Correlating Instructional Environment and Academic Achievement of Graders

Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation, 2021

146 Pages











Rationale of the Study
Theoretical Background
Statement of the Problem
‘ Significance of the Study
Method Used
Flow of the Study
Data Gathering Procedures
Statistical Treatment
Scoring Procedure

Related Literature
Related Studies

Teacher's Profile
Field of Specialization
Educational Attainment
Most Commonly Used Assessment
Learner's Profile
Age and Gender
Highest Educational Attainment of Parents
Occupation of Parents
Socio-Economic Status of the Family
Number of Members in the Family
Types of Dwelling
Most Favorite Subject
Least Favorite Subject
Araling Panlipunan
Learner Factor
Family Factor
School Factor
Teacher Factor


Target Clientele
Scheme of Implementation

a. Books
b. Journal
c. Theses/Dissertations
d. Electronic Sources



Carlo Nino A. Gerebese

Cebu Technological University - Main Campus

The study determined the relationship between the academic environment and the academic achievement in the core subjects of the Grade 6 learners of South District 1: School A and School B as basis for learning worksheets. The study was centered on the areas concern; profile of the teachers and learners; results of the Periodical Tests in the five core subjects; extent of the factors affecting the academic achievement of the learners as to learners themselves, family, learning environment and teachers. The Descriptive Method was used employing the questionnaires to assess the achievement profile of the Grade 6 learners. Treatment of the data used statistical tools of percentage, weighted mean, and test of significant relationship. It was found out that majority of the respondents were 11 years of age and females; parents' highest educational attainment was High School Graduate; had combined family income within the range of Php 5 000 - Php 10 000; 7 and above members in the family; and were living in a duplex. The result of the Periodical Test in the five core subjects were interpreted as Low Mastery. All of the results did not meet the Planning Standards of 75% Performance Level (PL) as prescribed by the Department of Education (DepEd). Moreover, the study reveals that the identified factors - learners, family, school, and teachers affected the academic achievement of the learners in school. To improve the abovementioned performances of the learners, learning worksheets are proposed to be used.

Keywords: Core Subjects: English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino and Araling Panlipunan; Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Graders; Descriptive Method; Basak San Nicolas, Cebu City, Philippines


My heartfelt and sincerest thanks to all the people who extended their help in making this thesis a reality.

First and foremost to the Almighty Father who designed everything for me, give me wisdom, courage and determination to pursue my study;

To my parents, Carmen A. Gerebese (+) and Servando L. Gerebese, for all the support and prayers which enlightened my mind;

To my colleagues at Basak Community School, pupils, and especially to Dr. Bianito S. Dagatan and Mrs. Cerelina S. Llerin for their kindness and understanding.

To my ever dynamic adviser, Dr. Reylan G. Capuno, who supported and helped me throughout my dissertation with his patience, efforts, time and wisdom. I attribute him my Doctorate degree for without him this dissertation, too, would not be possible;

To the unbeatable Dean of Graduate Studies, Dr. Rebecca DC. Manalastas for the notable remarks, reminders and words of wisdom that help me a lot to cherish as we go along the road of life being a good teacher;

To Dr. Rosein A. Ancheta, Dr. Adora A. Villaganas, Dr. Nolasco K. Malabago, Dr. Perla N. Tenerife, Dr. Sedundino G. Cuadra and Dr. Rebecca DC. Manalastas for their advice, insightful criticism and patience, encouragement aided the writing of this thesis in immeasurable ways;

To the staff of Cebu Technological University - Main Campus, for being accommodating and patient in entertaining our queries and doubts relevant to our study.

THANK YOU VERY MUCH! God Bless and More Power...


This Thesis is dedicated to...




who taught me everything in this world especially for survival for life that is full of twists and turns.

To my classmates and friends, relatives

who offered me unconditional

love and support.

And most especially to the Almighty God, for without Him I am nothing.


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Rationale of the Study

Planning up for our lessons, we think of designing engaging classroom instruction, using varied teaching methods and preparing elaborate instructional materials. Other than these, there are other contributing factors that support learning. Family, school, teachers, and learners themselves are also contributing factors to the learning process. These are all part of the instructional environment.

