film)“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/get_file/archive_export/by_film.pdf?download=true (Stand: 09.11.2020).

359 Vgl. „Biography“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/biography (Stand: 09.11.2020).

360 Ebd.

361 Ebd.

362 Ebd.

363 Ebd.

364 Ebd.

365 Vgl. „Video screenings and exhibitions (by film)“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/get_file/archive_export/by_film.pdf?download=true (Stand: 09.11.2020). - Vgl. „Deep Weather“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/deep-weather (Stand:09.11.2020).

366 Vgl. Ursula Biemann: Deep Weather. In: Geobodies, CCA Glasgow, [February 2013], S.1, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/books-and-texts/texts (Stand: 09.11.2020).

367 Ursula Biemann: Deep Weather. In: Geobodies, CCA Glasgow, [February 2013], S.1, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/books-and-texts/texts (Stand: 09.11.2020).

368 Vgl. Ursula Biemann: Deep Weather. In: Geobodies, CCA Glasgow, [February 2013], S.1, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/books-and-texts/texts (Stand: 09.11.2020).

369 Vgl. „Deep Weather“. In: Geobodies, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/art-and-videos/deep-weather (Stand:09.11.2020).

370 Vgl. Ursula Biemann: Deep Weather. In: Geobodies, CCA Glasgow, [February 2013], S.1, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/books-and-texts/texts (Stand: 09.11.2020).

371 Ebd.

372 Ebd.

373 Ebd.

374 Ebd.

375 Ebd.

376 Ebd., S. 1-2.

377 Ursula Biemann: Geochemistry and Other Planetary Perspectives. In: Heather Davis u. Etienne Turpin (Hrsgg.): Art in the Anthropocene. Encounters Among Aesthetics, Politics, Environments and Epistemologies. Open Humanities Press. London 2015, S. 128.

378 Vgl. Ursula Biemann: Geochemistry and Other Planetary Perspectives. In: Heather Davis u. Etienne Turpin (Hrsgg.): Art in the Anthropocene. Encounters Among Aesthetics, Politics, Environments and Epistemologies. Open Humanities Press. London 2015, S. 128.

379 Ebd.

380 Ebd.

381 Ebd.

382 Ebd.

383 Ebd.

384 Ebd., S. 129.

385 Ebd.

386 Ebd.

387 Ebd.

388 Ebd.

389 Ebd.

390 Ebd.

391 Saritha Saraswathy Balan: Grand vision of humanity. In: the pioneer, [05.12.2016], URL: https://www.dailypioneer.com/2016/vivacity/grand-vision-of-humanity.html (09.11.2020).

392 Ursula Biemann: Deep Weather - 2013. In: vimeo, URL: https://vimeo.com/90098625 (09.11.2020).

393 Vgl. Ursula Biemann: Deep Weather. In: Geobodies, CCA Glasgow, [February 2013], S. 2, URL: https://www.geobodies.org/books-and-texts/texts (Stand: 09.11.2020).

394 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „CV“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/cv.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

395 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

396 Ebd.

397 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: artmap, 2007, URL: https://artmap.com/barbican/exhibition/marjetica- potrc-2007 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

398 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

399 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: artmap, 2007, URL: https://artmap.com/barbican/exhibition/marjetica- potrc-2007 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

400 Ebd.

401 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020).

402 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

403 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. Marjetica Potrc u. Howard Halle: Portfolio. In: Grand Street, no. 72, 2003, S. 76­81, URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25008695. (Stand: 16.11.2020).

404 Vgl. „About Fuller“. In: Buckminister Fuller Institute, URL: https://www.bfi.org/about-fuller (Stand: 16.11.2020).

405 Vgl. William Harris: cities in the sky: re-evaluating yona friedman. In: 3: AM Magazine, [19.04.2016], URL: http://www.3ammagazine.com/3am/cities-in-the-sky-re-evaluating-yona-friedman/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

406 Vgl. Marjetica Potrc u. Howard Halle: Portfolio. In: Grand Street, no. 72, 2003, S. 76-81, URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25008695. (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „The Monuments of Passaic“. In: Holt/Smith Foundation, URL: https://holtsmithsonfoundation.org/monuments-passaic (Stand:16.11.2020).

