Special education programs in inclusive schools in Ethiopia. Teachers' views

Academic Paper, 2021

18 Pages


Table of Contents

1. Introduction
Statement of purpose

2. Methods
Data Analysis

3. Results

4. Conclusion and Discussion


An examination of the special education programs offered in inclusive schools in Ethiopia with the views of teachers

Mustefa JIBRIL

School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Dire Dawa Institute of Technology, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia


The purpose of this study was to examine the special education programs used in inclusive schools in Ethiopia from the perspective of teachers. The study also aimed to determine whether statistically significant differences were in teachers' perceptions of their status, gender, teaching experience, and level of education. 615 question papers with 20 Likert statements are distributed to a random sample of general and special education teachers working in areas including Ethiopia. Eighty-five percent (n = 523) teachers completed and returned practical questions. Analysis of the data collected, using descriptive statistics and variance analyzes, has shown that teacher assessments of special educational programs used in their schools are generally acceptable. The results also show significant differences in the assessment of teachers in terms of their position and level of education, with the positive assessment found among special education teachers with masters degrees. In addition, significant differences were not found in teachers' assessments based on gender or the amount of teaching experience.

Keywords: Evaluation, programs, inclusive, special education, perspectives.

1. Introduction

Evaluation of special education programs in public schools is important because it provides decision makers, such as program staff, school administrators, and government-sponsored agencies, with important information on the effectiveness of various school programs. In addition, evaluation of education systems provides the necessary feedback that contributes to the development of the education system by diagnosing and strengthening its strengths, identifying its weaknesses or shortcomings, and developing strategies for development strategies.

Students with disabilities can add to the challenges of educational planning because of their complex neurodevelopmental and co-operative problems (Magyar, 2011). To bring effective education programs to children with special needs, one must carefully plan, implement, and adapt these programs according to the changing circumstances and needs of the target audience. System evaluation requires the collection of information about a variety of system components that can be used to perform price judgments. Decisions of such value may include decisions regarding the need for a plan, the appropriateness of its objectives, its implementation, and its outcomes (Maher & Bennett, 1984; Spaulding, 2008). Assessment methods should also include effective methods to provide a comprehensive assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the programs offered. Purposeful evaluation can provide reliable information about the effectiveness of the program in achieving the desired goals, and with this information, appropriate decisions can be made to improve the system. Objective testing can be helpful if we carefully choose the tools while considering possible changes.

Over the past decade, specialized education services have been developed to help students with disabilities in Saudi Arabia have access to higher education in border areas (LREs). Despite this effort, the development of these services is still needed. Students with minor disabilities receive their education in mainstream classes with some support from special education services such as resource rooms. These students also participate fully in the general education curriculum through specific modifications and / or accommodation. Students with moderate to severe mental disabilities receive their education in various classes in public schools, sharing time with their developing peers during non-academic activities such as lunch or breaks. Schools offer specialized course courses for these students that are different from standard courses. Students with mild to moderate disabilities attend elementary school from ages 6 to 13 or 14, followed by middle school up to 18 years. Unfortunately, after graduating from elementary and middle school, most of these students do not have the opportunity to continue their education without other vocational training institutions (Al-Ajmi, 2006). Such institutions are designed to provide these students with internships and private employment support skills (Ministry of Health Care of Saudi Arabia, 2010).

According to the Ethiopian Ministry of Education (2008), in 2007-08, 96% of students with severe and severe disabilities received their education at various institutions. These students are often taught in separate ways that do not allow them to meet their developing peers who are usually found in an all-inclusive environment, where they can improve their communication, communication and learning skills. These centers provide housing, food, financial assistance, and assistance to students with limited, severe, or severe mental disabilities, multiple sclerosis and autism. Students stay in school all week and return home only on weekends. Families of children are often unable to attend facilities on a daily basis because of the distance between schools and family homes. In addition, students with disabilities at these institutions receive individual education programs (IEPs) developed by the Department of Education and adapted to a special education curriculum. That (IEPs) often does not meet the unique and student needs.

Special education studies (York & Vandercook, 1990; Derdrian, 1994; Brownell & Pajares, 1999; Al-mamary, 2000; Moffett, 2000; Nahhas, 2004; Al-Sotlh, 2005) have shown the importance of educational evaluation in improving the outcomes of the educational process, and have attempted to explore various aspects of programs to assist in the development of the education system. On a scale developed by the researcher to measure the effectiveness of educational programs from the point of view of teachers and managers, Derdrian (1994) investigated the effectiveness of Jordan's specialized educational institutions. The results showed that all special education institutions generally operated in relation to teacher and parent involvement, classroom practice, and learning environments. On the other hand, management, institutional features, and the natural environment of education were negatively evaluated from the perspective of teachers and administrators. In Oman, Al-mamary (2000) studied the functioning of specialized educational institutions using a researcher's questionnaire comprising six domains: curriculum, administration, educational status, institutional characteristics, characteristics of teachers and staff working in these institutions, and teaching methods. The results showed that, from the point of view of teachers and managers, all special education institutions were operating in all fields except one domain (features of teachers and staff working in these institutions).