According to AIR (2019) the instructional environment is consist of “high quality instruction, peers and staff who support achievement-oriented behavior and serve as positive role models”. Instructional environments are comprised of different, between related features that can either bolster or hinder learning.

Parental involvement impacts student academics. The more parental contribution, the more learners are probably going to become gainful citizenry just as exceed expectations in their performance in school (Cole, 2017).

Bucholz & Sheffler (as cited by Young, 2019) states that classroom environment (school) is one of the most significant variables influencing learner's learning wherein they can feel a feeling of having a place, trust others, and feel urged to handle difficulties, face challenges, and pose inquiries.

Teacher characteristic and ability appears to contribute to an increased student academic performance (Ta§tan, 2018). We simply cannot give what we do not have. Teacher must be professional in their conduct, possess mastery in the teaching-learning processes, knowledgeable in instructional strategies, great communication skills and approachable attitude (Kapur, 2018).

Learners are characteristically roused on the off chance that they adore or appreciate what they are doing regardless of whether there is no prize or motivation for it. While learners are extraneously roused on the off chance that they detest what they do, they will in any case do as such to acquire the prizes or tokens. Motivation uplifts learner's enthusiasm. Once they get motivated, they will eventually exert their full effort, time, and energy (BCI, 2017).

These contributing factors could either help the child throughout the learning process or hinder learning. In connection, this study aims to correlate the kind of instructional environment the learners have to their academic achievement.

It is apparent in the performance of the pupils in South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City with the results in their Periodical Examinations. The Mean Percentage Score (MPS) of the five core subjects did not meet the standard passing rate of the Department of Education which is 75%, that is according to DECS Order No. 46, s.1983. Performance of the learners has persistently been poor. The repeated result made the teachers and administrator dissatisfied. Hence, it is an extraordinary challenge for the teachers dealing with the core subjects to have two or three arrangements in taking care of these issues inside the classroom.

This phenomenon has encouraged the researcher to examine the correlation of the instructional environment to the academic achievement of the learners from South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City: School A, and School B. This will focus on the five core subjects: English, Math, Science, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan.

Theoretical Background

This study is anchored on the theory of Edward Thorndike which is the theory on connectionism and the theory of constructivismof Jerome Bruner.

The Theoretical Framework of this study is shown in Figure 1. First is the theory on connectionism. This thought of Thorndike expressed that learning has occurred when a solid association or bond among boost and reaction is framed. As per him, learning is the eventual outcome of affiliations confining among updates and response. Such affiliations or "inclinations" become reinforced or deteriorated by the nature and repeat of the S-R pairings.

He came up with three primary laws: First is law of readiness, which considers that, the more readiness the learner needs to react to the stimulus, the more grounded will be the bond between them. Therefore, as a teacher, students should be made to prepare themselves before starting the lesson. Set rules and regulations. Motivate them. Let them feel that they are learning inside the classroom. Another thing is, ask questions first before calling the names of the learners. Questions need not be asked if learnersalready knew the answers of the queries. And most importantly, always start the discussion with an optimistic aura. Second is the law of exercise. This law accentuates that the more a S-R bond is drilled the more grounded it will be. "Careful discipline brings about promising results" appear to be related with this. Nonetheless, he changed this law when he discovered that training without feedbacking doesn't really upgrade execution. Therefore, giving feedback is very essential in the learning process. And lastly is the law of effect. It expressed that an association between a stimulus and response

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Figure 1.

The Theoretical Framework of the Study

is fortified once the result is positive (reward) and the association between the reaction is debilitated when the outcome is negative.

The theory recommends that the transfer of learning trusts on the immediacy of vague components in the first and new learning conditions;that is, learning is always clear, never extensive. In later forms of the theory, the idea of "belongingness" was shown; connotations are even more promptly established if the specific sees that stimuli or response go together (c.f. Gestalt standards). Another idea offered was "polarity" which indicates that connections occur even more efficiently toward the path where they were originally framed than the opposite. Thorndike similarly presented the "spread of effect" thought, that is, rewards impact the connection that carried them as well as quickly adjacent connections also.