407 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

408 Ebd. - Vgl. Goran Tomcic: Marjetica Potrc. In: Bomb Magazine, [01.01.1997], URL: https://bombmagazine.org/articles/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

409 Vgl. Ferdin u. Protzman: Walls as windows on a culture. In: Washington Post, [20.04.1996], URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1996/04/20/walls-as-windows-on-a-culture/3f506fe8- eca5-4edd-bb5b-7b3d11ced01b/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

410 Vgl. Goran Tomcic: Marjetica Potrc. In: Bomb Magazine, [01.01.1997], URL: https://bombmagazine.org/articles/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

411 Goran Tomcic: Marjetica Potrc. In: Bomb Magazine, [01.01.1997], URL: https://bombmagazine.org/articles/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. Ferdin u. Protzman: Walls as windows on a culture. In: Washington Post, [20.04.1996], URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1996/04/20/walls-as-windows-on-a-culture/3f506fe8- eca5-4edd-bb5b-7b3d11ced01b/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

412 Vgl. Ferdin u. Protzman: Walls as windows on a culture. In: Washington Post, [20.04.1996], URL: https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/1996/04/20/walls-as-windows-on-a-culture/3f506fe8- eca5-4edd-bb5b-7b3d11ced01b/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

413 Ebd.

414 Ebd.

415 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: People Pill, URL: https://peoplepill.com/people/marjetica-potrc/ (Stand: 16.11.2020).

416 Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

417 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. Berit Fischer: Artists at Work: Marjetica Potrc. In: Afterall, [13.06.2012], URL: https://afterall.org/online/spaces-for-a-new-culture-of-a-living/#.X7JiiS2ZOCU (Stand: 16.11.2020).

418 Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. Marjetica Potrc: Addressing the Real. In: Contexts, vol. 4, no. 3, 2005, pp. 56-56. URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41800935. (Stand: 16.11.2020).

419 Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

420 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020).

421 Ebd. - Vgl. Marjetica Potrc: Caracas Case Study: The Culture of the Informal City. Perspecta, vol. 36, 2005, pp. 53-57. URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1567366 (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

422 Vgl. Marjetica Potrc: Caracas Case Study: The Culture of the Informal City. Perspecta, vol. 36, 2005, pp. 53-57. URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1567366 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

423 Ebd.

424 Ebd.

425 Marjetica Potrc: Caracas Case Study: The Culture of the Informal City. Perspecta, vol. 36, 2005, pp. 53­57. URL: JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/1567366 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

426 Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: Galerie Nordenhake, URL: https://nordenhake.com/artists/marjetica-potrc (Stand: 16.11.2020).

427 Vgl. „CV“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/cv.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

428 Ebd.

429 Ebd. - Vgl. „On-Site Projects“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project2.htm (Stand:16.11.2020).

430 Vgl. „CV“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/cv.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

431 Ebd.

432 Vgl. Marjetica Potrc: Frontier Power: Human Bodies, Building Facades and Fragmented Territories. In: Johan Holten: Islands and Ghettos. Heidelberg 2008, S. 51.

433 Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

434 Ebd.

435 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc“. In: artmap, 2007, URL: https://artmap.com/barbican/exhibition/marjetica- potrc-2007 (Stand: 16.11.2020).

436 Vgl. Pablo Leon De La Barra: Some Views of Marjetica Potrc's Forest Settlement at the Barbican. In: Centre for the aesthetic revolution, [02.08.2007], URL: http://centrefortheaestheticrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/08/some-views-of-marjetica-potrcs-forest.html (Stand: 16.11.2020).

437 Ebd.

438 Ebd.

439 Ebd.

440 Pablo Leon De La Barra: Some Views of Marjetica Potrc's Forest Settlement at the Barbican. In: Centre for the aesthetic revolution, [02.08.2007], URL: http://centrefortheaestheticrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/08/some-views-of-marjetica-potrcs-forest.html (Stand: 16.11.2020).

441 Vgl. Pablo Leon De La Barra: Some Views of Marjetica Potrc's Forest Settlement at the Barbican. In: Centre for the aesthetic revolution, [02.08.2007], URL: http://centrefortheaestheticrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/08/some-views-of-marjetica-potrcs-forest.html (Stand: 16.11.2020).

442 Pablo Leon De La Barra: Some Views of Marjetica Potrc's Forest Settlement at the Barbican. In: Centre for the aesthetic revolution, [02.08.2007], URL: http://centrefortheaestheticrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/08/some-views-of-marjetica-potrcs-forest.html (Stand: 16.11.2020).

