1. State of the Art
3. Target Sectors
4. Implementation: Possible Solutions and Time Dimensions
4.1. Short term possible solutions
4.2. Long term possible solutions
5. Monitoring and Review
This policy paper demonstrates the waste crisis in Morocco, Tunisia, and Lebanon; countries located in the MENA region. It highlights how all three countries are facing a 1.5-3 % increase in waste generation and the urgency for a sustainable and innovative solution. Given that they all have more than 50% of organic waste generated in their composition, a waste-to-energy approach is most suitable. This policy targets various stakeholders such as Ministries, Nationals, and private associations and donors for involvement. Among the different solutions suggested, methane capturing and upgrading is suggested (short-term), as well as anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis (long-term). Also, a monitoring and evaluation plan was suggested. Finally, recommendations were placed based on best practices to ensure the sustainable future in terms of waste-to-energy management in these three countries.
1. State of the Art
Morocco, 710,850km2 in area, with 35 million people, has a production of 5 million tons of MSW per year. The waste generation per capita of around 0.8 Kg/p/d. The waste composition is as follows: Organic matter of 70%, paper 12%, plastic 5%, leather and tires 2%, metal 2%, glass 7%, and 2% other waste generations (Fekri, Pineau, Wahbi, Benbouziane, & Marrakchi, 2006). High moisture content is also prevalent in wastes representing 70%.
Waste is generally collected by both the public and private sectors depending on the city location. Waste is currently handled by recycling, controlled landfills, and some waste to energy generation (biogas). Waste generation is increasing by 3% every year; 5.3 million tons in urban areas, and is expected to be 6.2 million tons in 2020.
Based on feasibility studies, waste can be valorized. Till now, the latter has been transformed into concrete through two projects: the first one is electricity production using biogas produced and captured from controlled landfills which are carried out in Fez and Oujda, and the second one is doing partnership with cement companies which have showed interest in co-incineration of household waste.
As for the policy and framework, waste treatment is governed by Law 28-00, established in 2006, on Solid Waste Management and Disposal. This law applies to household or similar waste, industrial, medical and pharmaceutical, dangerous or inert, biodegradable, etc... In addition to that, the eco-tax was introduced as part of the National Program for Solid Waste Management. This helps in establishing an extended producer responsibility that goes beyond the product production and holds them accountable of product disposal.
Tunisia, 163,610 km2 in area, with a population of 11.4 million people, has a waste production in 2014 which was 3.1 million ton and 1.1 million tons are produced I the capital, Tunis (35%). It is expected in 2019, that the amount will be 3.7 tons in the country and will increase up to 1.4 million tons in the capital. The waste composition is as follows: 68% organic waste which are mainly food waste, 11% plastic, 10% are paper, 4% are metal, 2% metal, 2% are textile, and 3% are other remained waste. The waste generation per capita of around 0.5 Kg/p/d. (ANGed, 2010)
The waste sector is responsible for 5% of the total national greenhouse gas emission. (ANGed, 2010)
All the waste is collected. There is no clear data on the treatment percentage, but since the government opened the landfills in 1999 till the present, there have been 20 landfills all over Tunisia 9 of which are effective and produce biogas and 11 ineffective causing environmental and health issues in the cities.
As for the policy and the framework adopted in 2005, the National Agency of Waste Management was created and came up with a decree 2005-2317 22/08/2005. (ANPE, 2004) This agency works on waste treatment as in collection, sorting, treatment, and valorization. (ANGed, 2010)
After the Tunisian revolution, in 2014, the new constitution stated a new law related to the production for renewable energy, part of which comes from waste: Law no. 2015-12 (11/05/2015), which relates the production of electricity from renewable resources and 2016-1123 (24/08/2016) which specifies the conditions of operation, production, and selling of the latter. (ANPE, 2004)(ANGed, 2010)
Lebanon, 10452 km2 in area, has a population of 5.6 million people that produces 2,040,000 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) per year. More than 50 % of the waste is organic, while the rest varies between paper, cardboards, glass, and metal. High moisture content is also prevalent in wastes, often exceeding 60%. The percentages vary between rural and urban areas as well as various seasons, resulting in the MSW generation per capita of around 0.95 Kg/p/d. (CEDRO, 2012)
The average increase of MWS forecasted is 1.65% across the country. This distribution is uneven given that the daily tonnage varies between one area and another. For example, in Beirut, the daily generation is 600 tons (11%) versus Mount Lebanon which is 2,250 tons (40%). (CEDRO, 2012)
The waste sector is responsible for 11% of the total national greenhouse gas emission. (Bassil & Ministry of Energy and Water, 2010)
Almost all of the MSW generated in Lebanon is collected by public or private haulers (99% in rural areas, 100% in urban); however, management varies from one area to another: 8% is recycled, 15% is composted (several treatment plants already constructed will be put in operation soon, hence increasing percentage), 51% is landfilled, and 26% is disposed of in open dumps.(CEDRO, 2012)
In case of policy and legal framework, in 2012, a draft law on Integrated Solid Waste Management was approved by the Council of Ministers and is still waiting to be ratified at the parliament. Another draft law that incentivizes municipalities towards waste management was also prepared by 2013. However, up till today, there is no legislative framework dealing directly with SWM. (CEDRO, 2012)
- Quote paper
- Yara Hijazi (Author), 2017, Developing Waste-to-Energy Management. A Case Study on Morocco, Tunisia, Lebanon, Munich, GRIN Verlag, https://www.grin.com/document/1146721