Second is the theory of constructivism by Jerome Bruner. Jerome Bruner's idea that is extremely predominant in schools however obscure to many - Spiral Curriculum. The Spiral Curriculum is based on mental theory developed by Jerome Bruner (2012), who stated, "We start with the speculation that any subject can be educated in some mentally fair structure to any learner at any phase of advancement." as it were, even the utmost unpredictable material, if properly planned and introduced, can be understood by extremely small kids. Key highpoints of the twisting educational platform dependent on Bruner's idea are: (1) The learner goes back to a fact or subject matter a few times all through their schooling; (2) The unpredictability of the topic increases with each return to; and (3) New learning has a relationship with old learning and is placed in setting with the old data. The compensations credited to the twisting educational system by its promoters are: (1) The facts are encouraged and set each time the learner returns to the topic; (2) The twisting educational system additionally permits a legitimate measure from short-sighted plans to confused ideas; and (3) Learners are commended to put on the early information to later course targets.

In spite of the fact that there is no way from proof of the general impacts of the winding educational plan on learner's learning, "highlights" of that educational plan have been associated to better-quality learning results. Also, the winding educational plan consolidates many research-based methodologies from psychological science that have been connected, exclusively, to improved understudy execution too. Students must be offered chances to describe and think about their encounters so as to have establishments for their future and new learning. Moreover, educators should likewise put together what they instruct with respect to the level fitting for the learners.

The Theory of Constructivism sees the learners as the constructor of information in which they actively build their own understanding as how they perceive things based on their experiences. The DepEd Order No. 43, s. 2013 also known as “Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Republic Act No. 10533 otherwise known as the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 which is anchored on the said theory states that the program shall be learner-centered, comprehensive, and developmentally suitable (Section 10.2.a), the program shall be contextualized and worldwide (Section10.2.d), the program shall use pedagogical methods that are constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective, collaborative, and integrative (Section 10.2.e), and the program shall use the twisting development approach to ensure mastery of information and expertise after each level (Section 10.2.g).


Statement of the Problem

This research determined the relationship between the academic environment and the academic achievement in the core subjects of the grade six learners at South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City during school year 2019 - 2020 as basis for learning worksheets.

Specifically, this answered the following:

1. What related information can be determined as to:
1.1 teachers'
1.1.1. age and gender;
1.1.2. field of specialization;
1.1.3. highest educational attainment; and
1.1.4. type of assessment used in assessing learners' achievement?
1.2 learners'
1.2.1. age and gender,
1.2.2. highest educational attainment of parents,
1.2.3. occupation of parents,
1.2.4. combined parents' monthly income,
1.2.5. size of the family,
1.2.6. types of dwelling, and
1.2.7. most and least favorite subjects?

2. What is the distribution of the learners' academic achievement in the following core subjects?
2.1. English,
2.2. Mathematics,
2.3. Science,
2.4. Filipino, and
2.5. Araling Panlipunan?

3. To what extent is the academic achievement affected by the following instructional environments:
3.1. learners,
3.2. family,
3.3. school, and
3.4. teachers?

4. What are the relationships among the indicated instructional environments?
5. Based on findings, what learning worksheets can be designed?

Significance of the Study

This study and its results would benefit the following:

School. The findings of the study would place the school in one of the top performing schools among the elementary schools in the division.

School Administrators. The results of the study would give the administrators the idea on what interventions they could make on the subject. The results would also encourage them to uphold the morale of the pupils, teachers and other stakeholders.

Supervisors/Coordinators. The outcome of this study would give the Supervisors and Coordinators of the five core subjects namely: English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino and Araling Panlipunan the notion on what interventions they could make on the subject. The results would also inspire them to raise the self-confidence of the pupils, teachers and other stakeholders.

Teachers. The result of the study will reveal the factors that affect the academic achievement of the grade six learners in the five core subjects. Under this study and such, they could look for ways on how to increase the performance of the learners.

Parents. The result of the study would make the parents aware about the academic achievement of their children in school. Through this, they could also help the teachers and school heads to improve such performance by cooperating and attending Parent-Teachers Conferences.

Learners. The findings of the study would open the eyes of the students on their academic achievement. Thus, they will understand the concepts of the subject more clearly and would apply it in their lives. They could also help improve their academic achievement by helping hand in hand with their parents, teachers and school administrator.