443 Vgl. Pablo Leon De La Barra: Some Views of Marjetica Potrc's Forest Settlement at the Barbican. In: Centre for the aesthetic revolution, [02.08.2007], URL: http://centrefortheaestheticrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/08/some-views-of-marjetica-potrcs-forest.html (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „New Babylon 1956-1974“. In: Fondation Constant, URL: https://stichtingconstant.nl/new-babylon-1956-1974 (Stand: 16.11.2020). - Vgl. „Palafita“. In: educalingo, URL: https://educalingo.com/en/dic-pt/palafita (Stand:16.11.2020).

444 Vgl. „Marjetica Potrc. Forest Rising.“ In: barbican, 2007, URL https://www.barbican.org.uk/whats- on/2007/event/marjetica-potrc-forest-rising (Stand: 16.11.2020).

445 Ebd.

446 Vgl. „Contemporary Building Strategies“. In: Marjetica Potrc, URL: https://www.potrc.org/project1.htm (Stand: 16.11.2020).

447 Ebd.

448 Ebd.

449 Ebd.

450 Andres Lepik u. Marjetica Potrc: Cities in Transition. In: Gabriele Knapstein u. Matilda Felix (Hrsgg.): Architektonika. Nürnberg 2013, S. 162.

451 Vgl. Andres Lepik u. Marjetica Potrc: Cities in Transition. In: Gabriele Knapstein u. Matilda Felix (Hrsgg.): Architektonika. Nürnberg 2013, S. 162.

452 Andres Lepik u. Marjetica Potrc: Cities in Transition. In: Gabriele Knapstein u. Matilda Felix (Hrsgg.): Architektonika. Nürnberg 2013, S. 160.

453 Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: Kadist, URL: https://kadist.org/people/amy-balkin/ (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. Fiona Parry: The City is a Burning, Blazing Bonfire. London 2011. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/The%20City%20is%20a%20Burning%20Blazing%20Bonfire.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

454 Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: California College of the Arts, URL: https://portal.cca.edu/people/abalkin/ (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for- contemporary-practice-with-amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: Exploratorium, URL: https://www.exploratorium.edu/arts/artists/amy-balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020).

455 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

456 Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: Kadist, URL: https://kadist.org/people/amy-balkin/ (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. Fiona Parry: The City is a Burning, Blazing Bonfire. London 2011. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/The%20City%20is%20a%20Burning%20Blazing%20Bonfire.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

457 Vgl. „About the Collaboration“. In: Invisible5, URL: http://www.invisible5.org/index.php?page=collaborators (Stand: 23.11.2020).

458 Vgl. „Projects“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/projects (Stand: 23.11.2020).

459 Vgl. T.J. Demos: The Law of the Land. An Interview with Amy Balkin. In: Edwin Coomasaru: Amy Balkin. (In)visible Matter. United Kingdom 2013, S. 11-17, URL: https://issuu.com/inmg/docs/amy- balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020).

460 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

461 Vgl. Thomas Dreher: Robert Smithson. Land Reclamation and the Sublime. In: Dreher Netzliteratur, URL: https://dreher.netzliteratur.net/6_LandArt_Smithson.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

462 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

463 Vgl. Timothy D. Martin: Robert Smithson and the Anglo-American Picturesque. In: Getty, 2011, URL: https://www.getty.edu/museum/symposia/pdf_stark/stark_tmartin.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

464 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

465 Vgl. T.J. Demos: The Law of the Land. An Interview with Amy Balkin. In: Edwin Coomasaru: Amy Balkin. (In)visible Matter. United Kingdom 2013, S. 11-17, URL: https://issuu.com/inmg/docs/amy- balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020).

466 Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

467 Vgl. Ebd. - Vgl. „Who We Are“. In: Platform London, URL: https://platformlondon.org/about-us/ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

468 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

469 Vgl. „Projects“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/projects (Stand: 23.11.2020).

470 Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: Exploratorium, URL: https://www.exploratorium.edu/arts/artists/amy-balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. „Information“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://www.tomorrowmorning.net/information (Stand: 23.11.2020).

471 Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: Exploratorium, URL: https://www.exploratorium.edu/arts/artists/amy-balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. „Amy Balkin“. In: Cape Farewell, URL: https://capefarewell.com/who-we- are/creatives/74-amy-balkin.html (Stand: 23.11.2020).