Nahhas (2004) conducted a direct assessment of deaf educational programs in Jordan using a series of questionnaires and discussions with teachers and administrators of deaf students. Programs were evaluated within four key areas: curriculum, teaching methods, teaching resources, and the learning environment. The results showed an acceptable assessment of all four aspects of the deaf education system, as assessed by teachers and administrators. In addition, the researcher identified a number of weaknesses in terms of curriculum features and teaching aids. In another study, Al-Shulo (2005) attempted to explore the educational programs of mentally handicapped students at specialized educational institutions in Jordan. The researcher analyzed the responses of teachers and administrators working at these institutions regarding the effectiveness of education programs. The steps include four domains: program release, teaching methods, learning environment, and program support services. The results revealed negative feedback from teachers and managers regarding program outcomes and services backed by program domains. The researcher emphasized the importance of the output and the services of the special education programs used in both the separate and installed settings.

Numerous studies on education design (Belin & Peterson, 1998; Brownell & Pajares, 1999; Treder et al., 2000) have shown that the training of special teachers and the general class not only helps them to improve their teaching skills but also leads to better attitudes in children. different from the concept of inclusion. In particular, these researchers found that teachers who had completed training programs explored the inclusion philosophy and provided instruction in teaching skills and classroom management techniques, time management, and assessment strategies that had significantly improved attitudes toward inclusion. Several authors also emphasize that training programs can be effective only when topics are tailored to the needs of the teacher. For real changes to take place, training programs should focus on areas where teachers need to be improved (Beloin & Peterson, 1998; Brownell & Pajares, 1999; Buell et al., 1999).

According to York and Vandercook (1990), support is a term referring to the availability of various types of assistance. Teachers working in inclusive classes need four types of support: (a) resource support, which requires the provision of teaching materials (e.g., computers and textbooks), financial resources, information resources (e.g. professional documents), and staff (e.g. apprentices, counselors, teacher resources); (b) ethical support, which includes personal-to-person communication that recognizes the value of the individual, including the inclusion of listening and accepting opinions and feelings without criticism; (c) technical support, meaning practical strategies, methods, or ideas, provided to teachers with resources, on-the-job training, staff development activities, on-site consultation, and peer training; and (d) assessment support, which means assistance in collecting information that allows support to be monitored and corrected. The results of Al-mamary (2000) have also shown many problems that limit the functioning of specialized educational institutions. Such problems include a lack of preparation, familiarity, and vocational training programs for special education teachers; the lack of a guidance curriculum specifically designed for mental health programs; and a lack of teacher guidance on how to deal with the lack of education provision.

Paligaro (1998) attempted to test mathematical teaching methods for deaf students with a questionnaire provided to 259 teachers of deaf students. The results showed that 90% of those teachers used various forms of technical assistance in mathematical education such as computers, calcu¬lators, and writing exams for their advanced students. However, for primary school students, teachers have used traditional methods such as writing exams and ongoing training to solve any mathematical issues. Nahhas (2004) also emphasized the importance of teachers using reinforcement methods within the education system, and provided a set of recommendations

Statement of purpose

Students with special needs are an integral part of the education system. Therefore, schools strive to meet these student needs starting from admission to graduation. Throughout this process, students with disabilities are expected to face a wide range of problems related to the limitations imposed on their disabilities. Because of the various problems that students with disabilities face, there is a need for special education programs that can meet these various needs in common areas.

The study aims to clarify the views of Saudi teachers in the evaluation of special inclusive education programs used in their schools. These teachers are primarily responsible for implementing such programs, therefore, their views on the effectiveness of these programs in meeting the needs of students with disabilities are important. In addition, the study sought to find significant statistical differences in teachers' assessment of special education programs in terms of their rank, gender, teaching ability, and level of education.

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions:

1 - What views do teachers working in illegal situations in Ethiopia have about the evaluation of special education programs in their schools?
2 - Are there significant differences based on position, gender, teaching experience, or level of education in teacher assessment of special education programs?

The evaluation of special education programs promotes the integration of students with special needs in all community centers. Therefore, this study attempted to evaluate these educational programs from the perspective of their providers (general educators and specialist educators) to determine the best group programs offered to students. Special education teachers are considered to be the providers of these programs and take great responsibility for implementing special education programs. In addition, this study aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these programs to promote the revitalization of program objectives and strategies and the re-training of staff.

2. Methods

This quantitative research design utilized a survey to determine the perspectives of regular and special education teachers regarding the special education programs applied in their schools.


Special education teachers working in low-income schools in the Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Jimma, and Gondar districts that are considered to be the largest cities in Ethiopia have been invited to take part in this study. Participating teachers were given a similar Likert questionnaire to determine their assessment of the special educational programs used in their schools. The researcher contacted the relevant school administrators in the above cities to obtain permission to conduct the study. Initially, a list of questions was provided to 615 general and specialized teachers; A total of 538 questionnaires were completed and returned, 16 of which were excluded to provide incomplete information. Therefore, the final sample consisted of 522 general and special education teachers from various schools including within the above-mentioned cities in Ethiopia. Teachers are randomly selected from their students. Table (1) provides the distribution of the sample according to the subject range: gender (female or male), position (general or special education teachers), level of education (bachelor's degree, diploma, or master's degree), and teaching information (age less than 5, 5-10 years, more than 10 years).


Excerpt out of 18 pages


Special education programs in inclusive schools in Ethiopia. Teachers' views
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special, ethiopia, teachers
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Mustefa Jibril (Author), 2021, Special education programs in inclusive schools in Ethiopia. Teachers' views, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1128002


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