Researcher. The result of the study would give him the idea on what intermediation could be done to increase the academic achievement of the learners.

Future Researchers. The findings of the study would provide references for future studies.


This section expounds the research method used, research flow, environment, respondents, instruments, data-gathering procedure, statistical treatment and scoring procedure.


This study used the descriptive method supplemented with documentary analysis. It is descriptive because it assessed the achievement profile of the grade 6 learners in the Periodical Tests in the five core subjects namely: English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan of the two schools of South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City: School A, and School B.

Flow of the Study

The schema of the conceptual flow of this study is shown in Figure 2.In the schema, the input contained are the data on the achievement profile of grade six learners of School A and School B as to age and gender, highest educational attainment of parents, occupation of parents, combined parents' monthly income, size of the family, types of dwelling and most and least favorite subjects, the distribution of the learners' academic achievement in the five core subjects namely: English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino and Araling Panlipunan, extent of the instructional environments that affect the academic achievement as to learners themselves, family, school, and teachers and the test of significant relationship. The data gathered through the questionnaire are between the identified instructional environment and the academic achievement of the two schools of South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City. The data will be gathered using a questionnaire and subject to an appropriate statistical treatment. The expected outputs are learning worksheets.

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This study was conducted in the two schools of South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City. School B is named after the late senator Vicente Rama, the grandfather of the mayor of Cebu City, Honorable Michael Rama and the rest of the Rama gentlemen who are very active in politics. The school is situated 4 km south of Metropolitan Cebu. It has an area of 3.75 hectares with 14 one-storey buildings and 6 three-storey buildings. It has a populationof 4, 217 learners. The school is situated in two barangays: Barangay Basak Pardo and Barangay Basak San Nicolas. It teaches learners in kindergarten to grade six. It also has teachers teaching learners with special needs.

The school is currently managed by Principal B, being the school principal and is assisted by Assistant Principal AandAssistant Principal B. There are a total of 138 teaching force teaching the institution. Having a great number of populations of teachers and learners, the school is considered as a mega and makes it the district school of the South District 1 in elementary level.

School A teaches students in kinder to grade six in Cebu City, Cebu of Central Visayas (Region VII). The school has 57 instructional rooms and 5 non- instructional rooms, which are all powered by a power grid. With 3,117 learners, class size is around 42 students. Principal A is in control of the school, acting as the school's Principal and Assistant Principal C acting as the assistant principal. This makes the school a big school, with 3,117 more learners than the average school and 2,454 more learners than the regular school in Cebu City.

This figure has been removed for copyright reasons.

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Figure 3.

Location Map of Research Environment The school has more male students than female students. For every one female student there are 1.1 male students. This is alike to the average gender breakdown in Cebu City, which sees on average 1.1 male students per female.

School Ahas a sum of 62 rooms -57 of which are for pedagogical purposes and the rest 5 rooms for non-pedagogical uses. As a whole, the school has at least one over-all academic schoolroom and office. Of the instructional rooms, all of them are normal rooms, meaning they meet the DepEd's procedures for safety and usability.

With 3,117 learners and 57 rooms dynamically used for teaching, School A has an average class size of 42. This means classes at School Ahasthe average class size which is 35-40 learners per class of Grades 1 to 3 and 40-45 learners per class of Grades 4-6.


The respondents of the study were the Grade Six learners in all sections of the different schools of South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City namely: School A and School B together with the teachers in the said school handling English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan. Simple random sampling on how many respondents per section were used to get the total population (Table 1).

Table 1 Number of Respondents

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The data needed for this study were gathered through two sets of instruments. First was a questionnaire used to gather data on the profile of the respondents in terms of age and gender, highest educational attainment of parents, occupation of parents, combined family income, size of the family, types of dwelling, most and least favorite subjects, and the extent of the effect of the academic achievement of the learners in terms of the intrinsic motivation of the learners, family, school, and teachers. Second were the results of the Periodical Tests. The data were found and were collected from the office of the principal of the different schools of South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City.


