This study was mainly concerned with the roles of school heads, that is, to assess how the execution of the roles of school heads affects students' academic performance in community secondary schools. The aim was to identify administrative roles of school heads and to evaluate the supervision of the teaching process. The study therefore, was carried out to fill the gap that exists in education context especially on the roles of the schools managers and heads in relation to the students' academic performance in secondary schools. The study will increase awareness of the problem by showing suggestions on how to improve teaching and learning in secondary schools. The study will help young academicians in the field of education by finding research gaps and conducting more researches in the field of education.
The results of the findings reported in this paper have reached verdict that these strategies are not effective. A short recap is necessary to qualify the result reached. There were also inconsistencies in instructional supervision by school head and uncoordinated guidance and counseling practices in the school. Although guidance and counseling was in place in the school, they were not well run due to lack of specialist teachers in the area of guidance and counseling. The recommendations of this study suggests improvements in these areas.
Keywords:Management, academic performance, Secondary schools
1.2 Background to the Study
There is a growing body of literature from researchers and educationists which have attempted to examine the relationship between education management and students' academic performance (UNESCO, 1999; United Nations, 2013). The results reveal rather spurious relationship. However, what is clear is that educational management in secondary schools involves the application of management principles in designing, developing and effecting resources towards achievement of educational goals (Okumbe, 2001). This effectiveness according to UNESCO (2009) is judged by the Peter Shang'wet (2020) extent to which schools generally meet the expectations of the society within which they are established.
Since independence, the Tanzanian government has demonstrated commitment to the provision of quality secondary school education through allocation of financial resources, provision of trained teachers and establishment of quality assurance department (URT, 2012a.2012b). According to Ohba (2009), shortage of teachers, lack of basic facilities, community interferences, poor teaching methodology and administrative related factors such as poor management of school resources have been noted as some of these factors.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 Main Objective
The main objective of this study was to assess the roles of the school heads enhancing students' academic performance in community secondary schools.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
(i) Identify administrative roles of school heads towards in enhancing students' academic performance
(ii) Evaluate how effective supervision of the teaching process in the school in enhancing students' academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions
(i)In what ways do the managers and head teachers' administrative roles contribute in enhancing students' academic performance?
(ii) How does the supervision of teaching process contribute in enhancing students' academic performance in community secondary schools?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study is very significant as it identifies administrative roles of school heads and evaluating effectiveness of teaching process supervision in enhancing students' academic performance. Furthermore, the study will increase awareness of the problem by showing suggestions on how to improve teaching and learning in secondary schools. The study will help young academicians in the field of education by finding research gaps and conducting more researches in the field of education.
Literature related to school based strategies employed by school managers to improve students' academic performance has revealed mixed and contrasting range of results (World Bank, 2008). Croninger and Lee (2001) reported that the degree of teacher caring and interaction with students reported by both parents and teachers has a significant impact on performance. Croninger and Lee (2001) found evidence that schools with a common sense of purpose and strong communal organization involving collegial relationships among staff and positive adult student relationships are efficient in promoting a range of academic and social outcomes reflecting students' engagement and commitment.
World Bank (2008) posits that much research has demonstrated that retention and the quality of education depends primarily on the way schools are managed, more than the abundance of available resources, the capacity of schools to improve teaching and learning is strongly influenced by the quality of the leadership provided by the head teacher. Concerted effort to improve school leadership is one of the most promising points of intervention to raise retention, the quality and efficiency of secondary education across Sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, leadership training for secondary school heads was to improve quality of Education. Senegal's Improvement Plans (SIP) created in 1996, encourage entrepreneurial skills of head teachers to find funding for school projects that enhance educational quality. In Tanzania, all head teachers undergoes a management course to improve on their management skills (URT, 2012a).
Well-managed schools contribute to educational quality and enhance retention. According to the Education Bill 2012, the government of Tanzania is committed to ensuring that children belonging to disadvantaged groups are not discriminated and prevented from pursuing and completing basic education (URT, 2012). The school service environment can also contribute to learning in important ways. Whether a teacher uses traditional or more current methods of instruction, efficient use of school time has significant impact on student learning. Teachers' presence in the classroom represents the starting point. Many teachers face transportation and housing obstacles that hinder them from getting to school on time and staying until school hours are over (Ohba, 2009). When teachers are present, learning occurs when teachers engage students in instructional activities, rather than attending to administrative or other non-instructional processes (Waweru & Orodho, 2014). Many international studies have shown the opportunity to learn and the time on task to be critical forPeter Shang'wet educational quality. The quality of a school and the quality of teaching of the individual teacher is higher in schools that are able and willing to make efficient use of the available time of its teachers and pupils (Verwimp, 1999).
Good teachers are skilled not only in instructional methods, but also in evaluation and assessment practices that allow them to gauge individual student needs. Observations in Guinea and India found that teachers trained poorly in evaluation techniques and the reality is far from the continuous procedures recommended by official programmes (Carron & Chau, 1996). Many teachers and education systems continue to rely on almost exclusively on traditional paper-and-pencil tests of factual knowledge that tend to promote rote memorization rather than higher order thinking skills (Condy, 1998). Monitoring and evaluation of learning should be a continuous process to ensure schools meet their targets. Each district should have mechanisms for monitoring on a continuous basis the performance of both teachers and students for remedial action early when needed (Kimbui, 2012).
Research around the world has shown that low expectations for student achievement permeate educational systems. Rather than setting high standards and believing students can meet them, teachers and administrators in many developing countries expect up to half the students will drop or fail. Schools committed to student learning communicate expectations clearly, give frequent and challenging assignments, monitor performance regularly, and give students the chance to participate in and take responsibility for diverse school activities (Graig & duPlessis, 1998).
According to Mobegi, Ondigi and Oburu (2010), head teachers should take up their roles as quality assurance officers in their schools and ensure that there is adequate departmental supervision. They should introduce staff appraisal through locally designed forms to enhance standards and engage in evaluative class observation to ensure that a variety of teaching methods apart from class discussion is utilized. Head teachers should devise school income generating activities to alleviate current financial problems that result in student absenteeism, transfers, indiscipline and inadequate facilities. They should frequently invite quality assurance officers to advice on school affairs and community relations.
A study done by Achoka (2007) on the role of the principal, for change to take place in school, the present school principal should be an advisor to students, teachers and the community. He /she should be in a position to identify possible threats against retention rates and reverse the situation. He / she needs to act as a counselor to not only the students but also parents and teachers because this could assist all parties interested in the education life of the learner to appreciate the need to be educated. Achoka (2007) agrees with Waweru and Orodho (2014) that a secondary school principal should endeavor to provide the best school climate to entice students to complete schooling by making school free from violence, threats, intimidations, hatred, and witch-hunting and develop rich co-curriculum, remedial interventions for slow learners to avoid repetition, frustration and dropout. He/she should be a developer by putting more effort in developing academic and co-curriculum programmes that are attractive and competitive to occupy all students while at school.
School discipline is a system of arranging conditions for healthy learning (Okumbe, 2001). Head teachers should maintain discipline in their schools by helping their staff and students develop unique and individual personalities with a cultural background and group consciousness. The school administration therefore involves students to make choices in life reasonably and independently through guidance and counselling. Kiruma (2004) in her study of secondary school strikes explains that discipline in schools is a function of the school administration. It depends on the head teachers administrative, supervisory, and organizational, leadership abilities and styles since he bears the general responsibility of clarifying the school purpose and philosophy.
- Quote paper
- Peter Shang'wet (Author), 2020, School Management and Students’ Academic Performance in Secondary Schools. A Case of Selected Secondary School in Iringa Region, Tanzania, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1132951