472 Vgl. „Faculty“. In: California College of the Arts, URL: http://finearts.cca.edu/faculty/ (Stand: 23.11.2020).- Vgl. Christina Linden: Forward Looking (Apocalypse Now or Later). In: Fillip, no. 15, 2011, S.65, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/fillip_forward_looking_christina_linden.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

473 Vgl. „Information“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://www.tomorrowmorning.net/information (Stand: 23.11.2020).

474 Vgl. „The Causes of Climate Change“. In: NASA, URL: https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

475 Ebd.

476 Vgl. „Public Smog“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/publicsmog (Stand: 23.11.2020).

477 Ebd. - Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary- practice-with-amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

478 Vgl. „Transformation in a Changing Climate conference 2013, How do we make transformation just deliberative and equitable?“. In: Youtube, [23.03.2018], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZ3dgvUHdhY&t=817s (Stand: 23.11.2020).

479 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

480 Ebd. - Vgl. T.J. Demos: Art after Nature. In: Art Forum, [04.2012], S. 192-193, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/demos_artafternature_artforum.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

481 Vgl. T.J. Demos: Art after Nature. In: Art Forum, [04.2012], S. 192-193, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/demos_artafternature_artforum.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

482 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

483 Vgl. T.J. Demos: Art after Nature. In: Art Forum, [04.2012], S. 192-193, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/texts/demos_artafternature_artforum.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

484 T.J. Demos: Art after Nature. In: Art Forum, [04.2012], S. 193, URL: http://tomorrowmoming.net/texts/demos_artafternature_artforum.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020). - Vgl. „Transformation in a Changing Climate conference 2013, How do we make transformation just deliberative and equitable?“. In: Youtube, [23.03.2018], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZ3dgvUHdhY&t=817s (Stand: 23.11.2020).

485 Vgl. „Transformation in a Changing Climate conference 2013, How do we make transformation just deliberative and equitable?“. In: Youtube, [23.03.2018], URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZ3dgvUHdhY&t=817s (Stand: 23.11.2020).

486 Ebd.

487 Vgl. „Public Smog“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/publicsmog (Stand: 23.11.2020).

488 Ebd.

489 Ebd.

490 Vgl. Thom Donovan: 5 Questions (for Contemporary Practice) with Amy Balkin. In: Art21 Magazine, [17.02.2011], URL: http://magazine.art21.org/2011/02/17/5-questions-for-contemporary-practice-with- amy-balkin/#.X7Tf-S2ZOjQ (Stand: 23.11.2020).

491 Vgl. T.J. Demos: The Law of the Land. An Interview with Amy Balkin. In: Edwin Coomasaru: Amy Balkin. (In)visible Matter. United Kingdom 2013, S. 11-17, URL: https://issuu.com/inmg/docs/amy- balkin (Stand: 23.11.2020).

492 Ebd.

493 Ebd.

494 Vgl. „A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting“. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://tomorrowmorning.net/sinkmelt (Stand: 23.11.2020).

495 Ebd.

496 Ebd.

497 Vgl. „A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting“. In: Sinking and Melting, URL: http://www.sinkingandmelting.org (Stand: 23.11.2020).

498 Ebd.

499 Ebd.

500 Ebd.

501 Vgl. „New Orleans Collection“. In: Sinking and Melting, URL: https://sinkingandmelting.tumblr.com/neworleanscollection (Stand: 23.11.2020).

502 Ebd.

503 Vgl. „A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting“. In: Sinking and Melting, URL: http://www.sinkingandmelting.org (Stand: 23.11.2020).

504 Dana Kopel: What Will Have Been. Interviews on A People's Archive of Sinking and Melting. In: Tomorrow Morning, URL: http://www.tomorrowmorning.net/texts/What%20Will%20Have%20Been_Interviews%20on%20A%20P eoples%20Archive%20of%20Sinking%20and%20Melting_Dana%20Kopel.pdf (Stand: 23.11.2020).

101 of 101 pages

Details

Title
Climate Change and Contemporary Artists
Subtitle
Analysing the Works of Olafur Eliasson, Julian Charrière, Ursula Biemann, Marjetica Potrč and Amy Balkin
College
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg  (Kunstgeschichte)
Grade
1,3
Author
Year
2020
Pages
101
Catalog Number
V1119275
ISBN (Book)
9783346491886
Language
English
Tags
climate, change, contemporary, artists, analysing, works, olafur, eliasson, julian, charrière, ursula, biemann, marjetica, potrč, balkin
Quote paper
Lauren Godfrey (Author), 2020, Climate Change and Contemporary Artists, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1119275

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