The following steps were followed in order to go through the data gathering:

Preliminary. A letter of request was sent to the superintendent of the Cebu City Division, Public Schools District Supervisor of South District 1, and school administrators of School A and School B asking permission to conduct the study and administer the questionnaires to the grade six learners.

Administering the Questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed and were filled in by the learners of the identified grade six learners' respondents.

Retrieval. The questionnaires were retrieved immediately upon accomplishment by the respondents.

Statistical Treatment

After the retrieval and checking of the survey questionnaire, the data were gathered, and treated them statistically.

1. Percentage. This was used to determine the achievement profile of the respondents in their Periodical Test.
2. Total Weighted Points (TWP). This was used to get the TWP category as to the extent of the performance level.
3. Correlation and Regression. This was used to determine the test of significant relationship between the identified factors and academic performance of the pupils.

Scoring Procedure

To determine the level of mastery in the Periodical Test results, the following scales were used:

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The succeeding terms are hereby defined operationally for a clear understanding of this study.

Academic Achievement. This denotes to the result of education - the extent to which a learner, educator or institution has achieved their educational objectives.

Achievement Profile. This refers to the results gained by the grade six learners in the core subjects during the S.Y 2019-2020 Periodical Tests. These learners were studying in School A and School B, South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City.

Araling Panlipunan. This is the study of human society and is considered as an educational discipline.

Instructional Environments. This talks to the conditions/situations relative to school administrators, teachers, family, learning environment and learners which affected the achievement profile of the grade six pupils in Mathematics.

Mathematics. This is the study of the dimension, properties and associations of amounts and sets, using statistics and symbols.

Periodical Test. This refers to an examination given to the learners at the end of the quarter to check how far they have learned.

Learner Factor. This discusses to the study habits, time, and effort the learners exerted towards learning the various knowledge and skills in Mathematics.

Learning Worksheets. This refers to papers with compilations of questions and exercises for learners to improve their academic achievement.

Science. This states to the knowledgeable and applied activity encompassing the methodical learning of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment.

Spiral Curriculum. It is an approach to education that presents key ideas to learners at an early age and covers these concepts recurrently, with increasing degrees of difficulty.

Teacher Factor. This refers to the professional and personal competencies of the teachers in imparting knowledge to the learners as well as the perception of the teachers' personal interactions with the pupils.

Teaching Strategy. This mention to the methods and techniques employed by the educators in providing teaching-learning experiences to the learners in and out of the classroom.



This chapter presents the different literature and studies which provide the framework for whatever interpretation and analysis are given in the succeeding chapter.

Related Literature

Educational services are often not tangible and are difficult to measure because they result in the form of transformation of knowledge, life skills and behaviour modifications of learners (Tsinidou, Gerogiannis, & Fitsilis, 2010). So there is no commonly agreed upon definition of quality that is applied to education field. The definition of quality of education varies from culture to culture (Michael, 1998). The environment and the personal characteristics of learners play an important role in their academic success. The school personnel, members of the families and communities provide help and support to students for the quality of their academic performance. This social assistance has a crucial role for the accomplishment of performance goals of students at school (Goddard, 2003). Besides the social structure, parents' involvement in their child's education increases the rate of academic success of their child (Furstenberg & Hughes, 1995).

The instructional environment alludes to the instructional, conduct, and individual parts of the classroom experience (NCSSLE, 2019). Sandberg (as cited by Schneider, (n.d.) identifies the components of a rich learning environment which could optimize learning. Each component has its own functionalities in the learning process. Teacher gives something between free direction and direct guidance. Monitor, a role taken by the learner, guarantees that something is learned and fellow learners who improve the learning procedure. School provides the curriculum. The 'ideal' academic environment might be characterized as one that best gets ready learners for their future expert life and contributes towards their self-improvement, psychosomatic and social prosperity (Divaris, 2008).

A positive, deferential school atmosphere gives a strong establishment to supporting learners' academic accomplishment and improvement of uplifting mentalities and practices. Learners who are linked to school wherein they could feel harmless and be part of a bigger community, experience fewer suffering and involve in less venturesome behaviours (Blum, 2002, 2005). Farombi (as cited by Odeh, 2015) observes that school setting may have undesirable effect on students' academic achievement especially if such atmosphere lacks good school weather, instructional resources, correction, physical amenities, has poor educator excellence, type of place of school is doubtful. In the same vein Abenga (1995), opines that an improved ecological condition prompts higher knowledge scores while poor natural conditions diminish these scores.

