Nuclear chemistry. Methods for the detection of Isotopes and applications of radioactive isotopes

Academic Paper, 2021

29 Pages, Grade: A



- Introduction

- Detection of isotopes

- Bainbridge Velocity focusing mass spectrograph

- Neir’s Double focusing mass spectroscopy

- Applications of isotopes and trace technique

- Examples


- A nuclear reaction is different from a chemical reaction.
- In a chemical reaction, atoms of the reactants combine by a rearrangement of extra nuclear electrons but the nuclei of the atoms remain unchanged.
- In a nuclear reaction the nucleus of the atom is involved.
- The number of protons or neutrons in the nucleus changes to form a new element.
- A nuclear reaction involves a change in the composition of the nucleus.
- The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is altered.
- The product is a new nucleus of another atom with a different atomic number and/or mass number. Thus, a nuclear reaction is one which proceeds with a change in the composition of the nucleus so as to produce an atom of a new element.
- The conversion of one element to another by a nuclear change is called transmutation.
- We have already considered the nuclear reactions of radioactive nuclei, producing new isotopes.

- Nuclear Chemistry: A study of the nuclear changes in atoms is termed Nuclear Chemistry.
- Nuclide: a term used to refer to a particular atom or nucleus with a specific neutron number N and atomic (proton) number Z.
- Nuclides are either stable (i.e., unchanging in time unless perturbed) or radioactive (i.e., they spontaneously change to another nuclide with a different Z and/or N by emitting one or more particles). Such radioactive nuclides are termed radio nuclides.

The symbol used to denote a particular isotope is

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Where X is the chemical symbol and A = Z + N, which is called the mass number.

- Isotopes:

The atoms of element having same atomic number but different mass number are called isotopes. All isotopes have the same chemical properties.

The isotopes of some elements are the following.

1H1, 1H2, 1H3

2He3, 2He4

8O16, 8O17, 8O18

17C135, 17C137

92U235, 92U238

Because isotopes of the same element have the same number and arrangement of electrons around the nucleus, the chemical properties of such isotopes are nearly identical.

Only for the lightest isotopes (e.g., 2H, and tritium 3H) are small differences noted.

For example, light water 1H2O freezes at 0 °C while heavy water 2H2O (or D2O since deuterium is often given the chemical symbol D) freezes at 3.82 °C.

- Isobar:

The nuclei which have the same mass number (A) but different atomic number (Z) are called isobars.

Isobars occupy different positions in periodic table so all isobars have different chemical properties. Some of the examples of isobars are

1H3 and 2He3,

6C14 and 7N14,

8O17 and 9F17.

- Isotones:

The nuclei having equal number of neutrons are called isotones.

For them both the atomic number (Z) and mass number (A) are different, but the value of (A - Z) is same.


4Be9 and 5Be10,

6C13 and 7N14,

8O18 and 9F19,

3Li7 and 4Be8,

1H3 and 2He4

- Isomers:

Atoms of elements which have same atomic number and atomic mass but different radioactive properties(life time) are called isomer.

e. g. 35Br80 (t1/2 =18 minutes) and 35Br80 (t1/2 =4.5 hours)

The same nuclide (same Z and A) in which the nucleus is in different long lived excited states. For example, an isomer of 99Te is 99mTe where the m denotes the longest-lived excited state (i.e., a state in which the nucleons in the nucleus are not in the lowest energy state).

- Isoelectronic species :

Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration are said to be isoelectronic. Examples of isoelectronic species are N3,O2,F-,Ne,Na+, Mg2+ and Al3+ (1s22s22p6).

Another isoelectronic series is P3, S2, Cl-, Ar, K+, Ca2+, and Sc3+ ([Ne]3s23p6).

- Isodiaphers: In nuclear physics and radioactivity, isodiaphers refers to nuclides which have different atomic numbers and mass numbers but the same neutron excess, which is the difference between numbers of neutrons and protons in the nucleus.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The difference between the neutron number (N) and proton number (Z) is same.

- Mirror nuclei: Nuclei having the same mass number(A) but with the proton number (Z) and neutron number (A-Z) interchanged (or whose atomic numbers differ by 1 are called mirror nuclei for example. 1H3 and 2He3, 3Li7 and 4Be7.


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Nuclear chemistry. Methods for the detection of Isotopes and applications of radioactive isotopes
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nuclear, methods, isotopes
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Purvesh Shah (Author), 2021, Nuclear chemistry. Methods for the detection of Isotopes and applications of radioactive isotopes, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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