Learning environment according to Zaria in Aliade (as cited by Odeh, 2015) is where teachers sway information on the different subjects to learners thus bringing them up ethically and manual for their profession way.

Student achievement is a convenient theme in the realm of instruction today. With activities, for example, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2001) and the general responsibility change development, understudy accomplishment goes to the front line of a large number of the present instructive discussions.

Parent involvement is another factor that has been consistently related to a child's increased academic performance (Hara& Burke, 1998; Hill & Craft, 2003; Marcon, 1999; Stevenson & Baker, 1987). While this relation between Parent involvement and a student's academic performance is well established. This chapter covered the literature on the factors affecting students' academic performance. Therefore, the chapter covers how communication skill affect students' academic performance, how status of teaching/learning facilities affect students' academic performance and how guidance and counseling services affect students' academic performance.

Ajila et al (2007), states that the family foundation and the setting of the kid influence their response to the genuine circumstances and his degree of performance. Levin (2001), states that parents are most likely the on-screen characters with the most clear dimensional enthusiasm for a significant level of their children on their academic performance. Somewhat there is straightforward proof to show that conjugal shakiness realizes pressure, strain, absence of inspiration and disappointment. Clearly these indications demonstration contrarily on a learner's academic performance. Families influence kids' learning practices and scholastic accomplishment in significant manners, as they are the essential and most critical conditions that the youngsters are presented to, Li, (2018). Coleman's report (1966) shows that families may assume considerably more significant roles in student's academic achievement than schools and societies.

Teacher support, students' cooperation and cohesiveness and involvement were positively correlated with students' academic achievement.

Students' achievement may depend on how the lecturers conducted the class. As each individual student interprets and responds to the subject matter differently, it is therefore crucial for lecturers to consistently review their teaching competences in respect of subject knowledge, lecturer attendance, teaching skills and lecturer attitude (Muzenda, 2013). Hence, the collaboration which encompasses interaction between students and lecturers, lecturers' characteristic and lecturers' knowledge are addressed in this study in order to effectively enhance transmission of knowledge and information from the lecturer to the students, thus enhancing the students' result in financial reporting courses.

The interaction of students and lecturers is considered important in creating a pleasant learning environment. It is beneficial for the students' development. According to Myers, Martin & Mottet (2002), lecturer's communication and interaction with students has significant influence on students' opinion of their motivation, satisfaction and learning achievement. In addition, interaction represents a medium affecting students' motivation and the achievement of learning outcome and academic performance. This is supported by Mushtaq & Khan, (2012) in their research that found communication, learning facilities and proper guidance are the factors that affect the student performance. Ganyaupfu (2013) reported that interaction between the teacher and students during the teaching and learning process encourages the students to acquire knowledge rather than the lecturer takes complete control over the delivery process to transmit information to the students.

However, there exists a weak correlation between the commitments of the lecturers and the performance of the students. Generally, the quality of the students might be one of the factors that contribute to their academic achievement such as students' attitude and discipline Tengku Shahdan, Ghani & Elham (2012).

Aside from the learner's family foundation, the absolute most noteworthy factor in deciding fluctuation in learner achievement inside any single nation is instructor execution (Hanushek, 2005).Teacher performance is recognized as the most significant institutional determinant of student academic achievement (BR, 2018).

The connection between the teacher's conduct and relating scholastic accomplishment uncovers a profoundly positive noteworthy relationship between's the practices of teachers with the scholarly accomplishments of learners. The higher positive conduct of educators towards their learners prompted the higher scholastic accomplishment of the learners (Mehdipour, et. al., 2013).

Character, family, academe and social variables are identified as effective factors for the motivation of the learners. As an occurrence character factors recently youth school understudies all in all and confidence and inspiration for scholastic accomplishment specifically have characteristically influenced the learning and scholarly accomplishment. In addition, inspirational harms on one hand can cause a sort of negativity, nervousness and sorrow and then again brought about scholarly execution disappointment in late youth school understudies.

To make inspiration, instruction ought to be introduced in suitable setting with attractive offices concerning the students' needs. It's anything but an issue whether a learner is roused, unmotivated, or more spurred than other late youth school learners -it's a matter of understanding what propels learners before giving a specific sort of input. Besides, it is likewise imperative to take note of that in spite of the study hall condition and the educator's showing style, the general school condition assumes a job in late youth school learners' intrinsic motivatio (Sharma, et. al., 2018).

Related Studies

Academic performance (in other words, academic accomplishments) is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved accomplishment in their short or long-term educational objectives. According to Hasan et al. (2017), academic performance is the capacity of students to attain the courses' expectations in which they are enrolled and is usually evaluated by GPA (grade point average). As reported by Badiger and Aiholli (2017), academic accomplishment can be described as competence in all academic disciplines, in class as well as in co-curricular activities. It includes excellence in sporting activities, confidence level, communication skills, timely delivery, arts, culture and the like which can be achieved only when an individual is well adjusted.

According to Shamaki (2015), intellect is not the only component of academic achievement of learners. This decides the conviction that scholastic accomplishment of students is constantly connected with such a significant number of parts of the learning condition (Lizzio et al, 2002). It concurs with Frenzel, et al, (2007) by recognizing that learning condition has extraordinary effect on understudies' scholastic accomplishment. She presumed that learning condition is a basic key factor in deciding scholastic accomplishment of students (Ado, 2015).

The major finding of the research of Okafor, (2016) states that students would study better and perform better once the conditions that would enhance comfort and serenity are provided.

As stated by Okwukwe (2016) in his study, environmental factors play a large influence on both the physical and psychological potentials of an individual. This has led to the argument that many learners fail to develop their potentials due to insufficient environmental motivation.

A study by Gilavand (2016), has established several factors in the learning environment that significantly affect students' learning outcomes, such as open space and noise in classrooms, inadequate light, unsatisfactory temperature, overcrowded classes, improper classroom layout and misplaced boards.

In addition, Katherine et al. (2012) was of the opinion that numerous factors affect students academically, including the personal factors of the students, their interactions with others such as parents, teachers and administrators and, last but not least, the larger systems surrounding them; for instance, school districts, neighbourhoods, local economy and multicultural relations and political policy. It is believed that the socialisation process of students requires a healthy environment and models so that their performance can be enhanced. According to educational experts, school architecture and its intrinsic elements such as colour, light, sound and equipment, as well as other factors can have major impacts on learners and students from a systematic perspective (Gilavand 2016).

The discoveries of Mulwa (2011) in her investigations uncovers that home condition, school condition, understudy's qualities and instructor attributes had critical impact execution of upper essential students. Be that as it may, each factor doesn't influence execution in separation however supplement one another. The discoveries recommend that ominous home condition; school condition and educator qualities combined with individual characteristics of students all in all have been the reason for lackluster showing.

A study by Ramli and Zain (2018), concluded that conducive and sound facilities result in better performance or achievement of the students. As supported by Yeboah-Appiagyei et al. (2014), environmental factors will definitely influence the success of students. It is believed that the access to infrastructure and environmental services will affect academic performance. For example, if a student is in a learning environment that has access to reasonable infrastructure and environmental services, the student can learn comfortably to achieve better academic performance.

Parental involvement plays an important role in students' education, and the advantages of it for students are numerous (Jeynes, 2003, 2007). For example, parental involvement has a positive influence on the students' academic success (Fan & Chen, 2001; Jeynes, 2003; Jordan et al., 2001; Gonzalez-piendaet al., 2002; Henderson &Mapp, 2002). In particular, parental involvement has more effect on students' test scores than GPA (grade point average) (Jeynes, 2003) . According to Shaver and Walls (1998), students with high levels of parental involvement are better in reading and math than those with a low level of parental involvement. Furthermore, Gonzalez-peinda et al. (2002) identified that parental involvement makes a positive contribution to students' academic achievement by affecting their academic self-concept which is of considerable importance in academic success. Even Hara and Burke (1998) claimed that the key to improvement of children's academic accomplishment is boosted parental involvement.

Parental involvement can be affected by several socio-political factors, such as socioeconomic condition and parents' negative school experience (LaRocque et al., 2011). Studies have shown that one of the factors contributing to the level of parental involvement is parents' educational background (Pena, 2000; Lee &Bowen, 2006; Jordan et al., 2001; Potvin et al., 1999; Crozier, 1999; Baeck, 2010). For example, Lee and Bowen (2006) found that parents with 2-year or higher college degree have considerably more attendance in the activities or meetings organized at school, talk more often about educational issues with their children and expect their children to be more successful in their education. Conversely, parents whose educational levels are low may be less involved, because they do not feel self-confident enough to contact school staff (Lee &Bowen, 2006).However, Pena (2000) identified that parents with low levels of education more frequently volunteer in different types of activities at schools than those with high levels of education. The researcher stated that the problem for parents with low levels of education, as reported by the parents themselves, is that they cannot help their children with homework or other school-related issues, because their knowledge is limited. Interestingly, when it comes to parents with a university degree, they show lack of time as a main reason for notgetting involved (Baeck, 2010).

Family contribution can be a significant and may prompt a scope of advantages for youngsters, families and developers.

Shanty Jose (2009) had conducted “a study on emotional intelligence, family acceptance, school environment and academic achievement of secondary school students” The results showed that home family acceptance was an important forecaster of academic achievement.

Interestingly, the aftereffect of Yunus, (2014) in their examination has demonstrated that family condition doesn't influence understudy poor scholastic accomplishment in school. In addition, understudies in particular of their genders don't vary in term of alteration issues and scholarly execution. It likewise uncovers that family condition has impact or effect on understudy alteration in school to be acceptable or strange. This will aid far in improving the standard of the relationship that exists among guardians and school exercises.

From the results of the study of Wambugu, (2018), it is concluded that teacher appreciation improves teaching quality thus absolutely influencing students' performance in KCSE. They utilize appreciations such as offering rewards, praises and commendations as well as promotions and job advancement motivate teachers leading to improved content delivery and ultimately enhanced students" performance in KCSE.

Charles, T., Clotfelter,Helen, F., LaddJacob, L., Vigdor, (2007), has considered "the Teacher certifications and understudy accomplishment". Longitudinal examination with learner fixed impacts has presumed that a teacher's understanding, test scores and customary licensure all effectsly affect learner accomplishment. Horowitz and Bronte (2007) in their investigation has detailed that parent's certain association with their child's tutoring is identified with numerous positive results.

The researcher has reviewed many studies related to the factors affecting the academic performance in Mathematics 6. In the reviewed studies most of them are survey researcher stratified random sampling techniques has been used in most of the studies. The researcher feels that the study is significant contribution to the field of education of the different schools of South District 1, Schools Division of Cebu City: School A, and School B. The two schools are on different level/categories of people, thus the present study is different from the investigators point of view reveals in itself.

The present study differs from the above studied in terms of area, population, and sample. Hence the present study is different from studies that have been already done.



This chapter presents, analyzes, and interprets the data gathered in this study. It answered the questions posed in the problem. This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part of the study deals with the profile of the teachers as to: age and gender, field of specialization, highest educational attainment, and type of assessment used in assessing learners' achievement, and profile of the learners as to: age and gender, highest educational attainment of parents, occupation of parents, combined parents' monthly income, size of the family, types of dwelling and most and least favorite subjects.

The second section presents with the distribution of the academic achievement of the Grade Six learners in the five core subjects namely: English, Mathematics, Science, and Filipino in their Periodical Tests Results.

The third section deals with the extent of the instructional environments affecting the academic achievement of the learners as to learners themselves, family, school, and teachers.

The fourth part shows the relationship of the academic achievement of the learners and the indicated instructional materials. Lastly, the last part provides the designed learning worksheets to improve the academic achievement of the Grade six learners.


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Correlating Instructional Environment and Academic Achievement of Graders
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correlating, instructional, environment, academic, achievement, graders
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Carlo Niño Gerebese (Author), 2021, Correlating Instructional Environment and Academic Achievement of Graders, Munich, GRIN Verlag,


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